Post-structuralism is either a continuation or a rejection of the intellectual project that preceded it—structuralism. Structuralism proposes that one may understand human culture by means of a structure—modeled on language —that differs from concrete reality and from abstract ideas—a "third order" that mediates between the two. Post-structuralist authors all present different critiques of structuralism, but common themes include the rejection of the self-sufficiency of structuralism, an interrogation of the binary oppositions that constitute its structures. Writers whose works are characterised as post-structuralist include: Roland Barthes, Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Judith Butler, Jean Baudrillard, Julia Kristeva, Jürgen Habermas, although many theorists who have been called "post-structuralist" have rejected the label. Structuralism was an intellectual movement in France in the 1950s and 1960s that studied the underlying structures in cultural products and used analytical concepts from linguistics, psychology and other fields to interpret those structures.
Structuralism posits the concept of binary opposition, in which used pairs of opposite but related words are arranged in a hierarchy, for example: Enlightenment/Romantic, male/female, speech/writing, rational/emotional, signified/signifier, symbolic/imaginary. Post-structuralism rejects the structuralist notion that the dominant word in a pair is dependent on its subservient counterpart and instead argues that founding knowledge either on pure experience or systematic structures is impossible because history and culture condition the study of underlying structures and these are subject to biases and misinterpretations; this impossibility was not meant as a failure or loss, but rather as a cause for "celebration and liberation". A post-structuralist approach argues that to understand an object, it is necessary to study both the object itself and the systems of knowledge that produced the object; the uncertain distance between structuralism and post-structuralism is further blurred by the fact that scholars label themselves as post-structuralists.
Some scholars associated with structuralism, such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault became noteworthy in post-structuralism. Some observers from outside the post-structuralist camp have questioned the rigour and legitimacy of the field. American philosopher John Searle argued in 1990 that "The spread of'poststructuralist' literary theory is the best-known example of a silly but non-catastrophic phenomenon." Physicist Alan Sokal in 1997 criticized "the postmodernist/poststructuralist gibberish, now hegemonic in some sectors of the American academy." Literature scholar Norman Holland argued that post-structuralism was flawed due to reliance on Saussure's linguistic model, challenged by the 1950s and was soon abandoned by linguists: "Saussure's views are not held, so far as I know, by modern linguists, only by literary critics and the occasional philosopher. Has elicited wrong film and literary theory on a grand scale. One can find dozens of books of literary theory bogged down in signifiers and signifieds, but only a handful that refers to Chomsky."David Foster Wallace wrote: The deconstructionists...
See the debate over the ownership of meaning as a skirmish in a larger war in Western philosophy over the idea that presence and unity are ontologically prior to expression. There’s been this longstanding deluded presumption, they think, that if there is an utterance there must exist a unified, efficacious presence that causes and owns that utterance; the poststructuralists attack what they see as a post-Platonic prejudice in favour of presence over absence and speech over writing. We tend to trust speech over writing because of the immediacy of the speaker: he's right there, we can grab him by the lapels and look into his face and figure out just what one single thing he means, but the reason why poststructuralists are in the literary theory business at all is that they see writing, not speech, as more faithful to the metaphysics of true expression. For Barthes and Foucault, writing is a better animal than speech because it is iterable. For a deconstructionist a writer's circumstances and intentions are indeed a part of the "context" of a text, but context imposes no real cinctures on the text's meaning because meaning in language requires cultivation of absence rather than presence, involves not the imposition but the erasure of consciousness.
This is so because these guys–Derrida following Heidegger and Barthes Mallarme and Foucault God knows who–see literary language as not a tool but an environment. A writer does not wield language. Language speaks us. Post-structuralism emerged in France during the 1960s as a movement critiquing structuralism. According to J. G. Merquior a love–hate relationship with structuralism developed among many leading French thinkers in the 1960s. In a 1966 lecture "Structure and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences", Jacques Derrida presented a thesis on an apparent rupture in intellectual life. Derrida interpreted this event as a "decentering" of the former intellectual cosmos. Instead of progress or divergence from an identi
Yola, meaning'Great Plain' or'Vast Plain Land', is the capital city and administrative center of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Located on the Benue River, it has a population of 336,648. Yola is split into two parts; the old town of Yola where the Lamido resides is the traditional city but the new city of Jimeta is the administrative and commercial centre. The term Yola is now used to mean both. To the north are the Mandara Mountains and the south are the Shebshi Mountains with Dimlang Peak the second highest point in Nigeria after Chappal Waddi. Yola is an access point to the Gashaka Gumpti Nature Reserve, the largest national park in Nigeria, the Ngel Nyaki montane forest reserve, the Mambilla Plateau, The Sukur UNESCO World heritage site, Africa's first cultural landscape to receive World Heritage List inscription, The Yadin Waterfalls, The Kiri Dam on the Gongola River, The Benue national park in nearby Cameroon, The Waza National Park, Cameroonian town of Garoua, which lies across the border, on the Benue river.
