click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Post-occupation Japan

Post-occupation Japan is the period in Japanese history which started after the Allied occupation of Japan that ended in 1952. In that time, Japan has established itself as a global political power; the American-written post-war constitution was enacted on November 3, 1946 and became effective May 3, 1947. It included Article 9 clause, which restricted Japan from having a military force and engaging in war. Over the years, the meaning of article 9 has been interpreted differently, because the United States now encourages Japan to control its own security; the Liberal Democratic Party would like to see the Article 9 amended. The Allied occupation ended on April 28, 1952, when the terms of the Treaty of San Francisco went into effect. By the terms of the treaty, Japan regained its sovereignty, but lost many of its possessions from before World War II, including Korea and Sakhalin, it lost control over a number of small islands in the Pacific which it administered as League of Nations Mandates, such as the Marianas and the Marshalls.

The new treaty gave Japan the freedom to engage in international defense blocs. Japan did this on the same day it signed the San Francisco Treaty: Japanese Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida and U. S. President Harry S. Truman signed a document that allowed the United States Armed Forces to continue their use of bases in Japan. Before Japan regained full sovereignty, the government had rehabilitated nearly 80,000 people, purged, many of whom returned to their former political and government positions. A debate over limitations on military spending and the sovereignty of the emperor ensued, contributing to the great reduction in the Liberal Party's majority in the first postoccupation elections. After several reorganizations of the armed forces, in 1954 the Self-Defense Forces were established under a civilian director. Cold War realities and the hot war in nearby Korea contributed to the United States-influenced economic redevelopment, the suppression of communism, the discouragement of organized labor in Japan during this period.

Continual fragmentation of parties and a succession of minority governments led conservative forces to merge the Liberal Party with the Japan Democratic Party, an offshoot of the earlier Democratic Party, to form the Liberal Democratic Party in November 1955. This party continuously held power from 1955 through 1993, when it was replaced by a new minority government. LDP leadership was drawn from the elite who had seen Japan through the occupation. In October 1955, socialist groups reunited under the Japan Socialist Party, which emerged as the second most powerful political force, it was followed in popularity by the Kōmeitō, founded in 1964 as the political arm of the Soka Gakkai, a lay former organization of the Buddhist sect Nichiren Shoshu. The Komeito emphasized traditional Japanese beliefs and attracted urban laborers, former rural residents, many women. Like the Japan Socialist Party, it favored the gradual modification and dissolution of the Japan-United States Mutual Security Assistance Pact.

By the late 1970s, the Komeito and the Democratic Socialist Party had come to accept the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security, the Democratic Socialist Party came to support a small defense buildup. The Japan Socialist Party, was forced to abandon its once strict antimilitary stance; the United States kept up pressure on Japan to increase its defense spending above 1% of its GNP, engendering much debate in the Diet, with most opposition coming not from minority parties or public opinion but from budget-conscious officials in the Ministry of Finance. Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei was forced to resign in 1974 because of his alleged connection to financial scandals and, in the face of charges of involvement in the Lockheed bribery scandal, he was arrested and jailed in 1976; the fractious politics of the LDP hindered consensus in the Diet in the late 1970s. The sudden death of Prime Minister Ohira Masayoshi just before the June 1980 elections, brought out a sympathy vote for the party and gave the new prime minister, Suzuki Zenko, a working majority.

Suzuki was soon swept up in a controversy over the publication of a textbook that appeared to many as a whitewash of Japanese aggression in World War II. This incident, serious fiscal problems, caused the Suzuki cabinet, composed of numerous LDP factions, to fall. Nakasone Yasuhiro, a conservative backed by the still-powerful Tanaka and Suzuki factions who once served as director general of the Defense Agency, became prime minister in November 1982. In November 1984, Nakasone was chosen for a second term as LDP president, his cabinet received an unusually high rating, a 50% favorable response in polling during his first term, while opposition parties reached a new low in popular support. As he moved into his second term, Nakasone thus held a strong position in the nation. Despite being found guilty of bribery in 1983, Tanaka in the early-to-mid-1980s remained a power behind the scenes through his control of the party's informal apparatus, he continued as an influential adviser to the more internationally minded Nakasone.

The end of Nakasone's tenure as prime minister in October 1987 was a momentous point in modern Japanese history. Just fifteen months before Nakasone's retirement, the LDP unexpectedly had won its largest majority in the House of Representatives by securing 304 out of the 512 seats; the government was faced with growing crises. Land prices

Technion Faculty of Aerospace Engineering

The Technion Faculty of Aerospace Engineering is a division of the Technion that conduct research and teaches a wide range of aerospace disciplines. The faculty was founded in 1954; the early 1950s sought a need for a center of aeronautical research in Israel. In 1950, Sydney Goldstein accepted the chairmanship of the department of mathematics at Technion; the faculty was established in 1954 after Goldstein persuaded the President of the Technion, Yaakov Dori, Prime Minister David Ben Gurion. The department expanded and developed along with the development of the aerospace industry in Israel. After the Six-Day War, the faculty expanded and increased its research in airborne systems in affiliation with Rafael Advanced Defense Systems; the Aerospace Research Center consists of an Aerodynamics Laboratory, an Aerospace Structures Laboratory, a Combustion and Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, a Turbo and Jet Engine Laboratory, a Flight Control Laboratory, the Design for Manufacturing Laboratory. Asher Space Research Institute Technion – Israel Institute of Technology Faculty's WebsiteTechnion Faculty of Aerospace Engineering on Facebook

