Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers
The American Society of Composers and Publishers is an American non-profit performance-rights organization that protects its members' musical copyrights by monitoring public performances of their music, whether via a broadcast or live performance, compensating them accordingly. ASCAP collects licensing fees from users of music created by ASCAP members distributes them back to its members as royalties. In effect, the arrangement is the product of a compromise: when a song is played, the user does not have to pay the copyright holder directly, nor does the music creator have to bill a radio station for use of a song. In 2012, ASCAP collected over US$941 million in licensing fees and distributed $828.7 million in royalties to its members, with an 11.6 percent operating expense ratio. As of July 2018, ASCAP membership included over 670,000 songwriters and music publishers, with over 11 million registered works. In the United States, ASCAP competes with four other PROs – Broadcast Music, Inc. the Society of European Stage Authors and Composers, Global Music Rights, & Pro Music Rights.
Unlike collecting societies outside the United States, ASCAP contract is non-exclusive, although it is not so simple for a foreign person to join ASCAP, it is possible. ASCAP has an office in the United Kingdom; as the artist agreement is non-exclusive, authors can license using a creative commons license. The ASCAP bill of rights states, "we have the right to choose when and where our creative works may be used for free". If an author is going to use a creative commons license with another's works, this is the only author's rights organisation that has a non-exclusive contract that a foreign person can join. If an author uses a Creative Commons license and is not a member of a performing rights organisation, the works would generate royalties, these royalties are collected and given to publishers and artists that are members of these organisations. ASCAP was founded by Victor Herbert, together with composers Louis Hirsch, John Raymond Hubbell, Silvio Hein and Gustave Kerker, a lyricist Glen MacDonough, publishers George Maxwell and Jay Witmark, a copyright attorney Nathan Burkan at the Hotel Claridge in New York City on February 13, 1914, to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members, who were writers and publishers associated with New York City's Tin Pan Alley.
ASCAP's earliest members included the era's most active songwriters—Irving Berlin, George M. Cohan, Rudolf Friml, Otto Harbach, Jerome Kern, John Philip Sousa, Alfred Baldwin Sloane, James Weldon Johnson, Robert Hood Bowers and Harry Tierney. Subsequently, many other prominent songwriters became members. In 1919, ASCAP and the Performing Rights Society of Great Britain, signed the first reciprocal agreement for the representation of each other's members' works in their respective territories. Today, ASCAP has global reciprocal agreements and licenses the U. S. performances of hundreds of thousands of international music creators. The advent of radio in the 1920s brought an important new source of income for ASCAP. Radio stations only broadcast performers live, the performers working for free. Performers wanted to be paid, recorded performances became more prevalent. ASCAP started collecting license fees from the broadcasters. Between 1931 and 1939, ASCAP increased royalty rates charged to broadcasters more than 400%.
In the late 1930s, ASCAP's general control over most music and its membership requirements were considered to be in restraint of trade and illegal under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. The Justice Department abandoned the case; the Justice Department sued again in 1941, the case was settled with a consent decree in which the most important points were that ASCAP must set rates and not discriminate between customers who have the same requirements to license music, or "similar standing." Anyone, unable to negotiate satisfactory terms with ASCAP, or is otherwise unable to get a license, may go to the court overseeing the consent decree and litigate the terms they find objectionable, the terms set by the court will be binding upon the licensee and ASCAP. BMI signed a consent decree in 1941, although the terms were much more favorable to BMI than those applied to ASCAP. In 1940, when ASCAP tried to double its license fees again, radio broadcasters formed a boycott of ASCAP and founded a competing royalty agency, Broadcast Music Incorporated.
During a ten-month period lasting from January 1 to October 29, 1941, no music licensed by ASCAP was broadcast on NBC and CBS radio stations. Instead, the stations played regional music and styles, traditionally disdained by ASCAP; when the differences between ASCAP and the broadcasters were resolved in October 1941, ASCAP agreed to settle for a lower fee than they had demanded. ASCAP's membership diversified further in the 1940s, bringing along jazz and swing greats, including Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Benny Goodman, Fletcher Henderson; the movies soared in popularity during the 1930s and 1940s, with them came classic scores and songs by new ASCAP members like Harold Arlen, Johnny Mercer, Cole Porter, Morton Gould, Jule Styne. Classical-music composers Aaron Copland, Igor Stravinsky, Leonard Bernstein brought their compositions into the ASCAP repertory in the 1940s; the rise of rock and roll derived from both country music and rhythm and blues music caused airplay of BMI licensed songs to double that of ASCAP licensed songs.
