The Plaquemine culture was an archaeological culture in the lower Mississippi River Valley in western Mississippi and eastern Louisiana. Good examples of culture are the Medora Site in West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. Plaquemine culture was contemporaneous with the Middle Mississippian culture in the Cahokia site in St. Louis and it is considered ancestral to the Natchez and Taensa peoples. The Plaquemine Culture occupied the rest of Louisiana not taken by the Caddoan Mississippian culture during this time frame and its people are considered descendants of the Troyville-Coles Creek culture. A prominent feature of Plaquemine sites are large ceremonial centers with two or more large mounds facing an open plaza, the flat-topped, pyramidal mounds were constructed in several stages. Sometimes they were topped by one or two smaller mounds, mounds were often built on top of the ruins of a house or temple and similar buildings were usually constructed on top of the mound. In earlier times, buildings were circular, but they were likely to be rectangular.
They were constructed of wattle and daub, and sometimes with wall posts sunk into foot-deep wall trenches, at times, oval or rectangular graves were dug in the mounds. These might have been for primary burials, but more often they were for the reburial of remains originally interred elsewhere, one kind of pottery occasionally placed in the graves is called killed pottery. This type has a hole in the base of the vessel that was cut while the pot was being made and they decorated their pots in other characteristic ways. They sometimes added small solid handles called lugs and textured the surface by brushing clumps of grass over the vessel before it was fired. They often cut designs into the surface of the wet clay and, like their Caddoan contemporaries, Plaquemine peoples had undecorated pots that they used for ordinary daily tasks. Pottery during this phase still used dry clay particles as a tempering material, beginning during the Terminal Coles Creek period, Mississippian cultures far upstream from the Plaquemine area began expanding their reach southward.
The Plaquemine peoples absorbed more Mississippian influence and the area of their culture began to shrink after 1350 CE. Eventually the last enclave of purely Plaquemine culture was the Natchez Bluffs area, while the Yazoo Basin, historic groups in the area during first European contact bear out this division. In the Natchez Bluffs, the Taensa and Natchez, had held out against Mississippian influence and they continued to use the same sites as their ancestors and carry on the Plaquemine culture. Groups who appear to have absorbed more Mississippian influence were identified at the time of European contact as those tribes speaking the Tunican, Chitimachan, ISBN 0-8203-1888-4 R. Barry Lewis and Charles Stout, editors. Mississippian Towns and Sacred Spaces, University of Alabama Press,1998, ISBN 0-8173-0947-0 Jeffrey P. Brain, Winterville-Late Prehistoric Culture Contact in the Lower Mississippi Valley, Mississippi Department of Archives and History,1989
Coles Creek culture
Coles Creek culture is a Late Woodland archaeological culture in the Lower Mississippi valley in the southern United States. The period marks a significant change in the history of the area. Population increased dramatically and there is evidence of a growing cultural and political complexity. Although many of the traits of chiefdom societies are not yet manifested. Coles Creek sites are found in Arkansas and Mississippi and it is considered ancestral to the Plaquemine culture. The Coles Creek culture is a development of the Lower Mississippi Valley that took place between the terminal Woodland period and the Plaquemine culture period. The culture was defined by the unique decoration on grog-tempered ceramic ware by James A. Ford after his investigations at the Mazique Archeological Site and he had studied both the Mazique and Coles Creek Sites, and almost went with the Mazique culture, but decided on the less historically involved sites name. Although earlier cultures built mounds mainly as a part of customs, by the Coles Creek period these mounds took on a newer shape.
