Brisbane Entertainment Centre
The Brisbane Entertainment Centre is a multi-purpose arena located in the Brisbane suburb of Boondall, Australia. The centre is managed by AEG Ogden; the arena has an array of seating plans which facilitate the comfort of its users, subject to performance. Specific seating plans are allocated, depending on the performance and the size of its audience; the general seating arrangements are end stage mode, "in the round" and intimate mode, which only uses half of the arena. The centre houses a sporting complex and small function rooms which are available to hire for wedding reception and business functions; the centre's large audience capacity is used for the staging of concerts and musical theatre shows, including Whitney Houston’s Nothing But Love World Tour, One Direction's Take Me Home Tour, Taylor Swift's Fearless and Speak Now Tours, Shawn Mendes' Illuminate World Tour, Grease and the Beast, The Man from Snowy River: Arena Spectacular. It has staged ice-skating shows, including Disney On Ice.
The Entertainment Centre was the filming venue for the original Australian series of Gladiators from 1995 to 1997. Located in Boondall, just off the Gateway Motorway, patrons can catch a Queensland Rail City network service to Boondall railway station, on the Shorncliffe railway line, or travel by taxi. There are 4,000 car parking spaces. Buses do not run to the centre on event nights; the centre has 11,000 tiered seats and a maximum concert capacity of 13,601 making it the largest indoor live entertainment arena in Brisbane and the second largest permanent indoor arena in Australia behind only the 21,000 capacity Sydney Super Dome. It cost $71 million to construct. From 1986–1997 the BEC was home to former NBL team the Brisbane Bullets; the Bullets won the 1987 NBL championship against the Perth Wildcats, secured their second NBL championship at this venue as they completed a two-game sweep of the Wildcats 2-0 after winning the first game, played at the Perth Superdome. In 1987, the Brisbane Bullets won their second NBL championship and their first at the Entertainment Centre with a 2-0 series win over the Perth Wildcats.
In 1990 the Brisbane Bullets hosted games 2 and 3 of the National Basketball League Grand Final series against the Perth Wildcats, setting a new NBL attendance record for the time in Australia of 13,221 for game 2. In 2007, the Brisbane Bullets won their third and last NBL championship when they defeated the Melbourne Tigers 3-1 in their best of five game series; the Entertainment Centre was used due to a date clash with the Bullets home, the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre. The Brisbane Bullets returned to the NBL in 2016–17 and will again play some games at the Brisbane Entertainment Centre; the venue was the main home court for netball side the Queensland Firebirds, who won premierships in the ANZ Championship at the venue in 2015 and 2016. In 2019, the club moved all of their home matches to the newly constructed venue dedicated to netball, Brisbane Arena; the opening event for the centre was on Thursday 20 February 1986, featuring World Champion, British ice skaters and Dean. Ticket prices were Adults $22.90 and Juniors $15.90 In 1987, Michael Jackson performed during his Bad Tour for two sold out shows on 27 and 28 November.
On the 28th, Stevie Wonder sang with Jackson. On 19 November that year, Eric Clapton played a sold-out concert at the venue during his Journeyman World Tour in front of 14,500 people. On 31 January 1998, Mariah Carey held a concert as part of Butterfly World Tour. On 28 February 2007, Irish vocal pop band Westlife held a concert for The Love Tour supporting their album The Love Album. On 4 February 2010, Taylor Swift performed in Brisbane for the first time to 11,334 people, she made an income of $956,505. On 22 February 2010, the singer Whitney Houston performed her Nothing But Love World Tour to promo her new CD titled I Look To You Lady Gaga performed at the arena as part of her Monster Ball Tour on March 26-27, 2010. On 6 and 7 March 2012, Taylor Swift performed her Speak Now World Tour, she made an income of $2,416,030 with the attendance of 19,870 people. On 19–21 October 2013, One Direction performed for the first time at this venue during the Take Me Home Tour, with the attendance of 30,831 over the course of 3 nights reeling in a revenue of $2,729,520.
On 16 and 17 March 2016, Madonna performed at the arena as part of her Rebel Heart Tour. The second show gained international attention when the singer accidentally exposed the breast of a 17-year-old woman on stage by pulling down her top; the incident caused controversy though several publications, where members of the public took to social media to label the incident as an assault. Despite this, the 17-year-old woman, identified as Josephine Georgiou, defended the singer by stating it was "the best time of my life". In spite of having been approached by lawyers offering to represent her, Georgiou refused to launch legal action against the singer. On 25 April 2016, pioneering heavy metal band Black Sabbath performed their final Australian show at this arena. Supporting act was Rival Sons. On 12 September 2017, Ariana Grande performed at this arena for the first time as part of the Dangerous Woman Tour. On 29 November 2017, Shawn Mendes performed for a first time at this arena as a part of Illuminate World Tour.