ASCAP officials decided. So ASCAP spearheaded a congressional investigation into the prac
Dance music is music composed to facilitate or accompany dancing. It can be either part of a larger musical arrangement. In terms of performance, the major categories are recorded dance music. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times, the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. In the classical music era, the minuet was used as a third movement, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing; the waltz arose in the classical era. Both remained part of the romantic music period, which saw the rise of various other nationalistic dance forms like the barcarolle, ecossaise and polonaise. Modern popular dance music emerged from late 19th century's Western ballroom and social dance music. During the early 20th century, ballroom dancing gained popularity among the working class who attended public dance halls.
Dance music became enormously popular during the 1920s. In the 1930s, called the Swing era, Swing music was the popular dance music in America. In the 1950s, rock and roll became the popular dance music; the late 1960s saw the rise of R&B music. The rise of disco in the early 1970s led to dance music becoming popular with the public. By the late 1970s, electronic dance music was developing; this music, made using electronics, is a style of popular music played in nightclubs, radio stations and raves. Many subgenres of electronic dance music have evolved. Folk dance music is music accompanying traditional dance and may be contrasted with historical/classical, popular/commercial dance music. An example of folk dance music in the United States is the old-time music played at square dances and contra dances. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times, the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances such as carols and the Estampie.
The earliest of these surviving dances are as old as Western staff-based music notation. The Renaissance dance music was written for instruments such as the lute, tabor and the sackbut. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. Examples of dances include the French courante, sarabande and gigue. Collections of dances were collected together as dance suites. In the classical music era, the minuet was used as a third movement in four-movement non-vocal works such as sonatas, string quartets, symphonies, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing; the waltz arose in the classical era, as the minuet evolved into the scherzo. Both remained part of the romantic music period, which saw the rise of various other nationalistic dance forms like the barcarolle and polonaise. In the romantic music era, the growth and development of ballet extended the composition of dance music to a new height. Dance music was a part of opera. Modern popular dance music emerged from late 19th century's Western ballroom and social dance music.
Dance music works bear the name of the corresponding dance, e.g. waltzes, the tango, the bolero, the can-can, salsa, various kinds of jigs and the breakdown. Other dance forms include contradance, the merengue, the cha-cha-cha, it is difficult to know whether the name of the music came first or the name of the dance. Ballads are chosen for slow-dance routines; however ballads have been deemed as the opposite of dance music in terms of their tempo. The ballad was a type of dance as well. Ballads are still danced on the Faeroe Islands. "Dansband" is a term in Swedish for bands who play a kind of popular music, "dansbandsmusik", to partner dance to. These terms came into use around 1970, before that, many of the bands were classified as "pop groups"; this type of music is popular in the Nordic countries. Disco is a genre of dance music containing elements of funk, soul and salsa, it was most popular during the mid to late 1970s. It inspired the electronic dance music genre. By 1981, a new form of dance music was developing.
This music, made using electronics, is a style of popular music played in dance music nightclubs, radio stations and raves. During its gradual decline in the late 1970s, disco became influenced by computerization. Looping and segueing as found in disco continued to be used as creative techniques within trance music, techno music and house music. Electronic dance music experienced a boom after the proliferation of personal computers in the 1980s, manifest in the dance element of Tony Wilson's Haçienda scene and London clubs like Delirium, The Trip, Shoom; the ongoing influence of Shoom can be seen in its 25th anniversary party, held at Cable Nightclub on 8 December 2012, which sold out in four days. The scene expanded to the Summer Of Love in Ibiza, which became the European capital of house and trance. Clubs like Sundissential and Manumission became househo
A music download is the digital transfer of music via the Internet into a device capable of decoding and playing it, such as a home computer, MP3 player or smartphone. This term encompasses both legal downloads and downloads of copyrighted material without permission or legal payment. According to a Nielsen report, downloadable music accounted for 55.9% of all music sales in the US in 2012. By the beginning of 2011, Apple's iTunes Store alone made US$1.1 billion of revenue in the first quarter of its fiscal year. Paid downloads are sometimes encoded with Digital Rights Management that restricts copying the music or playing purchased songs on certain digital audio players, they are always compressed using a lossy codec, which reduces file size and bandwidth requirements. These music resources have been created as a response to expanding technology and needs of customers that wanted easy, quick access to music, their business models respond to the "download revolution" by making legal services attractive for users.