Katy Moran

Katy Moran is an English contemporary artist whose work is in the collection of the Arts Council and the Government Art Collection. Moran is represented by the Andrea Rosen Gallery. Moran's first solo exhibition was for Stuart Shave/Modern Art, in London, 2006, she has exhibited at Andrea Rosen Gallery, Wexner Center for the Arts, the Walker Art Center. Her latest is at the Parasol Unit, 2015. Moran is from Manchester with her parents being art teachers, she graduated from Leeds Metropolitan University in 1998 with a BA Hons degree in Graphic Art. She received an MA in painting from the Royal College of Art in 2005. 2019: I want to live in the afternoon of that day, Sperone Westwater, New York, NY, USA 2017: Modern Art, London 2015: Katy Moran, Parasol unit foundation for contemporary art, London, UK. 2010: Six Solos, Katy Moran, Wexner Center for the Arts, Columbus, OH, USA. 2009: Contemporary Fine and Applied Arts: 1928-2009, Tate St Ives, St Ives, UK. 2008: Katy Moran: Paintings, Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art, UK.

2006: Stuart Shave/Modern Art, London, UK. 2018: Summer Exhibition, Modern Art, London. A selection by Jennifer Higgie from The Arts Council Collection, Leeds Art Gallery, Leeds. Works from the Mario Testino Collection, Pinacoteca Gianni e Marella, Turin, Italy 2013: A Personal Choice, by Bruna Aickelin, Galleria II Capricorno, Italy. 2012: The Far and the Near: Replaying Art in St Ives, Tate St Ives, St Ives, UK. 2011: Le Magasin-CNAC, France. 2010: Tasters' Choice, Stephen Friedman, London, UK. 2009: Visible Invisible: Against the Security of the Real, Parasol unit foundation for contemporary art, London, UK. 2008: Art Now: Strange Solution, Tate Britain, London, UK. 2007: Dining Room Show, Andrea Rosen Gallery, New York, NY, USA. 2006: A Broken Arm, 303 Gallery, New York, NY, USA. 2005: Art Futures, Bloomberg Space, London, UK. Arts Council Collection, London David Roberts Art Foundation, London Government Art Collection, London Pinault Collection, Italy Royal College of Art, London Rubell Family Collection, Miami, FL, USA Sammlung Goetz, Germany San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, CA, USA Tate, London Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA Zabludowicz Collection, London Katy Moran at Modern Art.

Katy Moran talking about her method. 5 paintings by or after Katy Moran at the Art UK site Katy Moran at The Independent

Sataniv Synagogue

The Synagogue in Sataniv, a town in Khmelnytskyi Oblast in Ukraine was built in 1514, which makes it the oldest existing synagogue in Ukraine. Most sources state 1532 as the year of construction, but structural and stylistic features of the building, as well as a comparison with the nearby monastery, support the evidence that the synagogue was built at the beginning of the 17th century. This is further supported by chemical analysis of the mortar made in 1992, which showed that it is similar to the mortars of the mid-17th and early 18th century. In 1933 the synagogue was converted into a warehouse. In years it stood empty and deteriorated, but in 2012 restoration work started and by now it is completed. The synagogue, which had walls up to 2m thick, was a fortress synagogue, it was built in the style of the Polish renaissance. The main hall was the men's prayer hall. Annexes to the west and south served as prayer-rooms for the women. Worth mentioning are the lithic Holy Ark with fine ornaments as well as the main entrance, surmounted by a plaster frame.

Inside the frame, there is a heraldic composition. List of synagogues in Ukraine

Tales from the Empire

Tales from the Empire is an anthology of short stories set in the fictional Star Wars universe. The book is edited by Peter Schweighofer; the centerpoint of the anthology is a short novel by Timothy Zahn and Michael A. Stackpole entitled "Side Trip"; the short novel centers on Captain Haber Trell and Maranne Darmic. It features such prominent characters as Grand Admiral Thrawn and Corran Horn, Zekka Thyne, Kirtan Loor. "First Contact" by Timothy Zahn "Tinian on Trial" by Kathy Tyers "The Final Exit" by Patricia A. Jackson "Missed Chance" by Michael A. Stackpole "Retreat From Coruscant" by Laurie Burns "A Certain Point of View" by Charlene Newcomb "Blaze of Glory" by Tony Russo "Slaying Dragons" by Angela Phillips "Do No Harm" by Erin Endom "Side Trip" by Timothy Zahn and Michael A. Stackpole Official CargoBay Listing

Richard Colley (cricketer)

Richard Henry Colley was an English first-class cricketer and British Army officer. The son of Thomas Colley, he was born at Westminster in January 1833, he studied at Christ Church, Oxford. While studying at Oxford, he played first-class cricket for Oxford University, he made his debut against Cambridge University in The University Match of 1853, with Colley playing first-class cricket for Oxford until 1855, making a total of seven appearances. He scored a total of 166 runs in these matches, at an average of 13.83 and a high score of 68. After gradauting from Oxford, Colley served in the 1st Volunteer Battalion, Shropshire Light Infantry, enlisting as an ensign in May 1867, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in March 1871, with promotion to the rank of captain in August 1872. He was granted the honorary rank of major in May 1886, before retiring from active service in December 1892. Colley served as a justice of the peace, he was married to Mary Emily Pass, with the couple marrying in 1869, with the marriage producing a daughter.

Colley died at Bridgnorth in July 1902. Richard Colley at ESPNcricinfo