Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is the name given to a B-cell proliferation due to therapeutic immunosuppression after organ transplantation. These patients may develop infectious mononucleosis-like lesions or polyclonal polymorphic B-cell hyperplasia; some of these B-cells may undergo mutations which will render them malignant, giving rise to a lymphoma. In some patients, the malignant cell clone can become the dominant proliferating cell type, leading to frank lymphoma, a group of B cell lymphomas occurring in immunosuppressed patients following organ transplant. Symptoms of PTLD are variable and nonspecific, may include fever, weight loss, night sweats, fatigue. Symptoms may be similar to those seen in infectious mononucleosis. Pain or discomfort may result from mass effect from growing tumors. Dysfunction may occur in organs affected by PTLD. Lung or heart involvement may result in shortness of breath. Laboratory findings may show abnormally low white blood cell, red cell counts, platelet counts.
In addition, serum uric acid and lactate dehydrogenase levels may be elevated, while serum calcium levels may be decreased. All of these findings together can suggest tumor lysis syndrome; the disease is an uncontrolled proliferation of B cell lymphocytes latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus. Production of an interleukin-10, an endogenous, pro-regulatory cytokine, has been implicated. In immunocompetent patients, Epstein-Barr virus can cause infectious mononucleosis in adolescents, otherwise asymptomatic in children during their childhood. However, in immunosuppressed transplant patients, the lack of T-cell immunosurveillance can lead to the proliferation of these EBV-infected B-lymphocytes. However, calcineurin inhibitors, used as immunosuppressants in organ transplantation inhibit T cell function, can prevent the control of the B cell proliferation. Depletion of T cells by use of anti-T cell antibodies in the prevention or treatment of transplant rejection further increases the risk of developing post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
Such antibodies include ATG, ALG and OKT3. Polyclonal PTLD may form tumor masses and present with symptoms due to a mass effect, e.g. symptoms of bowel obstruction. Monoclonal forms of PTLD tend to form a disseminated malignant lymphoma. Definitive diagnosis is achieved by biopsying the involved tissue, which will reveal lymphoproliferative neoplasia. Most lesions will show malignant B cells. CT imaging may show a focal mass. PET scan may be helpful in the evaluation, which may show an increase in metabolic activity lesion guiding decisions on where to direct biopsies. Neurologic symptoms, such as confusion or focal weakness, which may suggest involvement of the nervous system; this may be evaluated with an MRI of the brain with gadolinium based contrast and lumbar spinal tap with testing of the cerebral spinal fluid for EBV viral levels. The presence of respiratory symptoms, such as cough or shortness of breath, in the setting of immunosuppression may suggest infection. Opportunistic infections may present in a similar fashion to PTLD.
Evaluation with sputum culture for bacteria, Pneumocystis carinii, acid fast bacilli, fungal infections are helpful. PTLD may spontaneously regress on reduction or cessation of immunosuppressant medication, can be treated with addition of anti-viral therapy. In some cases it may be fatal. A phase 2 study of adoptively transferred EBV-specific T cells demonstrated high efficacy with minimal toxicity. PTLD is the 2nd most common malignancy that occurs as a complication following solid organ transplantation. Less PTLD occurs after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; the incidence varies by the type of transplantation: the lowest rates are seen with bone marrow transplants and liver transplants. The highest rates of PTLD are seen with lung and heart transplants, due to the need for higher levels of immunosuppression; the incidence of PTLD is highest in the first year after transplantation. Transplantation of unmatched or mismatched HLA bone marrow increase the risk of PTLD; the main risk factors for PTLD are the degree of immune suppression and the presence of Epstein-Barr virus.
Higher levels of T cell immunosuppression increase the risk PTLD. Individuals who have never been infected by the Epstein-Barr virus who receive an organ from a donor with prior EBV infection are 24 times more to develop PTLD. CMV mismatching increases the risk of PTLD
The Center on Conscience & War is a United States non-profit anti-war organization located in Washington, D. C. dedicated to extending the rights of conscientious objectors. The group participates in the G. I. Rights Hotline, works against all forms of conscription. There are no charges for any of CCW's services; the group was organized as National Council for Religious Conscientious Objectors on October 5, 1940 by the three historic peace churches in response to the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, which introduced the first peacetime draft in the United States. The Selective Service Act provided for work of national importance and an alternative to military service for conscientious objectors; the immediate task of this group was to advise conscientious objectors and create a structure for the proposed alternative service. On November 26, 1940, National Council for Religious Conscientious Objectors was merged with a similar organization, Civilian Service Board to become National Service Board for Religious Objectors.