Instead of being primarily for burial, mounds were constructed to support temples, pyramidal mounds with flat tops and ramps were constructed, usually over successive years and with many layers. A temple or other structures, usually of wattle and daub construction, a typical Coles Creek site plan consisted of at least two and more commonly three, mounds around a central plaza. This pattern emerged in roughly 800 CE and continued for several hundred years, by late Coles Creek times, the site plans are often enlarged to include up to three more mounds. Sites typical of this period are Mount Nebo, Holly Bluff, Kings Crossing, long distance trade seems to have been negligible at this time, as exotic goods and trade items are rare in Coles Creek sites. There is little evidence of domesticated or cultivated plants until the end of the Coles Creek period, acorns are a dominant food source, supplemented with persimmons and some starchy seeds such as maygrass. Coles Creek populations may have loosely managed certain plant resources in order to promote a better or more consistent food supply, maize is found in very limited quantities, but by 1000-1200 CE had begun to increase, although nowhere near the levels it would reach in Mississippian times.
The bow and arrow was introduced in this period, although the continued to be used. Pottery styles changed during this period, as began to create more durable wares with more diversified uses. Wet clay was tempered with particles of dry clay to prevent cracking during firing, most pots were decorated only on the upper half, usually with designs of incised lines or impressed tool marks
The Mogollon culture is one of the major prehistoric Southwestern cultural divisions of the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. The culture flourished from the period, c.200 CE, to either 1450 or 1540 CE. The name Mogollon comes from the Mogollon Mountains, which were named after Don Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollón, the name was chosen and defined in 1936 by archaeologist Emil W. Haury. Key differences included brown-paste, coil-and-scrape pottery, deeply excavated semi-subterranean pithouses, eight decades of subsequent research have confirmed Haurys initial findings. The earliest Mogollon pithouses were deep and either circular or oval-shaped, over time, Mogollon people built rectangular houses with rounded corners and not as deep. Their villages had kivas, or round, semi-subterranean ceremonial structures, Mogollon origins remain a matter of speculation. One model holds that the Mogollon emerged from a preceding Desert Archaic tradition that links Mogollon ancestry with the first prehistoric human occupations of the area, in this model, cultural distinctions emerged in the larger region when populations grew great enough to establish villages and even larger communities.
The Mogollon were, foragers who augmented their subsistence efforts by farming, through the first millennium CE, dependence on farming probably increased. Water control features are common among Mimbres branch sites from the 10th through 12th centuries CE, the nature and density of Mogollon residential villages changed through time. The earliest Mogollon villages are small hamlets composed of several pithouses, village sizes increased over time and by the 11th century surface pueblos became common. Cliff-dwellings became common during the 13th and 14th centuries, Research on Mogollon culture has led to the recognition of regional variants, of which the most widely recognized in popular media is the Mimbres culture. Others include the Jornada, Reserve, Point of Pines, San Simon, an alternate way of viewing Mogollon culture is through three periods of housing types, Early Pithouse Late Pithouse Mogollon Pueblo. Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument in southwestern New Mexico was established as a National Monument on 16 November 1907 and it contains several archaeological sites attributed to the Mimbres branch.
At the headwaters of the Gila, Mimbres populations adjoined another more northern branch of the Mogollon culture, the TJ Ruin, for example, is a Classic Mimbres phase pueblo, however the cliff dwellings are Tularosa phase. The Hueco Tanks State Historic Site is approximately 32 mi northeast of El Paso, Mimbres may, depending on its context, refer to a tradition within a subregion of the Mogollon culture area or to an interval of time, the Classic Mimbres phase within the Mimbres branch. Classic Mimbres phase pottery is particularly famous pottery, and Classic Mimbres pottery designs were imitated on Santa Fe Railroad Mimbreños china dinnerware from 1936 to 1970, three Circle phase pithouse villages within the Mimbres branch are distinctive. Houses are quadrilateral, usually with sharply-angled corners, plastered floors and walls, local pottery styles include early forms of Mimbres black and white, red-on-cream, and textured plainware. Large ceremonial structures are dug deeply into the ground and often include distinctive ceremonial features such as foot drums, Classic Mimbres phase pueblos can be quite large, with some composed of clusters of communities, each containing up to 150 rooms and all grouped around an open plaza
Urbanism is the study of the characteristic ways of interaction of inhabitants of towns and cities with the built environment. It is a component of disciplines such as urban planning. However, in some contexts internationally Urbanism is synonymous with Urban Planning, many architects and sociologists investigate the way people live in densely populated urban areas. There is a variety of approaches within urbanism. Manuel Castells suggested that within a society, premium infrastructure networks selectively connect together the most favored users and places. Part of the philosophy of William James, one of the fathers of pragmatism, was to encourage people to actively reach out to the points where they can critically engage with others. The theme of democracy was central to John Deweys version of pragmatism and he believed that in a democratic society, every sovereign citizen is capable of achieving personality. He argued that the concept of place should be open to experimentation for the hope of realising a better world, according to Richard J.
