Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere. It is the undoing or repeal of governmental regulation of the economy, opposition to deregulation may usually involve apprehension regarding environmental pollution and environmental quality standards, financial uncertainty, and constraining monopolies. Regulatory reform is a parallel development alongside deregulation, Regulatory reform refers to organized and ongoing programs to review regulations with a view to minimizing and making them more cost effective. Cost–benefit analysis is used in such reviews. In addition, there have been regulatory innovations, usually suggested by economists, Deregulation can be distinguished from privatization, where privatization can be seen as taking state-owned service providers into the private sector. Argentina underwent heavy economic deregulation and had an exchange rate during the Menem administration. In Dec.2001, Paul Krugman compared Enron with Argentina, two months later, Herbert Inhaber claimed that Krugman confused correlation with causation, and neither collapse was due to excessive deregulation.
Having announced a range of deregulatory policies, Labor Prime Minister Bob Hawke announced the policy of Minimum Effective Regulation in 1986. This introduced now familiar requirements for regulatory impact statements, but compliance by governmental agencies took many years, the labour market under the Hawke/Keating Labor governments operated under an accord. John Howards Liberal Party of Australia in 1996 began deregulation of the labor market, however, it was reversed under the following Rudd Labor government. Natural gas is deregulated in most of the country, with the exception of some Atlantic provinces and some pockets like Vancouver Island, most of this deregulation happened in the mid-1980s. There is price comparison service operating in some of these jurisdictions, particularly Ontario, the other provinces are small markets and have not attracted suppliers. Customers have the choice of purchasing from a distribution company or a deregulated supplier. In most provinces the LDC is not allowed to offer a term contract, LDC prices are changed either monthly or quarterly.
The province of Ontario began deregulation of electricity supply in 2002, the government is still searching for a stable working regulatory framework. The current status is a partially regulated structure in which consumers have received a price for a portion of the publicly owned generation. The remainder of the price has been market price based and there are numerous competitive energy contract providers, Ontario is installing Smart Meters in all homes and small businesses and is changing the pricing structure to Time of Use pricing. All small volume consumers are to be shifted to the new structure by the end of 2012
Seth Godin is an American author, entrepreneur and public speaker. Born in Mount Vernon, New York, Godin graduated from Williamsville East High School in 1978 and he received degrees in computer science and philosophy from Tufts University, followed by an MBA in marketing from the Stanford Graduate School of Business. From 1983 to 1986, he worked as a manager at Spinnaker Software. After leaving Spinnaker in 1986, he used $20,000 in savings to found Seth Godin Productions, primarily a book packaging business and he met Mark Hurst and founded Yoyodyne. After a few years, Godin sold the book packaging business to his employees and focused his efforts on Yoyodyne, launched in 1995, used contests, online games, and scavenger hunts to market companies to participating users. In August 1996, Flatiron Partners invested $4 million in Yoyodyne in return for a 20% stake. The site had over 1 million visitors, and the companies America Online, American Express, H&R Block, Procter & Gamble, Sony Music, Sprint, at Yoyodyne, Godin published Permission Marketing, Turning strangers into friends and friends into customers.
In 1998, he sold Yoyodyne to Yahoo. for about $30 million, in March 2006, Godin launched Squidoo In July 2008, Squidoo was one of the 500 most visited sites in the world. By 2014, it was no longer viable and was sold to HubPages In October 2012. As of April 27,2014, Godin is the author of 17 books, purple Cow sold over 150,000 copies in more than 23 print runs in its first two years. The Dip was a Business Week and New York Times bestseller, in the early 1990s, he curated a 10-book series for children titled Worlds of Power. Each of the plots is based on a video game. In June 2012, Godin launched a Kickstarter campaign to finance his next book, in the first week, he raised more than $250,000 from readers, which in turn secured him a book contract with his publisher. In April 2016, Godins book, All Marketers Are Liars, was selected by Carine Alexis at Forbes as one of six essential books every marketer should have on their shelf, Godin releases a daily blog on the Typepad platform. Godin, Seth.