Legal music downloads have faced a number of challenges from artists, record labels and the Recording Industry Association of America. In July 2007, the Universal Music Group decided not to renew their long-term contracts with iTunes; this decision was based upon the issue of pricing of songs, as Universal wanted to be able to charge more or less depending on the artist, a shift away from iTunes' standard—at the time—99 cents per song pricing. Many industry leaders feel that this is only the first of many show-downs between Apple Inc. and the various record labels. According to research by the website TorrentFreak, 38% of Swedish artists support file share downloading and claim that it helps artists in early career stages; the Swedish rock group Lamont has profited from file sharing. The Recording Industry Association of America oversees about 85% of published music production and manufacturing in the United States, they work to protect musicians while supporting the First Amendment rights. Their stated goal is to support artists' creativity and help them not be cheated out of money by illegal downloading.
The Recording Industry Association of America launched its first lawsuits on 8 September 2003, against individuals who illegally downloaded music files from the Kazaa FastTrack network. Two years after it began, the campaign survived at least one major legal challenge; the RIAA said it filed 750 suits in February 2006 against individuals downloading music files without paying for them in hopes of putting an end to Internet music piracy. The RIAA hopes their campaign will force people to respect the copyrights of music labels and minimize the number of illegal downloads; the Official Charts Company began to incorporate downloads in the UK Singles Chart on 17 April 2005, at which time Radio 1 stopped broadcasting the separate download chart, although the chart is still compiled. This was on condition that the song must have a physical media release at the same time. Music downloads have been measured by the Official Charts Company since 2004 and included in the main UK Singles Chart from 2005.
The most downloaded song in the UK is "Happy" by Pharrell Williams with over 1.8 million downloads. In November 2005, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States was held by Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl", which sold over one million downloads, making it the first song to achieve platinum download status; as of July 2012, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States on the iTunes Store is held by The Black Eyed Peas's "I Gotta Feeling", which has sold over 8 million downloads. Soon after his death in 2009, Michael Jackson became the first artist to sell over one million songs downloaded via the Internet in one week. However, Adele marks the most downloads sold by a single song in a week, with "Hello" selling 1.12 million copies in November 2015. Eminem's seventh studio album, became the first album to sell one million digital copies. Beyoncé's self-titled fifth studio album became the fastest-selling album within 24 hours in iTunes history after its release in December 2013.
Within 24 hours of availability, the album sold 430,000 digital copies. Adele's third studio album 25 became the fastest-selling album in a week iTunes history after it was released on 20 November 2015, it sold 1.64 million digital copies in its first week. In 2006, the Recording Industry Association of Japan began issuing certifications for digitally released music in Japan, compiling data from the early 2000s onwards; the best-selling song is Fukushima-based vocal group Greeeen's song "Kiseki", certified for being downloaded four million times between 2008 and 2015, followed by R&B singer Thelma Aoyama's "Soba ni Iru ne" featuring rapper SoulJa, certified for three million downloads between 2008 and 2014. Greeeen's song "Ai Uta" ranks as the third highest certified song, with 2.5 million downloads tracked between 2007 and 2009. Two more songs have sold more than two million paid downloads: Ayaka's "Mikazuki" and Kobukuro's "Tsubomi"; the most successful ringtone in Japan is Moldovan-Romanian band O-Zone's "Dragostea din tei", known locally as "Koi no Maiahi", certified as having four million units sold.
