Positive liberty is the possession of the capacity to act upon one's free will, as opposed to negative liberty, freedom from external restraint on one's actions. A concept of positive liberty may include freedom from internal constraints; the concepts of structure and agency are central to the concept of positive liberty because in order to be free, a person should be free from inhibitions of the social structure in carrying out their free will. Structurally, sexism, ageism and racism can inhibit a person's freedom; as positive liberty is concerned with the possession of sociological agency, it is enhanced by the ability of citizens to participate in government and have their voices and concerns recognized and acted upon. Although Isaiah Berlin's essay "Two Concepts of Liberty" is acknowledged as the first to explicitly draw the distinction between positive and negative liberty, Frankfurt School psychoanalyst and Marxist humanistic philosopher Erich Fromm drew a similar distinction between negative and positive freedom in The Fear of Freedom, predating Berlin's essay by more than a decade.
The word liberty can refer to many things. Berlin described a statement such as "I am slave to no man" as one of negative liberty, that is, freedom from another individual's direct interference, he contrasted this with a Positive Freedom statement such as "I am my own master", which lays claim to a freedom to choose one's own pursuits in life. Charles Taylor sees Negative Freedom as an "opportunity-concept": one possesses Negative Freedom if one is not enslaved by external forces, has equal access to a society's resources. Positive Freedom, says Taylor, is an "exercise-concept": possessing it might mean that one is not internally constrained. Suppose a rich and powerful actor is a drug addict; this actor may possess a great deal of negative liberty, but little Positive Liberty according to Taylor. By Taylor's definitions, Positive Freedom entails being in a mature state of decision making, free of internal or external restraints. Jean-Jacques Rousseau's theory of freedom, according to which individual freedom is achieved through participation in the process whereby one's community exercises collective control over its own affairs in accordance with the "general will".
Some interpret The Social Contract to suggest that Rousseau believed that liberty was the power of individual citizens to act in the government to bring about changes. Rousseau himself said, "the mere impulse to appetite is slavery, while obedience to law we prescribe ourselves is liberty." For Rousseau, the passage from the state of nature to the civil state substitutes justice for instinct gives his actions the morality they had lacked. G. F. W. Hegel wrote in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right that "duty is not a restriction on freedom, but only on freedom in the abstract" and that "duty is the attainment of our essence, the winning of positive freedom. In the description of positive liberty from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Put in the simplest terms, one might say that a democratic society is a free society because it is a self-determined society, that a member of that society is free to the extent that he or she participates in its democratic process, but there are individualist applications of the concept of positive freedom.
For example, it is sometimes said that a government should aim to create the conditions necessary for individuals to be self-sufficient or to achieve self-realization. In "Recovering the Social Contract", Ron Replogle made a metaphor, helpful in understanding positive liberty. "Surely, it is no assault on my dignity as a person if you take my car keys, against my will, when I have had too much to drink. There is nothing paradoxical about making an agreement beforehand providing for paternalistic supervision in circumstances when our competence is open to doubt." In this sense, positive liberty is the adherence to a set of rules agreed upon by all parties involved. Should the rules be altered, all parties involved. Therefore, positive liberty is a contractarian philosophy. However, Isaiah Berlin opposed any suggestion that paternalism and positive liberty could be equivalent, he stated that positive liberty could only apply when the withdrawal of liberty from an individual was in pursuit of a choice that individual himself/herself made, not a general principle of society or any other person's opinion.
In the case where a person removes a driver's car keys against their will because they have had too much to drink, this constitutes positive freedom only if the driver has made, of their own free will, an earlier decision not to drive drunk. Thus, by removing the keys, the other person facilitates this decision and ensures that it will be upheld in the face of paradoxical behaviour by the driver. For the remover to remove the keys in the absence of such an expressed intent by the driver, because the remover feels that the driver ought not to drive drunk, is paternalism, not positive freedom by Berlin's definition. Erich Fromm sees the distinction between the two types of freedom emerging alongside humanity's evolution away from the instinctual activity that characterizes lower animal forms; this aspect of freedom, he argues, "is here used not in its positive sense of'freedom to' but in its negative sense of'freedom from', namely freedom from instinctual determi
The International Game Developers Association is a nonprofit professional association whose stated mission is to "support and empower game developers around the world in achieving fulfilling and sustainable careers."The IGDA is incorporated in the United States as a 501 nonprofit organization. It has over 12,000 members from all fields of game development. In recognition of the wide-ranging, multidisciplinary nature of interactive entertainment, everyone who participates in any way in the game development process is welcome to join the IGDA; the IGDA was founded in 1994 by Ernest W. Adams and was known as the Computer Game Developers Association. Modeled after the Association for Computing Machinery, Adams envisioned the organization to support the careers and interests of individual developers, as opposed to being a trade organization, or an advocacy group for companies; the need for a professional association for game developers was not apparent until the congressional hearings surrounding Mortal Kombat and other video game legislation became common in the 1990s.
With legislation affecting the game development industry, the IGDA developed into a more organized voice for computer game developers as it merged with the Computer Entertainment Developers Association and grew from 300 members to over 12,000 members the next fifteen years. In December 2012, Kate Edwards was appointed executive director after Gordon Bellamy, the previous executive director, moved on from the position in July of that year to join Tencent; the association as of July 2014 has been working with the FBI to deal with the on-line harassment of developers. In September 2017, Jennifer MacLean was appointed interim executive director after managing the IGDA Foundation for more than a year, she was confirmed as permanent executive director in February 2018. In April 2019, Renee Gittins succeeded as Executive Director; the Board of Directors is the governing body of the IGDA. In April 2019, the IGDA appointed Lucien Parsons as Chair of the Board of Directors and Emily Greer as Vice-Chair.