eMarketing, Reaping Profits on the Information Highway, Permission marketing, turning strangers into friends, and friends into customers. If Youre Clueless about Selling, And Want to Know More, Book online – Detailing the idea of Viral marketing Godin, Seth. The Big Red Fez, How To Make Any Web Site Better, survival is not enough, zooming and the future of your company. Purple Cow, Transform Your Business by Being Remarkable, All Marketers Are Liars, The Power of Telling Authentic Stories in a Low-Trust World
The Old Vic
The Old Vic is a theatre located just south-east of Waterloo station in London on the corner of The Cut and Waterloo Road. Established in 1818 as the Royal Coburg Theatre, and renamed in 1833 the Royal Victoria Theatre, in 1871 it was rebuilt and reopened as the Royal Victoria Palace. It was taken over by Emma Cons in 1880 and formally named the Royal Victoria Hall, in 1898, a niece of Cons, Lilian Baylis assumed management and began a series of Shakespeare productions in 1914. The building was damaged in 1940 during air raids and it became a Grade II* listed building in 1951 after it reopened. It was the name of a company that was based at the theatre and formed the core of the National Theatre of Great Britain on its formation in 1963. The National Theatre remained at the Old Vic until new premises were constructed on the South Bank, the Old Vic became the home of Prospect Theatre Company, at that time a highly successful touring company which staged such acclaimed productions as Derek Jacobis Hamlet.
However, with the withdrawal of funding for the company by the Arts Council of Great Britain in 1980 for breaching its touring obligations, the theatre underwent complete refurbishment in 1985. In 2003, Kevin Spacey was appointed as new director of the Old Vic Theatre Company which received considerable media attention. In 2015, Matthew Warchus succeeded Spacey as artistic director, the theatre was a minor theatre and was thus technically forbidden to show serious drama. Nevertheless, when the theatre passed to George Bolwell Davidge in 1824 he succeeded in bringing legendary actor Edmund Kean south of the river to play six Shakespeare plays in six nights. More popular staples in the repertoire were sensational and violent melodramas demonstrating the evils of drink, churned out by the house dramatist, confirmed teetotaller Douglas Jerrold. On 1 July 1833, the theatre was renamed the Royal Victoria Theatre, under the protection and patronage of Victoria, Duchess of Kent, mother to Princess Victoria, the 14-year-old heir presumptive.
The duchess and the princess visited only once, on 28 November of that year, the single visit scarcely justified the Old Vic its billing as Queen Victorias Own Theayter. By 1835, the theatre was advertising itself simply as the Victoria Theatre, in 1841, David Osbaldiston took over as lessee, succeeded on his death in 1850 by his lover and the theatres leading lady, Eliza Vincent, until her death in 1856. Under their management, the theatre remained devoted to melodrama, in 1867, Joseph Arnold Cave took over as lessee. In 1871 he transferred the lease to Romaine Delatorre, who raised funds for the theatre to be rebuilt in the style of the Alhambra Music Hall, jethro Thomas Robinson was engaged as the architect. In September 1871 the old theatre closed, and the new building opened as the Royal Victoria Palace in December of the same year, by 1873, Cave had left and Delatorres venture failed. The penny lectures given in the led to the foundation of Morley College, an adult education college
Risk tolerance is a crucial factor in personal financial decision making. Risk tolerance is defined as individuals willingness to engage in a financial activity whose outcome is uncertain, Behavioral economics is primarily concerned with the bounds of rationality of economic agents. Behavioral models typically integrate insights from psychology and microeconomic theory, in so doing, these behavioral models cover a range of concepts, the study of behavioral economics includes how market decisions are made and the mechanisms that drive public choice. The use of the term behavioral economics in U. S. scholarly papers has increased in the past few years, there are three prevalent themes in behavioral finances, People often make decisions based on approximate rules of thumb and not strict logic. Framing, The collection of anecdotes and stereotypes that make up the mental emotional filters individuals rely on to understand and respond to events, Market inefficiencies, These include mis-pricings and non-rational decision making.
During the classical period of economics, microeconomics was closely linked to psychology and they developed the concept of homo economicus, whose psychology was fundamentally rational. However, many important neo-classical economists employed more sophisticated psychological explanations, including Francis Edgeworth, Vilfredo Pareto, Economic psychology emerged in the 20th century in the works of Gabriel Tarde, George Katona, and Laszlo Garai. Expected utility and discounted utility models began to gain acceptance, generating testable hypotheses about decision-making given uncertainty and intertemporal consumption, in the 1960s cognitive psychology began to shed more light on the brain as an information processing device. In mathematical psychology, there is a longstanding interest in the transitivity of preference, prospect theory has two stages, an editing stage and an evaluation stage. In the editing stage, risky situations are simplified using various heuristics of choice, outcomes are compared to the reference point and classified as gains if greater than the reference point and losses if less than the reference point.
Loss aversion, Losses bite more than equivalent gains, in their 1979 paper published in Econometrica and Tversky found the median coefficient of loss aversion to be about 2.25, i. e. losses bite about 2.25 times more than equivalent gains. Prospect theory is able to explain everything that the two main existing decision theories—expected utility theory and rank dependent utility theory—can explain, prospect theory has been used to explain a range of phenomena that existing decision theories have great difficulty in explaining. These include backward bending labor supply curves, asymmetric price elasticities, tax evasion, co-movement of stock prices and consumption, in 1992, in the Journal of Risk and Uncertainty and Tversky gave their revised account of prospect theory that they called cumulative prospect theory. The new theory eliminated the editing phase in prospect theory and focused just on the evaluation phase and its main feature was that it allowed for non-linear probability weighting in a cumulative manner, which was originally suggested in John Quiggins rank dependent utility theory.
Psychological traits such as overconfidence, projection bias, and the effects of limited attention are now part of the theory, Behavioral economics has been applied to intertemporal choice. Intertemporal choice is defined as making a decision and having the effects of such decision happening in a different time, hyperbolic discounting describes the tendency to discount outcomes in the near future more than for outcomes in the far future. Other branches of behavioral economics enrich the model of the utility function without implying inconsistency in preferences, ernst Fehr, Armin Falk, and Matthew Rabin studied fairness, inequity aversion, and reciprocal altruism, weakening the neoclassical assumption of perfect selfishness. This work is particularly applicable to wage setting, Behavioral economics caught on among the general public with the success of books such as Dan Arielys Predictably Irrational
In economics, a commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs. Economic commodities comprise goods and services, the word commodity came into use in English in the 15th century, from the French commodité, convenience. Going further back, the French word derives from the Latin commoditas, meaning suitability, the Latin word commodus meant variously appropriate, proper measure, time, or condition, and advantage, benefit. The term commodity is specifically used for a good or service when the demand for it has no qualitative differentiation across a market. In other words, a commodity good or service has full or partial but substantial fungibility, that is, the market treats its instances as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them. As the saying goes, From the taste of wheat, it is not possible to tell who produced it, a Russian serf and copper are other examples of such commodities, their supply and demand being a part of one universal market. Items such as systems, on the other hand, have many aspects of product differentiation, such as the brand, the user interface.
The demand for one type of stereo may be larger than demand for another. In contrast, one of the characteristics of a commodity good is that its price is determined as a function of its market as a whole, well-established physical commodities have actively traded spot and derivative markets. Generally, these are basic resources and agricultural products such as ore, sugar. Soft commodities are goods that are grown, while hard commodities are ones that are extracted through mining, there is another important class of energy commodities which includes electricity, gas and oil. Electricity has the characteristic that it is usually uneconomical to store, hence. Commoditization occurs as a goods or services market loses differentiation across its supply base, as such, goods that formerly carried premium margins for market participants have become commodities, such as generic pharmaceuticals and DRAM chips. Following this trend, nanomaterials are emerging from carrying premium profit margins for market participants to a status of commodification, there is a spectrum of commoditization, rather than a binary distinction of commodity versus differentiable product.
Many products degree of commoditization depends on the mentality and means. For example, milk and notebook paper are not differentiated by many customers, for them, other customers take into consideration other factors besides price, such as environmental sustainability and animal welfare. This is a list of companies trading globally in commodities, descending by size as of October 28,2011, on a commodity exchange, it is the underlying standard stated in the contract that defines the commodity, not any quality inherent in a specific producers product. Commodities exchanges include, Bourse Africa Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Chicago Board of Trade Chicago Mercantile Exchange Dalian Commodity Exchange Euronext and these markets will quickly respond to changes in supply and demand to find an equilibrium price and quantity
Colin Clark (economist)
Colin Grant Clark was a British and Australian economist and statistician who worked in both the United Kingdom and Australia. He pioneered the use of the national product as the basis for studying national economies. Colin Clark was born in London in 1905 and was educated at the Dragon School in Oxford and he studied at Winchester College, at Brasenose College, Oxford where he graduated in Chemistry in 1928. After graduation he worked as an assistant with William Beveridge at the London School of Economics and with Sir Alexander Carr-Saunders. During this time he ran unsuccessful campaigns to be elected to parliament for the British Labour Party in the seat of North Dorset, in 1930 he was appointed a research assistant to the Economic Advisory Council newly convened by Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. He resigned shortly after his appointment, after being asked to write a memorandum to make a case for protectionism. Despite this, he had sufficiently impressed one of the members to secure an appointment as a lecturer in statistics at Cambridge University.
He was a lecturer in Statistics in Cambridge from 1931 to 1938 where he completed three books, The National Income 1924–31, The Economic Position of Great Britain and National Income and Outlay. During a visit to Australia and New Zealand in 1937 and 1938 he accepted a position with the Queensland Government at the invitation of the premier Forgan Smith, at the time he wrote to Keynes about his decision to stay in Australia. He held the position of Deputy Director of the Commonwealth Department of War Organisation of Industry from 1942 to 1946, Clark resigned as Government Statistician on 28 February 1947 to become Under Secretary of the Queensland Department of Labour and Industry. Unusually for a servant he continued his academic work, publishing numerous articles in Economics. He was on the Council of the Econometric Society from 1948 to 1952, Clark married Marjorie Tattersall in 1931, and they had 8 sons and 1 daughter who in turned produced a total of 40 grandchildren. His son Gregory became an author and academic in Japan, Clark died in Brisbane, Australia in 1989.
He is buried together with his wife Marjorie at the Mount Gravatt Cemetery in Brisbane, in 1984 he was named by the World Bank as one of the pioneers of development along with Sir Arthur Lewis, Gunnar Myrdal, W. W. In 1987 Clark was together with Professor Trevor Swan the first recipient of the Distinguished Fellow awards, corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. Distinguished Fellow Award, The Economic Society of Australia, HonDEcon Tilburg University, DLitt Oxford University, HonDSc University of Milan, Hon DEcon, Monash University, HonDEcon University of Queensland. The Australasian Meeting of the Econometric Society has a Colin Clark Lecture at its meetings, a building at the University of Queensland is named for him, and it is reputed that a stone grotesque in the Universitys Great Court was made in his likeness. A System of Equations Explaining the United States Trade Cycle,1921 to 1941, Vol.17, the Economic Functions of a City in Relation to Its Size, Vol.13, No
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in gross domestic product, or real GDP. Growth is usually calculated in real terms – i. e. inflation-adjusted terms – to eliminate the effect of inflation on the price of goods produced. Measurement of economic growth uses national income accounting, since economic growth is measured as the annual percent change of gross domestic product, it has all the advantages and drawbacks of that measure. The rate of economic growth refers to the annual rate of growth in GDP between the first and the last year over a period of time. Implicitly, this rate is the trend in the average level of GDP over the period. An increase in economic growth caused by efficient use of inputs is referred to as intensive growth. GDP growth caused only by increases in the amount of available for use is called extensive growth. The economic growth rate is calculated from data on GDP estimated by countries´statistical agencies, the rate of growth of GDP/capita is calculated from data on GDP and people for the initial and final periods included in the analysis.
The rate of change of GDP/population is the sum of the rates of change of four variables plus their cross products. Increases in labor productivity have historically been the most important source of real per capita economic growth, increases in productivity lower the real cost of goods. Over the 20th century the price of many goods fell by over 90%. Economic growth has traditionally been attributed to the accumulation of human and physical capital, the rapid economic growth that occurred during the Industrial Revolution was remarkable because it was in excess of population growth, providing an escape from the Malthusian trap. Countries that industrialized eventually saw their population growth slow down, a known as the demographic transition. Increases in productivity are the factor responsible for per capita economic growth – this has been especially evident since the mid-19th century. Most of the growth in the 20th century was due to increased output per unit of labor, energy. The balance of the growth in output has come from using more inputs, both of these changes increase output.
The increased output included more of the goods produced previously and new goods
Illich was born in Vienna to a Croatian Catholic father, engineer Ivan Peter Illich, and a Sephardic Jewish mother, Ellen née Regenstreif-Ortlieb. His maternal grandmother was from Texas, Illich had Italian, Spanish and German as native languages. He learned Croatian, the language of his grandfathers, Ancient Greek and Latin, in addition to Portuguese, Hindi and other languages. He studied histology and crystallography at the University of Florence as well as theology and philosophy at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome and he wrote a dissertation focusing on the historian Arnold J. Toynbee and would return to that subject in his years. It was in Puerto Rico that Illich met Everett Reimer and the two began to analyze their own functions as educational leaders, in 1959, he traveled throughout South America on foot and by bus. His real intent was to document the participation of the Vatican in the development of the so-called Third World. Illich looked askance at the liberal pity or conservative imperiousness that motivated the rising tide of global industrial development and he viewed such emissaries as a form of industrial hegemony and, as such, an act of war on subsistence.
He sought to teach missionaries dispatched by the Church not to impose their own cultural values, throughout the late ’60s and early ’70s, CIDOC was part language school and part free university for intellectual hippies from all over the Americas. After ten years, critical analysis from the CIDOC of the actions by the Church brought the organization into conflict with the Vatican. Unpopular with the chapter of Opus Dei, Illich was called to Rome for questioning. Several of the members subsequently continued language schools in Cuernavaca, of some still exist. Illich himself resigned from the priesthood in the late 1960s. In the 1970s, Illich was popular among leftist intellectuals in France, his influence declined after the 1981 election of François Mitterrand as Illich was considered too pessimistic at a time when the French Left took control of the government. In the 1980s and beyond, Illich traveled extensively, mainly splitting his time between the United States and Germany and he held an appointment as a Visiting Professor of Philosophy, Science and Society at Penn State.
He taught at the University of Bremen and University of Hagen, during his last days of his life he admitted that he was greatly influenced by one of the Indian economists and adviser to M. K. Gandhi, J. C. Kumarappa, most notably, his book, the book that brought Ivan Illich to public attention was Deschooling Society, a radical critical discourse on education as practised in modern economies. It would be no more if it were attempted by means of alternative institutions built on the style of present schools. We hope to contribute concepts needed by those who conduct such research on education--and to those who seek alternatives to other established service industries
These resources are the total capacity of the people that represents a form of wealth which can be directed to accomplish the goals of the nation or state or a portion thereof. Human capital has been and continues to be criticized in numerous ways, Michael Spence offers signaling theory as an alternative to human capital. Pierre Bourdieu offers a nuanced conceptual alternative to capital that includes cultural capital, social capital, economic capital. These critiques, and other debates, suggest that human capital is a reified concept without sufficient explanatory power and it was assumed in early economic theories, reflecting the context, i. e. Just as land became recognized as natural capital and an asset in itself, in modern technical financial analysis, the term balanced growth refers to the goal of equal growth of both aggregate human capabilities and physical assets that produce goods and services. Accordingly, much attention was paid to factors that led to success versus failure where human management was concerned.
The role of leadership, even celebrity was explored, most theories attempt to break down human capital into one or more components for analysis – usually called intangibles. In general these analyses acknowledge that individual trained bodies, teachable ideas or skills, Management accounting is often concerned with questions of how to model human beings as a capital asset. However it is broken down or defined, human capital is vitally important for a success, human capital increases through education. In 2010, the OECD encouraged the governments of advanced economies to embrace policies to increase innovation and knowledge in products, studies of structural unemployment have increasingly focused on a mismatch between the stock of job-specific human capital and the needs of employers. In other words, there is increasingly a recognition that human capital may be specific to particular jobs or tasks and not general, recent work has attempted to improve the linkages between education and the needs of the labor market by linking labor market data to education loan pricing.
Adam Smith defined four types of fixed capital, Smith defined human capital as follows, “Fourthly, of the acquired and useful abilities of all the inhabitants or members of the society. Those talents, as make a part of his fortune. There is a relationship between the division of labor and human capital. Arthur Lewis is said to have begun the field of development economics, so soon as this is recognised, the distinction between economy in consumption and economy in investment becomes blurred. For, up to a point, consumption is investment in personal productive capacity and this is especially important in connection with children, to reduce unduly expenditure on their consumption may greatly lower their efficiency in after-life. Then Theodore Schultz who is contributed to the development of the subject matter, the best-known application of the idea of human capital in economics is that of Mincer and Gary Becker of the Chicago School of economics. Beckers book entitled Human Capital, published in 1964, became a reference for many years
Christopher Kit Lasch was an American historian and social critic who was a history professor at the University of Rochester. The Culture of Narcissism became a surprise best-seller and won the National Book Award in the category Current Interest, Lasch was always a critic of liberalism, and a historian of liberalisms discontents, but over time his political perspective evolved dramatically. In the 1960s, he was a neo-Marxist and acerbic critic of Cold War liberalism and his writings during this period led him to be denounced by feminists and hailed by conservatives for his apparent defense of the traditional family. He eventually concluded that an unspoken but pervasive faith in Progress tended to make Americans resistant to many of his arguments. Christopher Lasch came from a political family rooted in the left. His father, Robert Lasch, was a Rhodes Scholar and journalist, zora Lasch, his mother, who held a philosophy doctorate, worked as a social worker and teacher. Lasch was active in the arts and letters early, publishing a newspaper while in grade school.