In the following months additional groups became interested in the work of NSBRO and positions on the governing board was expanded to include representatives from the Fellowship of Reconciliation, Fellowship of Peace of the Methodist Church, Disciples of Christ and Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America. During this first year a total of fifteen groups became members of NSBRO and by the end of the war this number grew to thirty nine. During its first year, 3000 conscientious objectors were referred to NSBRO by Selective Service. In all, nearly 12,000 World War II COs would be handled by NSBRO; the program for conscientious objectors, Civilian Public Service, was under civilian control with NSBRO responsible for working with the government and representing the interests of the churches and other groups involved. The work of NSBRO was divided into three sections; the Camp Section selected sites former Civilian Conservation Corps facilities, for use as CPS base camps, The Assignment Section matched men with camps and units, keeping detailed records of the assignments and projects.
The Complaint Section worked with cases of men. An Advisory Section was created to track the changes in Selective Service regulations and interpret them to NSBRO constituency. Regular contact was made with COs who chose prison over CPS. Conscientious objectors were required to serve past the end of the war. Member groups who disagreed with this policy or the cooperation required with a system of conscription began to withdraw from the organization. War Resisters League pulled out early in the war, followed by Fellowship of Reconciliation, American Friends Service Committee, Association of Catholic Conscientious Objectors; the last CPS camp closed in April 1947. In 1964 the name was changed to National Interreligious Service Board for Conscientious Objectors and in 2000 became Center on Conscience & War. Today, the work of the Center on Conscience & War is with members of the US military who experience a crisis of conscience and seek discharge as conscientious objectors. CCW provides technical and community support to other conscientious objectors, including immigrants seeking citizenship in the US who are moved by conscience to take an alternative oath of citizenship that does not include a promise to bear arms, youth facing Selective Service registration.
List of anti-war organizations List of peace activists Gingerich, Service for Peace, A History of Mennonite Civilian Public Service, Mennonite Central Committee. The Plurism Project profile, accessed 2006-02-08 Official site National Service Board for Religious Objectors in Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online
Aubrey Santos Sandel, professionally known as Aubrey Miles, is a Filipino television host, singer and actress. Aubrey Sandel was born on March 16, 1980 in Caloocan City to Victorino Sandel and Maria Perla Santos, she was the third child of the couple's four children. She was named after the song "Aubrey" by Bread, her parents separated when she was fifteen years old, she stayed with her mother. At sixteen years old, Miles starred in German Moreno's Best Friends. Between show business assignments, Miles joined beauty pageants which provided her with a steady income, she finished her secondary education at La Consolacion College – Caloocan. She majored in voice and minored in piano at the University of Santo Tomas Conservatory of Music, she dropped out during her second year when film producer Dondon Monteverde signed her up to a three-year, eight-film contract with Regal Films. Miles' stage surname was adopted from the song "Miles Away" by German Moreno, she made her film debut as Ditas, a student who moonlights as a prostitute in the 2002 film Prosti directed by Erik Matti.
Her role involved nudity and graphic sex scenes with Jay Manalo. Successful at the box office, the film grossed ₱29 million. To date, Prosti remains her highest-grossing movie; the success in the titular role led to other movie offers, as well as product endorsement deals from companies such as Bench. After Prosti, Miles starred in the movie Xerex. Miles' next movie, saw her play a character, possessed by demons. After securing a contract with the ABS-CBN television network she appeared as co-host of the daily noontime show Masayang Tanghali Bayan, in several ABS-CBN sitcoms; as part of a strategy to build wider appeal, Miles began appearing in more family friendly movie roles, in films like Sanib, A Beautiful Life, Gagamboy – Regal Film's 2003 Metro Manila Film Festival entry – as actor Vhong Navarro's love interest. Miles has three times appeared on the cover of FHM Philippines. Miles was one of three FHM Calendar Girls along with Maui Taylor and Diana Zubiri for the FHM 2003 calendar. Teaming up with real-life best friend Jacqueline Yu, Miles was a contestant in The Amazing Race Asia 1.
They finished in 9th place out of the 10 teams. She joined Survivor Philippines: Celebrity Showdown and made it all the way to the end, Day 36 with Ervic Vijandre, Solenn Heussaff, Akihiro Sato as the show's "Final Four", she became the 7th member of the jury. She came in fourth place. For 12 years, she still included to the FHM 100 Sexiest Woman, which Diana Zubiri for 13 years and Angel Locsin and Jennylyn Mercado in 11-year run. Miles has a son named John Maurie Sandel Obligacion, with her former boyfriend JP Obligacion, she was 20 years old. Before a 2009 interview with Boy Abunda, she had hid her son from the public and denied rumors to protect her career and sexy image, she is in a long-term relationship with actor Troy Montero with whom she has a son named Hunter Cody Sandel Miller, born on October 3, 2008. She gave birth to her third child, daughter Rocket Miller on December 14, 2018, she operates A-MILES Pawnshop. Si Agimat at si Enteng Kabisote Gagamboy: Ang Pagbabalik Super Noypi Exodus: Tales from the Enchanted Kingdom as Bangkila Lisensyadong kamao as Fanie Pa-siyam as Ruth Beautiful Life as Daisy Singles as Susie Kuya as Chloe Gagamboy as Liana Xerex the Series First Edition Sanib as Melissa Xerex as Breezy/Marge/Jasmin Prosti as Ditas sourcesSicam, Edmund L. ""Aubrey Miles Has Gone a Long Way".