In Japan, only two albums have received digital certifications by the RIAJ. The first was Songs for Japan, a charity compilation album raising profits for the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, certified gold for 100,000 downloa
"Gasolina" is a reggaeton song written by Daddy Yankee and Eddie Ávila for Daddy Yankee's 2004 album Barrio Fino. It features Glory, who sings the line "dame más gasolina"; the song was released as the album's lead single in late 2004 and became a hit, peaking inside the top 10 on some of the charts it entered. "Gasolina" is the first reggaeton song to be nominated for the Latin Grammy Award for Record of the Year. In 2015, the song reached the number nine position on the "50 Greatest Latin Songs of All Time" list according to Billboard. In 2017, it was included on Billboard's "12 Best Dancehall & Reggaeton Choruses of the 21st Century" at number eight. "Gasolina" became a worldwide hit, letting Daddy Yankee gain popularity among Latino mainstream music fans as well, becoming a hit in Puerto Rico, the rest of Latin America, the Caribbean, United States and Europe. "Gasolina" is one of the songs attributed with opening the door for reggaeton and creating a pathway for other stars in reggaeton.
The song had a catchy chorus. During his performance at the 2005 Lo Nuestro Awards, Daddy Yankee came into the show in a red Lamborghini, pulled down from the roof of American Airlines Arena in Miami, while singing "Gasolina"; this moment was voted as the best moment of the show by online voters at Univision's website. The song was featured in the 2006 comedy film, The Benchwarmers and was featured in Fast Food Nation; the song is used as a warm-up song by the New York Mets pitcher Johan Santana and Texas Rangers closer Neftalí Feliz, as well as Julio Lugo's music. The song was used in a TV advertising for the 2006 Citroën C2, which ran through the spring and summer of 2005. At a campaign stop for Republican presidential nominee John McCain, Daddy Yankee endorsed McCain and performed this song live for students at Phoenix's Central High. A New York Times blogger has questioned if McCain and his campaign understood the song's double-entendres; the song is used in a portion of the Studio Tour in Universal Studios Hollywood.
The song was used on seventh week of Dancing with the Stars as the music for James Maslow and his professional partner Peta Murgatroyd's during the night. The song was used as MMA Fighter Eddie Sanchez's entrance theme at UFC 67: Nothing; this song was used in Sivaji. Fast and Furious Salvadoran singer Papa A. P. released a cover version of "Gasolina" in Europe in 2005. It caused some controversy for being released there prior to Daddy Yankee's version, released the previous year in the United States, it was the first single from Assesina. Papa A. P. said that he refused to release the single before Daddy Yankee but was convinced to do so by his producers. He said about his version: "I do not regret that choice because if it's not my title, everyone has well accepted my version in the hood of New York", he claims. One week after the recording, his producer proposed shooting a music video, shot in Tunisia, his first European hit, the song reached the top 10 in France, charted elsewhere around Europe.
CD single"Gasolina" – 3:13 "Gasolina" – 4:45 "La noche" – 3:30CD maxi"Gasolina" – 3:15 "Gasolina" – 4:46 "La noche" – 3:30 "Gasolina" CD maxi – Finland"Gasolina" – 3:14 "Gasolina" – 4:4512" maxi"Gasolina" – 3:13 "Gasolina" – 4:44 "Gasolina" – 4:45 "La Noche" – 3:30 The song was remixed in late 2004 by DJ Buddha, featuring Pitbull and N. O. R. E. and was a smash hit. Lil Jon mixed his own vocals to the remix, featured on the Crunk Juice remix CD; this song was recorded by La Fabrica and released in Europe before the song's official release by Daddy Yankee. La Fabrica's version peaked at number three in Greece. Daddy Yankee's official site
Los Homerun-es is a compilation album and fifth overall of Reggaeton recording artist Daddy Yankee. It came before Barrio Fino; this album releases Daddy Yankee's hits from the 1990s to 2003. This album was released on an independent record label, before Yankee was signed onto Interscope Records. Though it was an independent album, it featured other huge reggaeton artists, like Don Omar, Nicky Jam, Julio Voltio; some songs were released with DJ Playero. The album was re-released in 2005. "Los Homerun-es Radio Version -Daddy Yankee & Don Omar "Baila Girl/Todo Hombre Llorando Por Ti/ "No Te Canses/El Funeral "Camuflash
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti