Lorser Feitelson was born in Savannah, but was raised in New York City, where his family relocated shortly after his birth. Feiltelson rose to prominence on the West Coast as one of the founding fathers of Southern California-based Hard Edge painting. Lorser Feitelson, along with his peers Karl Benjamin, Frederick Hammersley and John McLaughlin, was featured in the landmark 1959 exhibition Four Abstract Classicists at the San Francisco Museum of Art and traveled to Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Curated by Los Angeles-based critic and curator Jules Langsner, the exhibition introduced the general public to the dazzling visual language created by a revolutionary group of painters. A revised version of this exhibition re-titled West Coast Hard Edge was presented in London at the Institute of Contemporary Arts and in Belfast, Northern Ireland at Queens Court; the painting "Magical Space Forms" from 1951, reproduced below, was included in this exhibition. Feitelson, along with his wife Helen Lundeberg and the aforementioned artists, pioneered a movement, celebrated by the Orange County Museum's nationally toured exhibition Birth of the Cool: California Art and Culture at Midcentury.
Additionally, contemporary art writer and scholar Dave Hickey, in his 2004 exhibition at the Otis College of Art and Design, christened Feitelson and the other Hard Edge painters as The Los Angeles School. These artists made profound contributions to the development of American abstract painting. According to Hickey: “The New York School painters would create their idiom by internalizing abstraction, psychologizing it in the manner of Freud and Jung; the California painters take the opposite route by radically externalizing the surrealism of experience in the West. Their presumption, that surreality, visual anxiety and splendor have their roots in the physical and social world rather than the autonomous self, set art on the West Coast free from the rigor of concept and the regime of the personal that dominated American art in that moment. In the broader sense, this externalized vision granted artists the privilege of their sanity in a manic, narcissistic cultural moment and, in doing so, created the conditions out of which the language of art in Southern California art would evolve in the late twentieth century.”
Feitelson was home-schooled in drawing by his art-loving father. As a child, he pored over the family's collection of international magazines and visited the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Though his sketchbooks from those early years reveal a firm foundation in Old Master style draftsmanship, Feitelson rethought his approach to drawing after viewing the legendary International Exhibition of Modern Art in 1913 at the Armory; the controversial work of Matisse and the Italian Futurists had a profound effect on the young artist. Feitelson began to produce a series of formally paintings. By 1916, the eighteen-year-old set up a studio in Greenwich Village and set out to establish himself as a painter. Like all serious Modernist painters of the time, Feitelson wanted to continue his study/practice in Europe, he made his first journey to Paris in 1919 and enrolled as an independent student in life drawing at the Académie Colorossi. While in Paris, he made numerous trips to Corsica and sketches from his time there formed the basis for works featuring peasants as subjects.
After numerous trips to Europe, before returning home to the States for good in 1927, Feitelson exhibited at Paris’ famous Salon d'Automne. In November, 1927, Feitelson moved to Los Angeles and by 1930 was working in the Post Surrealist style. According to Lundeberg, who authored the pair's mission statement in response to the European Surrealist movement, Feitelson “wanted the utilization of association, the unconscious, to make a rational use of these subjective elements. Nothing of automatism about it; the name he had for this idea at first was ‘New Classicism ‘ or ‘Subjective Classicism.’ As Jules Langsner suggested in his catalogue for Post Surrealists and Other Moderns in 1935 at the Stanley Rose Gallery in Los Angeles, post-surrealism “affirms all that Surrealism negates.”During this period, Feitelson was assigned, with Stanton Macdonald-Wright, to oversee the WPA murals project on the West Coast. Though few examples of Feitelson's design are extant, the large-scale narrative requirements of the mural format are in evidence in some of his larger Post-surrealist works.
Flight Over New York at Twilight and Eternal Recurrence are two powerful examples of Feitelson's technical acumen as well as his dynamic visual style. By the 1940s, Feitelson had developed the use of "Magical" forms. “In his Magical Forms, Feitelson began to paint more abstractly but retained the shallow space and modeling of his post surrealist work." These evolved into a more formalized visual language in the ‘Magical Space Forms’ series of the 1950s and 1960s and culminated in the elegant figurative minimalism of the ‘Ribbon’ paintings in the 1970s. Ankrum described him as a "brilliant, brilliant man," yet somewhat arrogant in personality and teaching style. Feitelson taught life drawing and history of art classes at what is now the Art Center College of Design, relocated to Pasadena, where he taught until his retirement in the late 1970s. Louis Stern Fine Arts in West Hollywood represents the estate of Lorser Feitelson on behalf of the Feitelson/Lundeberg Art Foundation. Stern presented Feitelson's first concise retrospective w
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects, developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself, its aim was to "resolve the contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality". Works of surrealism feature the element of unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe affecting the visual arts, literature and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice and social theory; the word'surrealism' was coined in March 1917 by Guillaume Apollinaire three years before Surrealism emerged as an art movement in Paris.
He wrote in a letter to Paul Dermée: "All things considered, I think in fact it is better to adopt surrealism than supernaturalism, which I first used". Apollinaire used the term in his program notes for Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, which premiered 18 May 1917. Parade was performed with music by Erik Satie. Cocteau described the ballet as "realistic". Apollinaire went further, describing Parade as "surrealistic": This new alliance—I say new, because until now scenery and costumes were linked only by factitious bonds—has given rise, in Parade, to a kind of surrealism, which I consider to be the point of departure for a whole series of manifestations of the New Spirit, making itself felt today and that will appeal to our best minds. We may expect it to bring about profound changes in our arts and manners through universal joyfulness, for it is only natural, after all, that they keep pace with scientific and industrial progress; the term was taken up again by Apollinaire, in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, written in 1903 and first performed in 1917.
World War I scattered the writers and artists, based in Paris, in the interim many became involved with Dada, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the conflict of the war upon the world. The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances and art works. After the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued. During the war, André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic methods with soldiers suffering from shell-shock. Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the spiritual son of writer and pataphysics founder Alfred Jarry, he admired the young writer's anti-social disdain for established artistic tradition. Breton wrote, "In literature, I was successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most."Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault.
They began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in the magazine. Breton and Soupault wrote The Magnetic Fields. Continuing to write, they came to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada form of attack on prevailing values; the group attracted additional members and grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, Yves Tanguy. As they developed their philosophy, they believed that Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic.
They looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse. Freud's work with free association, dream analysis, the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination, they embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness. As Salvador Dalí proclaimed, "There is only one difference between a madman and me. I am not mad."Beside the use of dream analysis, they emphasized that "one could combine inside the same frame, elements not found together to produce illogical and startling effects." Breton included the idea of the startling juxtapositions in his 1924 manifesto, taking it in turn from a 1918 essay by poet Pierre Reverdy, which said: "a juxtaposition of two more or less distant realities. The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be−the greater its emotional power and poetic reality."The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its
Helen Lundeberg was a Southern Californian painter. Along with her husband Lorser Feitelson, she is credited with establishing the Post-Surrealist movement, her artistic style changed over the course of her career, has been described variously as Post-Surrealism, Hard-edge painting, Subjective Classicism. Helen Lundeberg was born in Chicago in on June 24, 1908, the eldest child of second-generation Swedish parents. In 1912 her family moved to California; as a child, she was an avid reader. Her intellectual aptitude earned her inclusion in a Stanford University study for "brilliant children" in the Los Angeles area. During her early adulthood, Lundeberg's inclination was to become a writer. In 1930, Lundeberg graduated from Pasadena Junior College, she enrolled in art classes at the Stickney Memorial School of Art in Pasadena, where she met professor and fellow painter Lorser Feitelson. Feitelson's dynamic approach to composition and broad ranging interests in the international art scene inspired Lundeberg.
In conversation with Fidel Danieli, as part of the UCLA Oral History Project in 1974, Lundeberg explained, "When Lorser came and began to explain things, to make diagrams and to give us principles of different kinds of construction – light dawned! It was very exciting." In the 1930s, Lundeberg was working in both post-surrealist styles. She first exhibited at the Fine Arts Gallery in San Diego in 1931, when she showed her painting Apple Harvesters. In 1933 had her first solo show at the Stanley Rose Gallery in Los Angeles, she and Feitelson married that same year. Together in 1934, Feitelson and Lundeberg founded Subjective Classicism, which became known as Post Surrealism. Using her painting Plant and Animal Analogies as a case study and an ideal, Lundeberg wrote the New Classicism manifesto. Post Surrealism represented the first concentrated response in the US to European Surrealism. Unlike their European counterparts, American Post-Surrealist artists did not rely on random dream imagery. Instead planned subjects were used to guide the viewer through the painting revealing a deeper meaning.
This method of working appealed to Lundeberg's intellectual sensibilities and her engagement with surrealism is present, to varying degrees, in her work throughout the rest of her career. From 1936 to 1942, Lundeberg was employed by the Works Progress Administration's Federal Art Project, for which she produced lithographs, easel paintings, murals in the Los Angeles area. Working in oil paint and with a team of four assistants, Lundeberg completed a series of three murals, Preamble to the Constitution, Free Assembly, Free Ballot for the Bob Hope Patriotic Hall; these murals are now considered lost. Los Angeles mural painter Kent Twitchell created a new series of murals after the lost Lundeberg murals for the Bob Hope Patriotic Hall during the restoration of the building. In 1941, the WPA commissioned Lundeberg to paint a mural at the Fullerton City Hall. Lundeberg's mural, History of California, covered three walls of the city council chambers with scenes ranging from the arrival of Spanish explorers to the rise of Hollywood.
When the building was converted into police headquarters, the mural was painted over and remained covered until it was restored in 1993. Under the auspices of the WPA, Lundeberg completed the mural History of Transportation near the southern border of Edward Vincent, Jr. Park in Inglewood, California; this 8 foot high, 241 foot long, mural is made of petrachrome and depicts the history of the Centinela Valley. It includes images of people from all walks of life employing various means of transportation from carriages and steam trains to automobiles and airplanes. After decades of damage, the mural was restored in 2007 and relocated to its present location across from Inglewood High School; the preliminary drawings for this mural are part of the permanent collection of the Nevada Museum of Art. Lundeberg's work with the WPA in Southern California is noteworthy both because her works were well-received and because she was one of only three women artists in Southern California making public artwork for the WPA.
During the 1950s, Lundeberg moved towards geometric abstraction and Hard Edge painting and away from the representational sensibility that had informed her early work. Though always based in reality, Lundeberg created mysterious images that exist somewhere between abstraction and figuration. Described as formal and lyrical, Lundeberg's paintings rely on precise compositions that utilize various restricted palettes. Paintings from this period employ the idea of "mood entity", a concept in Post Surrealism, concerned with evoking states of mind and emotional content unique to each work. Lundeberg and Feitelson were part of a loose group of Post-Surrealists that included the artists Grace Clements, Philip Guston, Reuben Kadish, Harold Lehman, Lucien Labaudt, Knud Merrild, Etienne Ret. During this period, Lundeberg was one of the most prolific painters working in Southern California. In the 1960s and 1970s, Lundeberg continued her journey through abstraction, exploring imagery associated with landscapes, still life, planetary forms and intuitive compositions.
She revisited compositions or themes in various palettes. In the 1980s, Lundeberg created a series of paintings that deal with landscapes and architectural elements, her love of the 15th Century Italian Classicists is reflected in many of these works. Throughout her 60-year career, Lundeberg imbued her work with a strong personal vision and a nuanced palette, she created her last known work, the painting Two Mountains, in 1990
Wilshire Boulevard is one of the principal east-west arterial roads in the Los Angeles area of Southern California, extending 15.83 miles from Ocean Avenue in the city of Santa Monica east to Grand Avenue in the Financial District of downtown Los Angeles. It is one of the major city streets though the city of Beverly Hills. Wilshire Boulevard runs parallel with Santa Monica Boulevard from Santa Monica to the Miracle Mile district, after which it runs a block south of Sixth Street to its terminus. Wilshire Boulevard is densely developed throughout most of its span, connecting Beverly Hills with five of Los Angeles's major business districts to each other. Many of the post-1956 skyscrapers in Los Angeles are located along Wilshire. Aon Center, at one point Los Angeles' largest tower, is at 707 Wilshire Boulevard in downtown Los Angeles. One famous stretch of the boulevard between Fairfax and Highland Avenues is known as the Miracle Mile. Many of Los Angeles' largest museums are located there; the area just to the east of that, between Highland Avenue and Wilton Place, is referred to as the "Park Mile".
Between Westwood and Holmby Hills, several tall glitzy condominium buildings overlook this part of Wilshire, giving it the title of Millionaire's Mile. This section is known as the Wilshire Corridor and Condo Canyon; the Wilshire Corridor, located next to Century City, is one of Los Angeles' busiest districts, contains many high-rise residential towers. The Fox and MGM studios are located in a series of skyscrapers, along with many historic Los Angeles hotels. Wilshire Boulevard is the principal street of Koreatown, the site of many of Los Angeles' oldest buildings, as well as skyscrapers. Koreatown and Mid-Wilshire are among Los Angeles' most densely populated districts. Much of the length of Wilshire Boulevard can be traced back to the indigenous Tongva people who used it to bring back tar from the La Brea pits in today's Miracle Mile section of Wilshire Blvd, back to their settlement on the coast; this road was used by Spanish explorers and settlers, calling it El Camino Viejo. The route that became Wilshire crossed the original pueblo of Los Angeles and five of the original Spanish land grants, or ranchos.
Wilshire was pieced together from various streets over several decades. It began in the 1870s as Nevada Avenue in Santa Monica, in the 1880s as Orange Street between Westlake Park and downtown. Nevada and Orange were renamed as parts of Wilshire; the boulevard was named for Henry Gaylord Wilshire, an Ohio native who made and lost fortunes in real estate and gold mining. In 1895 he began developing 35 acres of a barley field, stretching westward from Westlake Park for an elite residential subdivision, donated to the city a strip of land 120 feet wide by 1,200 feet long for a boulevard, on the conditions that it would be named for him and that railroad lines and commercial or industrial trucking would be banned; the road first appeared on a map under its present name in 1895. A historic apartment building on the corner of Wilshire Blvd. and S. Kenmore Ave. the Gaylord, carries his middle name. The Wilshire Boulevard home of J. Paul Getty was used as the filmset for the 1950 film Sunset Boulevard: it was demolished in 1957.
The Purple and Red subway lines of the Los Angeles Metro run along Wilshire Boulevard from just past the 7th/Figueroa Street station before serving the Westlake/MacArthur Park and Wilshire/Vermont stations, where the Purple Line continues along Wilshire to serve two stations at Normandie Avenue and at Western Avenue in Koreatown, while the Red Line branches off to terminate in North Hollywood. The construction of the future Purple Line extension along Wilshire Boulevard commenced in November 2014; the construction timeline would see the project from the existing Wilshire/Western station to the planned Wilshire/La Cienega station on the corner of Wilshire and La Cienega Boulevard, to be completed by 2023. The second phase got under way on February 23, 2018 from Wilshire/La Cienega to Century City Station. Phase three of the Purple Line extension, when completed, will extend to UCLA and Westwood/VA Hospital, will follow Wilshire Boulevard for most of its route. Phase four to downtown Santa Monica has no funding.
Metro Local Line 20, Metro Rapid Line 720, Santa Monica Transit Line 2 operate along Wilshire Boulevard. Due to the high ridership of line 720, 60-foot NABI articulated buses are used on this route, bus lanes are in place along some segments of the line. All of the boulevard is at least four lanes in width, most of the portion between Hoover Street and Robertson Boulevard has a raised center median; the widest portion is in the business district of central Westwood, where mobs of pedestrians crossing Wilshire at Westwood Boulevard must traverse ten lanes. According to a 1991 study by the Los Angeles Department of Transportation and the nearby intersection of Wilshire and Veteran are among the busiest in Los Angeles; the boulevard's widest portion is in Westwood and Holmby Hills, where it expands to six, eight lanes. The sections of Wilshire Boulevard in the city of Los Angeles are notorious for their giant potholes. Wilshire Boulevard ended at the MacArthur Park lake, but in 1934 a berm was built for it to cross and link up with the existing Orange Street into downtown Los Angeles.
An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years. Art movements were important in modern art, when each consecutive movement was considered as a new avant-garde. According to theories associated with modernism and the concept of postmodernism, art movements are important during the period of time corresponding to modern art; the period of time called "modern art" is posited to have changed halfway through the 20th century and art made afterward is called contemporary art. Postmodernism in visual art begins and functions as a parallel to late modernism and refers to that period after the "modern" period called contemporary art; the postmodern period began during late modernism, according to some theorists postmodernism ended in the 21st century. During the period of time corresponding to "modern art" each consecutive movement was considered a new avant-garde.
During the period of time referred to as "modern art" each movement was seen corresponding to a somewhat grandiose rethinking of all that came before it, concerning the visual arts. There was a commonality of visual style linking the works and artists included in an art movement. Verbal expression and explanation of movements has come from the artists themselves, sometimes in the form of an art manifesto, sometimes from art critics and others who may explain their understanding of the meaning of the new art being produced. In the visual arts, many artists, art critics, art collectors, art dealers and others mindful of the unbroken continuation of modernism and the continuation of modern art into the contemporary era, ascribe to and welcome new philosophies of art as they appear. Postmodernist theorists posit that the idea of art movements are no longer as applicable, or no longer as discernible, as the notion of art movements had been before the postmodern era. There are many theorists however who doubt as to whether or not such an era was a fact.
The term refers to tendencies in visual art, novel ideas and architecture, sometimes literature. In music it is more common to speak about styles instead. See cultural movement, a term with a broader connotation; as the names of many art movements use the -ism suffix, they are sometimes referred to as isms. Art movements portal 20th-century Western painting Art periods List of art movements Post-expressionism Western art history the-artists.org Art movements since 1900. 20th-Century Art Compiled by Dr. Witcombe, Sweet Briar College, Virginia. WebMuseum, Paris Themes index and detailed glossary of art periods
Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that comprises California's southernmost counties, is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Ventura; the more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, the Mojave Desert is located north on California's Nevada border. Southern California's southern border is part of the Mexico–United States border. Southern California includes the built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego, inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley, it encompasses eight metropolitan areas, three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA.
These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Inland Empire (, the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area. In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, El Centro metropolitan areas. The Southern California Megaregion is larger still, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. With a population of 4,042,000, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation; the counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside are the five most populous in the state, are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.
The motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros. and Sony run major record companies. Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, the U. S. Open of Surfing, are held in southern California; the region is important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii.
The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. The first modern era triathlon was held in Mission Bay, San Diego, California in 1974. Since southern California, San Diego in particular have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing and culture. Southern California is home to many sports sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches; the inland desert city of Palm Springs is popular. Southern California is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose. When the state is divided into two areas, the term southern California refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state; this definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo and San Bernardino counties.
Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary. Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be a