Bernstein, these themes are basic applications of urbanism. Under pragmatism, place is defined throughout continuous interactions with its dwellers and this approach can be seen in the theory of placemaking that emerged in the 1960s, epitomised by Jan Gehls quote First life, buildings – the other way around never works. Anti-foundationalism and fallibilism are related to pragmatism, in the context of those, pragmatists argue that the idea of space needs to be able to cope with unpredictability and change. The notion of a community as inquirers emphasises that the idea of place will be sustained only as long as there is a community to support it, douglas Kelbaugh identifies three paradigms within urbanism, New Urbanism, Everyday Urbanism, and Post-Urbanism. Paul L. Knox refers to one of many trends in contemporary urbanism as the aestheticization of everyday life, alex Krieger states that urban design is less a technical discipline than a mind-set based on a commitment to cities
Archaic period (North America)
The Archaic stage is characterized by subsistence economies supported through the exploitation of nuts and shellfish. As its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming and this classification system was first proposed by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in the widely accepted 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology. In the organization of the system, the Archaic period followed the Lithic stage and is superseded by the Formative stage, the Lithic stage The Archaic stage The Formative stage The Classic stage The Post-Classic stage Numerous local variations have been identified within the cultural rankings. The period has been subdivided by region and time, for instance, the Archaic Southwest tradition is subdivided into the Dieguito-Pinto, Oshara and Chihuahua cultures. Such early mound sites as Frenchmans Bend and Hedgepeth were of time period. Watson Brake is now considered the oldest mound complex in the Americas, more than 100 sites have been identified as associated with the regional Poverty Point culture of the Late Archaic period, and it was part of a regional trading network across the Southeast.
Across what is now the Southeastern United States, starting around 4000 BCE, people exploited wetland resources, middens developed along rivers, but there is limited evidence of Archaic peoples along coastlines prior to 3000 BCE. Archaic sites on the coast may have been inundated by rising sea levels, starting around 3000 BCE evidence of large-scale exploitation of oysters appears. During the period 3000 BCE to 1000 BCE shell rings, large shell middens more or less surrounding open centers, developed along the coast of the Southeastern United States. These shell rings are numerous in South Carolina and Georgia, but are found scattered around the Florida Peninsula. In some places, such as Horrs Island in Southwest Florida, four shell or sand mounds on Horrs Island have been dated to between 4,870 and 4,270 Before Present. The site which is considered to be one of the most significant centres of habitation and ceremonial burial in Canada, is located on the north side Rainy River in Northwestern Ontario.
It became part of a trading network because of its strategic location at the centre of major North American waterways. In Glyn Edmund Daniel, Christopher Chippindale, feasting with Shellfish in the Southern Ohio Valley, Archaic Sacred Sites and Rituals. Knoxville, U of Tennessee P. ISBN 1-5723-3733-8, Florida, The University Press of Florida
History of North America
North America encompasses the past developments of people populating the continent of North America. The continent became a human habitat than continents such as Africa and Europe and these migrants settled in many locations on the continent, from the Inuit of the far north to the Mayans and Aztecs of the south. As the Age of Exploration dawned in Europe, Europeans began to arrive in the Americas, North America became a staging ground for ongoing European rivalries. The continent was divided by three prominent European powers, Great Britain and Spain, the influences of colonization by these states on North American cultures are still apparent today. Conflict over resources on North America ensued in various wars between these powers, gradually, the new European colonies developed desires for independence, such as the American Revolution and Mexican War of Independence, created new, independent states that came to dominate North America. The Canadian Confederation formed in 1867, creating the political landscape of North America.