Archived from the original on February 27, 2008. Retrieved November 28, 2006. CS1 maint: unfit url", Planet Philippines Bautista, Mario E. "Aubrey is her name", Manila Standard Today Aubrey Miles on IMDb Aubrey Miles on FHM.com.ph Aubrey Miles at Celebritiesph.com
Radim Ostrčil is a Czech professional ice hockey defenseman who plays with VHK Vsetín in the Second National Hockey League. He has played with HC Vsetín and HC Olomouc. While enjoying a spell in the Czech Extraliga with HC Kometa Brno, he was selected by the Boston Bruins in the 6th round of the 2007 NHL Entry Draft. After playing the following 2007–08 season of major junior hockey with the Ottawa 67's in the Ontario Hockey League, with a contract with the Bruins unattainable, he opted to return to the Czech Republic. Radim Ostrcil career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database Radim Ostrčil career statistics at EliteProspects.com
The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. Because there are no rods or cones overlying the optic disc, it corresponds to a small blind spot in each eye; the ganglion cell axons form the optic nerve. The optic disc represents the beginning of the optic nerve and is the point where the axons of retinal ganglion cells come together; the optic disc is the entry point for the major blood vessels that supply the retina. The optic disc in a normal human eye carries 1–1.2 million afferent nerve fibers from the eye towards the brain. The optic disc is placed 3 to 4 mm to the nasal side of the fovea, it is a vertical oval. There is a central depression, of variable size, called the optic cup; this depression can be a variety of shapes from a shallow indentation to a bean pot—this shape can be significant for diagnosis of some retinal disease. The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye; because there are no rods or cones overlying the optic disc, it corresponds to a small blind spot in each eye.
The eye is unique because of the transparency of its optical media. All eye structures can be examined with appropriate optical equipment and lenses. Using a modern direct ophthalmoscope gives a view of the optic disc using the principle of reversibility of light. A slit lamp biomicroscopic examination along with an appropriate aspheric focusing lens is required for a detailed stereoscopic view of the optic disc and structures inside the eye. A biomicroscopic exam can give an indication of the health of the optic nerve. In particular, the eye care physician notes the colour, cupping size, sharpness of edge, hemorrhages, notching in the optic disc and any other unusual anomalies, it is useful for finding evidence corroborating the diagnosis of glaucoma and other optic neuropathies, optic neuritis, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy or papilledema, optic disc drusen. Women in advanced stage of pregnancy with pre-eclampsia should be screened by an ophthalmoscopic examination of the optic disc for early evidence of rise in intracranial pressure.
A normal optic disc is orange to pink in colour. A pale disc is an optic disc which varies in colour from a pale orange colour to white. A pale disc is an indication of a disease condition. Traditional colour-film camera images are the reference standard in imaging, requiring an expert ophthalmic photographer, ophthalmic technician, optometrist or an ophthalmologist for taking standardised pictures of the optic disc. Stereoscopic images offer an excellent investigative tool for serial follow-up of suspected changes in the hands of an expert optometrist or ophthalmologist. Automated techniques have been developed to allow for more efficient and less expensive imaging. Heidelberg retinal tomography, scanning laser polarimetry and optical coherence tomography are computerised techniques for imaging various structures of the eyes, including the optic disc, they quantify the nerve fiber layer of disc and surrounding retina and statistically correlate the findings with a database of screened population of normals.
They are useful for baseline and serial follow-up to monitor minute changes in optic disc morphology. Imaging will not provide conclusive evidence for clinical diagnosis however, the evidence needs to be supplanted by serial physiological testing for functional changes; such tests may include visual field charting and final clinical interpretation of the complete eye examination by an eye care physician. Ophthalmologists and optometrists are able to provide this service. Blood flow in the retina and choroid in the optic disc region can be revealed non invasively by near-infrared laser Doppler imaging. Laser Doppler imaging can enable mapping of the local arterial resistivity index, the possibility to perform unambiguous identification of retinal arteries and veins on the basis of their systole-diastole variations, reveal ocular hemodynamics in human eyes. A systematic review of 106 studies and 16,260 eyes compared the performance of the imaging techniques, found that all three imaging tests performed similarly when detecting for glaucoma.