Established in 1841, Yola is a municipality that sprawls across the hillside of this North-Eastern region of Nigeria. It was the capital of a Fulani state until it was taken over by the British in 1901. Today, it is the capital of Adamawa State, formed in 1991 from part of Gongola State. Modibbo Adama, a local chief of the Fulani, founded Yola in 1841. During the Islamic movement led by Shehu Usman Dan Fodio in the early 19th Century, Modibbo Adama was recognised as a learned Muslim who could lead the people in the Upper Benue area. Modibbo is the Fulani word for "Professor"; the first European to visit the area was Heinrich Barth in 1851, shortly after Yola was founded. He traveled by the Sahara route, coming through Kukawa near Lake Chad, which at the time was the capital of the Borno Empire. Yola has the first airport in Nigeria as well as first town to have electricity; the nearby town of Jimeta has a market, zoo, an airport with direct flights to Saudi Arabia, NiPost and NiTel offices as well as the main mosque and cathedral.
Being a state capital, it is a major transport hub with buses and taxis heading north to Mubi and Maiduguri, west to Numan, Gombe and Bauchi and south to Makurdi and Katsina Ala. Taxis are available to Garoua in Cameroon. There is an airport with regular flights to Lagos; the town is home to various institutions of learning, such as the: American University of Nigeria- AUN, Adamawa State Polytechnic, The Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola known as Federal University of Technology, located about 10 km north of the city on the road to Mubi, The Federal Government Girls College, Yola, AUN Academy, Aliyu Mustapha Academy, Chiroma Ahmad Academy, Ahmadu Ribadu College, MAUTECH university secondary school, Concordia College. Yola houses one of the six campuses of the Nigerian Law school located beside the American University of Nigeria and many other educational institutions. Adamawa has one of the best depots in Nigeria, located about 5 km west on the road to Numan. Tourist sites include: the Three sister hills in Song Local Government Area, which are three scenic rock formations standing side by side at different height with the middle one as the big sister, The former Njuwa lake fishing festival site, now dried and developed into residential area, The Lamido's Palace and the Annual horse-riding durbar.
Although a Fulbe settlement, the town is now home to all of Nigeria's ethnic groups, as well as people from the neighboring republic of Cameroon. Ahmadu Ribadu College
Alice Mamaga Akosua Amoako is a Ghanaian social entrepreneur and the founder of Autism Ambassadors of Ghana, an organization that brings together volunteers to develop Autism awareness and support children living with Autism. In 2014, Alice together with Solomon Avemegah developed the Autism Aid App, the first Autism android application in West Africa that enhances social inclusion for children with Autism; the mobile application provides communication learning tools for the children and serve as a helpline system that provides healthcare for the kids. At age 13, Alice's mother encouraged her to join a youth radio program named "Curious Minds" to improve her knowledge and contribution to developmental projects in her community. Alice attended Ghana Telecom University college where she received her Bachelor of Information Technology in 2015. Alice is a member of the national committee of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability, she was part of the panel in 2016 at the World Youth Summit of Girls Guide.
In 2016, Alice was Ghana's representative at the Global Social Hackathon held in Sweden. In 2014, Alice together with Solomon Avemegah emerged winners of the Digital Change-makers competition, she was awarded as one of the three winners of the 2019 Startupper of the year by Total Ghana. While in 2018, she was named the national and continental winner of the mYouth challenge by the European Union, Mediainfo and iSpace foundation. Alice won the 2017 Coca-Cola Young Achievers award