From the 19th to 21st centuries, North American states have developed increasingly deeper connections with each other, although some conflicts have occurred, the continent has for the most part enjoyed peace and general cooperation between its states, as well as open commerce and trade between them. Modern developments include the opening of trade agreements, extensive immigration from Mexico and Latin America. The specifics of Paleo-Indians migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research. These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets, another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. Archaeologists contend that Paleo-Indian migration out of Beringia, ranges from 40,000 to around 16,500 years ago and this time range is a hot source of debate and promises to continue as such for years to come.
However, older alternative theories exist, including migration from Europe, stone tools, particularly projectile points and scrapers, are the primary evidence of the earliest human activity in the Americas. Crafted lithic flaked tools are used by archaeologists and anthropologists to classify cultural periods, scientific evidence links indigenous Americans to Asian peoples, specifically eastern Siberian populations. 8,000 BCE –7,000 BCE the climate stabilized, leading to a rise in population and lithic technology advances, resulting in a more sedentary lifestyle. Before contact with Europeans, the peoples of North America were divided into many different polities. They lived in several areas, which roughly correspond to geographic and biological zones. Native groups can be classified by their language family and it is important to note that people with similar languages did not always share the same material culture, nor were they always allies
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally. It was composed of a series of settlements and satellite villages linked together by a loose trading network. The Mississippian way of life began to develop in the Mississippi River Valley, cultures in the tributary Tennessee River Valley may have begun to develop Mississippian characteristics at this point. Almost all dated Mississippian sites predate 1539–1540, with exceptions being Natchez communities that maintained Mississippian cultural practices into the 18th century. A number of traits are recognized as being characteristic of the Mississippians. Although not all Mississippian peoples practiced all of the following activities, the construction of large, truncated earthwork pyramid mounds, or platform mounds. Such mounds were usually square, rectangular, or occasionally circular, structures were usually constructed atop such mounds. The adoption and use of shells as tempering agents in their shell tempered pottery.
Widespread trade networks extending as far west as the Rockies, north to the Great Lakes, south to the Gulf of Mexico, the development of the chiefdom or complex chiefdom level of social complexity. The development of institutionalized social inequality, a centralization of control of combined political and religious power in the hands of few or one. The beginnings of a settlement hierarchy, in one major center has clear influence or control over a number of lesser communities. The adoption of the paraphernalia of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, called the Southern Cult and this is the belief system of the Mississippians as we know it. SECC items are found in Mississippian-culture sites from Wisconsin to the Gulf Coast, the SECC was frequently tied in to ritual game-playing, as with chunkey. The Mississippians had no writing system or stone architecture, the Mississippi stage is usually divided into three or more chronological periods. Each period is an historical distinction varying regionally.
At a particular site, each period may be considered to begin earlier or later, the Mississippi period should not be confused with the Mississippian culture. The Mississippi period is the stage, while Mississippian culture refers to the cultural similarities that characterize this society. The Early Mississippi period had just transitioned from the Late Woodland period way of life, different groups abandoned tribal lifeways for increasing complexity, sedentism and agriculture
The Mam are an indigenous people in the western highlands of Guatemala and in south-western Mexico who speak the Mam language. Most Mam live in Guatemala, in the departments of Huehuetenango, San Marcos, the Mam people in Mexico live principally in the soconusco region of Chiapas. In pre-Columbian times the Mam were part of the Maya civilization, many Mam live in and around the nearby modern city of Huehuetenango. The city of Quetzaltenango or Xela was originally Mam, many more Mam live in small hamlets in the mountains of northern Guatemala, keeping many of their native traditions. Many Mam are bilingual and speak both Spanish as well as the Mam language, part of the Maya language family, the latter typically as their first language
Plum Bayou culture
Plum Bayou culture is a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that lived in what is now east-central Arkansas from 650—1050 CE, a time known as the Late Woodland Period. Archaeologists defined the culture based on the Toltec Mounds site and named it for a local waterway, exotic materials found at Plum Bayou sites reveal trade with the Ozark Plateau, West Gulf Coastal Plain, and the Ouachita Mountains. Major Plum Bayou sites with single or multiple mounds include, Plum Bayou culture was one of the earliest groups to build ceremonial community centers with platform mounds and they primarily lived in small villages in the uplands and floodplains of the White and Arkansas Rivers. Archaeologists divide Plum Bayou settlements into single household, multiple household, multiple household with mound, farmers grew crops such as amaranth, bottle gourd, little barley, squash and sumpweed. In some Plum Bayou sites, maize was cultivated in small amounts, supplementing their farming, Plum Bayou peoples hunted game and gathered wild plants, such as cherries, plums and nuts.