The review found that in 1000 patients subjected to imaging tests, with 200 having manifest glaucoma, the best imaging tests would miss 60 cases out of the 200 patients with glaucoma, incorrectly refer 50 out of 800 patients without glaucoma. Optic disc pallor Diagram at Moorfields Eye Hospital Diagram at Ballard Optical Retinal Vein Pulsation Is in Phase with Intracranial Pressure and Not Intraocular Pressure
William Eakin was a farmer and political figure in the Northwest Territories, Canada. He was a speaker of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories, he was born at Markham Township in the son of a wagon maker and merchant. After attending school, he joined his family business, remaining there until purchasing and starting businesses of his own: a carriage making company and a planing mill where he made a variety of items, along with his brother. Eakin sold his plant and moved west to homestead and farm near Crescent Lake. Here he involved himself in local affairs winning election to the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories for the district of Saltcoats, serving from 1894 to 1902, his term involved negotiations with the Government of Canada for provincial status for the Northwest Territories. For the latter three years of his term, he was selected to serve as speaker of the assembly, serving until his retirement in 1902 at the age of 73. After his retirement he moved to Saltcoats, where he died in 1918 at the age of 89.
Eakin was born June 14, 1828 in Markham Township, York County, Upper Canada, the eldest of six children to Samuel Baxter Eakin, wagon maker and merchant and Elizabeth Pingle, of Irish and Danish descent. His brother, George served as postmaster of Unionville, Markham Township from 1864 to 1875, was a secretary-treasurer of the town council. William Eakin attended school in his hometown, he took tutoring sessions to better his education. He spent his teenage years learning the trade of wagon making, he was sent to Toronto as an apprentice, learned how to make cabinets and carriages. He served in the military, receiving his commission as ensign with the Unionville Company of the 12th York Battalion of Infantry in 1866 and retiring from the military in 1872. In the 1850s, he joined his father's business as a wagon maker, where he worked in the family's business, he bought a sawmill in 1854, converted into a carriage manufacturing shop. In 1873, along with his brother, Eakin built a planing mill near a new Canadian Pacific Railway line, where they manufactured doors, wagons, agricultural implants, cabinets and coffins.
Known as the Unionville Planing Mill, it was leased out in 1874 and sold in 1881. In addition to his manufacturing business, Eakin served an active role in politics while he was living in Markham, he served as a councillor on the Markham Township Council on three separate occasions: 1867, 1871 and 1872, served as the reeve of the council in 1873 and from 1879 to February 1883, when he resigned. After spending time with the Reform Association of York, Eakin was appointed Warden of the County of York in 1881, he served on the public works commission of that same county. Eakin relocated to the North-West Territories in 1883, he was one of the first European settlers in the area. Two years he was appointed as a justice of the peace, as a licence and affidavit commissioner; when a school system was established in the area in 1887, the Eakin residence served as one of the first classrooms, with William Eakin receiving $1 per month as rent. He used the carpentry skills learned in his younger years to assist in building a school building as supplies became available the next year.
His first attempt for public office came in 1888 when he unsuccessfully ran for the Council of the Northwest Territories. He ran in 1894 for the new district of Saltcoats and won election to the legislative assembly of the Northwest Territories, as a Liberal, he was reelected in 1898. During his time in office, as the issue of provincial status for the territories, drawing the borders became a perennial debate. Toward this issue, Eakin was of the belief that the talks were premature, stating the belief that the citizens were content with the current situation and did not see any advantage to provincial status, he was a proponent of the education system, giving his support in using government funds for the school systems within the territory. In the opening of the 1899 legislative session, Eakin was nominated by premier Frederick Haultain and member Robert Brett to serve in the post as speaker. Praised by his colleagues for his fairness temperament and knowledge, he was elected as speaker that session by his legislative colleagues.
Assuming the office at the age of 70, the predominant issues of the session were again those of provincial status for the North-West Territory, whether boundaries would be drawn to include one or two provinces. On one occasion was Eakin required to use his casting vote as speaker, to break a deadlock on an 1899 bill regarding land titles and offices. Eakin continued as speaker until April 1902, when the assembly was dissolved. Though nominated to serve as speaker once again, Eakin opted to retire due to his age. After retiring as speaker, Eakin returned to farming at Crescent Lake. A post office was established at the time in the area, with the name Eakindale, he continued farming until 1911. Eakin died at this home in Saltcoats on March 14, 1918, one week after celebrating his 65th wedding anniversary with his wife. Aged 89, he was buried at the Saltcoats Cemetery, his wife died in the year, on September 9, 1918. In 1853, Eakin married daughter of Alexander and Lucy Hunter of Markham Township. Alexander Hunter was active in Markham Township affairs