Chapters are intended to provide an informal way to connect game developers within local communities. Chapters vary in size and meeting attendance, they provide forums, for example, for discussions on current issues in the computer gaming industry and demos of the latest games. Special Interest Groups, better known as SIGs, are intended to spark developer interest in a specific topics or disciplines. For example, the Game Education SIG has a stated mission "To create a community resource that will strengthen the academic membership of the IGDA while enhancing the education of future and current game developers." Some SIGs sponsor events, such as creating the Global Game Jam. Committees are formed by the IGDA to conduct research into a subject for a short period, leading to a single report. Some, are semi-permanent, produce yearly reports; some of these reports lead to gaming industry standards. Aside from bringing game developers together, the IGDA focuses on the following issues present in the game development industry: Quality of life - making the process of game development easier and more pleasant for everyone.
Diversity - ensuring that people from a wide range of backgrounds and their needs are represented in the game development industry Anti-Censorship - recognizing games as an art form, as a medium of expression Business and Legal Issues - empowering the development community with business knowledge and advocating for developers Student and Academic Relations - setting curriculum guidelines, enhancing collaboration between industry and academia and providing guidance to students wanting a career in games The IGDA, through its chapters and SIGs, organizes hundreds of events for members of the game development industry including chapter meetings and meetups. However, there are larger events that are organized that bring IGDA's international members together: IGDA Summit - The IGDA Summit highlights the expertise and experience of the global IGDA membership – from board members and staff to key volunteers and engaged members. IGDA Scholars Program - The IGDA Scholars Program is a program that awards promising students in game development and related disciplines passes to key conferences related to game development and includes mentorship from key members of the game development industry, opportunities to visit local studios or meetings with senior figures in the industry.
IGDA Leadership Track at Southern Interactive Entertainment and Game Expo - The IGDA Leadership Track at SIEGE will encompass a broad range of topics pertinent to the heads of game studios. Global Game Jam - Now managed by the Global Game Jam, Inc. the Global Game Jam is an event that organizes developers and game designers to create games within a 48-hour period. IGDA Leadership Forum - Focuses on advancing the state of the art in game production and management, encompasses a broad range of leadership topics relevant to game development. During the GDC 2013 a party was hosted by the start-up incubator YetiZen; the event featured at least three girls in white outfits dancing, one was in a shorter t-shirt, another in a furry outfit. Backlash over the presence of these female dancers resulted in the several people resigning in protest, most notably Brenda Romero from the IGDA's Women in Games Special Interest Group steering committee. On the day following the party IGDA Executive Director Kate Edwards issued an apology stating "We regret that the IGDA was involved in this situation.
We do not condone activities that objectify or demean women or any other group of people." On November 20
Orchestral works by Johann Sebastian Bach refers to the compositions in the eleventh chapter of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, or, in the New Bach Edition, the compositions in Series VII. BWV 1041 – Violin Concerto in A minor BWV 1042 – Violin Concerto in E major BWV 1043 – Concerto for 2 violins in D minor BWV 1044 – Concerto for flute and harpsichord in A minor BWV 1045 – Violin Concerto movement in D major, abandoned opening movement to a lost cantata BWV 1046 – Brandenburg Concerto No. 1 in F major for violino piccolo, three oboes, two corni da caccia and continuo BWV 1046a BWV 1071 – Sinfonia in F major BWV 1047 – Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 in F major for trumpet, recorder, violin and continuo BWV 1048 – Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major for three violins, three violas, three cellos and continuo BWV 1049 – Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 in G major for violin, two fiauti d'echo and continuo BWV 1050 – Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D major for harpsichord, violin and strings BWV 1050a – Concerto in D major for harpsichord, violin and strings BWV 1051 – Brandenburg Concerto No. 6 in B-flat major for two violas, two violas da gamba and continuo BWV 1052 – Concerto for harpsichord and strings in D minor BWV 1053 – Concerto for harpsichord and strings in E major BWV 1054 – Concerto for harpsichord and strings in D major BWV 1055 – Concerto for harpsichord and strings in A major BWV 1056 – Concerto for harpsichord and strings in F minor BWV 1057 – Concerto for harpsichord, 2 recorders and strings in F major BWV 1058 – Concerto for harpsichord and strings in G minor BWV 1059 – Concerto for harpsichord in D minor BWV 1060 – Concerto for 2 harpsichords and strings in C minor BWV 1061 – Concerto for 2 harpsichords and strings in C major BWV 1062 – Concerto for 2 harpsichords and strings in C minor BWV 1063 – Concerto for 3 harpsichords and strings in D minor BWV 1064 – Concerto for 3 harpsichords and strings in C major BWV 1065 – Concerto for 4 harpsichords and strings in A minor BWV 1066 – Orchestral Suite No. 1 in C major, Gavotte I & II, Menuet I & II, Bourrée I & II, Passepied I & II.
BWV 1067 – Orchestral Suite No. 2 in B minor, Sarabande, Bourrée I & II, Polonaise & Double, Badinerie. BWV 1068 – Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D major, Gavotte I & II, Bourrée, Gigue. BWV 1069 – Orchestral Suite No. 4 in D major, Bourrée I & II, Menuet I & II, Rejouissance. BWV 1070 – Orchestral Suite in G minor BWV 1071, renumbered as BWV 1046a: early version of the first Brandenburg Concerto. Forkel, Johann Nikolaus. Johann Sebastian Bach: His Life and Work – translated from the German, with notes and appendices. New York: Harcourt and Howe