This culture is defined in part by its ceramics, much of Plum Bayou ceramics was plainware, tempered with shells. Named types of ceramics found at Plum Bayou sites include Coles Creek incised var. Keyo, Larto Red, Officer Punctated, Red slip, or clay paint, was used to decorate some ceramic vessels. While neighboring cultures adopted maize cultivation and increasingly complex religions and political organization, people continued to occupy the region, but they abandoned their ceremonial sites. Culture and chronological table for the Mississippi Valley Odell, George H. Stone Tools, Theoretical Insights into Human Prehistory
The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance, began as an alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states, Mexico-Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan. The Triple Alliance was formed from the faction in a civil war fought between the city of Azcapotzalco and its former tributary provinces. Despite the initial conception of the empire as an alliance of three self-governed city-states, Tenochtitlan quickly became dominant militarily. By the time the Spanish arrived in 1519, the lands of the Alliance were effectively ruled from Tenochtitlan, the alliance waged wars of conquest and expanded rapidly after its formation. Aztec rule has been described by scholars as hegemonic or indirect, the Aztecs left rulers of conquered cities in power so long as they agreed to pay semi-annual tribute to the Alliance, as well as supply military forces when needed for the Aztec war efforts. In return, the imperial authority offered protection and political stability, the state religion of the empire was polytheistic, worshiping a diverse pantheon that included dozens of deities.
Many had officially recognized cults large enough so that the deity was represented in the temple precinct of the capital Tenochtitlan. The imperial cult, was that of Huitzilopochtli, the distinctive warlike patron god of the Mexica, peoples in conquered provinces were allowed to retain and freely continue their own religious traditions, so long as they added the imperial god Huitzilopochtli to their local pantheons. The word Aztec in modern usage would not have used by the people themselves. The name comes from a Nahuatl word meaning people from Aztlan, for the purpose of this article, Aztec refers only to those cities that constituted or were subject to the Triple Alliance. For the broader use of the term, see the article on Aztec civilization, Nahua peoples descended from Chichimec peoples who migrated to central Mexico from the north in the early 13th century. According to the pictographic codices in which the Aztecs recorded their history, Early migrants settled the Basin of Mexico and surrounding lands by establishing a series of independent city-states.
These early Nahua cities were ruled by petty kings called tlahtohqueh, most of the existing settlements, which had been established by other indigenous peoples before the Nahua migration, were assimilated into Nahua culture. These early city-states fought various small-scale wars with other, but due to shifting alliances. The Mexica were the last of Aztlan migrants to arrive in Central Mexico and they entered the Basin of Mexico around the year 1250 AD, and by most of the good agricultural land had already been claimed. The Mexica persuaded the king of Culhuacan to allow them to settle in a relatively infertile patch of land called Chapultepec, the Mexica served as hired mercenaries for Culhuacan. After they served Culhuacan in battle, the appointed one of his daughters to rule over the Mexica. According to mythological native accounts, the Mexica instead sacrificed her by flaying her skin, when the king of Culhuacan learned of this, he attacked and used his army to drive the Mexica from Tizaapan by force