Lasch studied at Harvard, where he roomed with John Updike, and Columbia, Richard Hofstadter was a significant influence. He contributed a Foreword to editions of Hofstadters The American Political Tradition and he taught at the University of Iowa and was a professor of history at the University of Rochester from 1970 until his death from cancer in 1994. Lasch took a public role. Russell Jacoby acknowledged this in writing that I do not think any other historian of his generation moved as forcefully into the public arena, in 1986 he appeared on Channel 4 television in discussion with Michael Ignatieff and Cornelius Castoriadis. Lasch became further influenced by writers of the Frankfurt School and the early New Left Review, besides Leuchtenburg and Freud, Lasch was especially influenced by Orestes Brownson, Henry George, Lewis Mumford, Jacques Ellul, Reinhold Niebuhr, and Philip Rieff. The patriarch, though he might still preside in splendor at the head of his board, had come to resemble an emissary from a government which had been silently overthrown.
The mere theoretical recognition of his authority by his family could not alter the fact that the government which was the source of all his powers had ceased to exist. He claimed, that this personality type conformed to structural changes in the world of work, with those developments, he charged, inevitably there arose a certain therapeutic sensibility that, inadvertently or not, undermined older notions of self-help and individual initiative. By the 1970s even pleas for individualism were desperate and essentially ineffectual cries which expressed a lack of meaningful individuality. Most explicitly in The True and Only Heaven, Lasch developed a critique of social change among the classes in the U. S. explaining and seeking to counteract the fall of elements of populism. He sought to rehabilitate this populist or producerist alternative tradition, The tradition I am talking about, tends to be skeptical of programs for the wholesale redemption of society
In addition to describing a particular form of urbanization, the term relates to the social and environmental consequences associated with this development. In Continental Europe the term peri-urbanisation is often used to denote similar dynamics and phenomena, There is widespread disagreement about what constitutes sprawl and how to quantify it. For example, some commentators measure sprawl only with the number of residential units per acre in a given area. But others associate it with decentralization, segregation of uses, the term urban sprawl is highly politicized, and almost always has negative connotations. It is criticized for causing environmental degradation, and intensifying segregation and undermining the vitality of existing urban areas, due to the pejorative meaning of the term, few openly support urban sprawl as such. The term has become a cry for managing urban growth. Definitions of sprawl vary, researchers in the field acknowledge that the term lacks precision and he argued that a better way to identify sprawl was to use indicators rather than characteristics because this was a more flexible and less arbitrary method.
He proposed using accessibility and functional space as indicators. Ewings approach has been criticized for assuming that sprawl is defined by negative characteristics, what constitutes sprawl may be considered a matter of degree and will always be somewhat subjective under many definitions of the term. The following characteristics are associated with sprawl, This refers to a situation where commercial, residential and industrial areas are separated from one another. Consequently, large tracts of land are devoted to a use and are segregated from one another by open space, infrastructure. The degree to which different land uses are mixed together is used as an indicator of sprawl in studies of the subject. Job sprawl is another land use symptom of urban sprawl and car-dependent communities, spatial mismatch is related to job sprawl and economic environmental justice. Job sprawl has been documented and measured in various ways and it has been shown to be a growing trend in Americas metropolitan areas.
The Brookings Institution has published articles on the topic. In 2005, author Michael Stoll defined job sprawl simply as jobs located more than 5-mile radius from the CBD, and measured the concept based on year 2000 U. S. Census data. These two authors used three geographic rings limited to a 35-mile radius around the CBD,3 miles or less,3 to 10 miles and this compares to the year 1998 -23. 3%,34. 2%, and 42. 5% in those respective rings. The study shows CBD employment share shrinking, and job growth focused in the suburban and exurban outer metropolitan rings, Sprawl is often characterized as consisting of low-density development