On 28 April 2018, Harry Styles performed for a first time at this arena as part of the Harry Styles: Live on Tour. On 3 June 2018, Niall Horan performed for a first time at thi
Queensland Maritime Museum
The Queensland Maritime Museum is located on the southern bank of the Brisbane River just south of the South Bank Parklands and Queensland Cultural Centre precinct of Brisbane, close to the Goodwill Bridge. The museum was founded in 1971 and contains a two level exhibition building presenting historic sailing ship models together with merchant shipping from early cargo ships to modern container ships and cruise liners, it is housed in the building used for the “Pavilion of Promise” at World Expo 88, the South Brisbane Dry Dock, built in the 1870s and was 313 feet long and 60 feet wide. In 1887 the dock was extended to 430 feet due to the increasing size of vessels; the museum includes a library that stocks documents and other relevant artifacts relating to maritime history. There are several maps. Information is provided about some of the 1,500 plus shipwrecks that have occurred along the Queensland coast including the Great Barrier Reef; the 121 feet steam tug Forceful, the only remaining working coal-fired steam tug in Queensland, is berthed at the Museum wharf and there are regular sailings down the Brisbane River.
It was built in 1925 by Alex Son Ltd.. Glasgow, Scotland. In 1941 it was chartered by the government for service in the Middle East, but did not sail because Japan entered World War II, she was requisitioned by the Royal Australian Navy and became known as HMAS Forceful. She was armed with a 20mm Oerlikon Machine Gun and a.303" Vickers machine gun. At present, she is laid up for repairs, estimated to reach around $250,000AUD. HMAS Diamantina, a River Class frigate is in the South Brisbane Dry Dock, on board visitors can view the Museum's collection of Australian Naval memorabilia. Another WW2 vessel located at the Museum is the Torres Strait pearling lugger "Penguin", used by the Americans during WW2, along with the dinghy from General Douglas MacArthur's motor Yacht "Shangri-La". Visible is the Light Ship Carpentaria. Information is provided about how lighthouse technology developed from the early oil wick burners to the modern equipment used in the present day; the former Bulwer Island Light, which operated at Bulwer Island at the mouth of the Brisbane River from 1912 to 1983, is on display outside the Museum.
It is a white, octagonal wooden tower covered with corrugated iron sheets, the roof of lantern is red. Displayed are the original lens of Archer Point Light, the pedestal and gearbox of Bustard Head Light, the lens and apparatus from Cape Don Light in the Northern Territory. Queensland Maritime Museum Website Queensland Maritime Museum from Collections Australia Network
The Cloudland Dance Hall called Luna Park, was a famous Brisbane entertainment venue located in Bowen Hills. It was demolished in 1982 and the site was subsequently developed into an apartment complex. On its hilltop site above Brisbane, Cloudland's distinctive parabolic laminated roof arch, nearly 18 metres high, was visible. A funicular railway ran from the main road straight up the steep part of the hill and provided easy access to the Ballroom site; the funicular was dismantled in 1967 and the area was turned into a car park. Cloudland was the venue for numerous formal balls, weekend dances, civic events and university examinations and a marketplace, it was constructed in 1939–40, by T. H. Eslick and opened on 2 August 1940. Eslick paid particular attention to the dance floor, he wanted to create the "best ballroom in the Southern Hemisphere". A funicular railway ran up the side of the hill from the tram stop on Breakfast Creek Road carrying passengers to the rear of the Ballroom; the site was intended to have a fun park like Luna Park in Melbourne, which Eslick had built in 1912.
The fun park was not built by the time. It was the largest building of its type in Brisbane. Eslick disappeared soon after Cloudland was opened so the building was left abandoned until 1942 when it was used by the American military, they arrived shortly after Pearl Harbor was bombed in December 1941. When Cloudland was re-opened after the war, the name Luna Park was dropped and the building was thenceforth known as Cloudland Ballroom; as a gift to the people of Brisbane, the dance floor was rebuilt by the US military. The smooth hard floor was constructed of one inch tongue and groove boards that ran the length of the ballroom; the close fitting narrow boards were not nailed. The floor area reserved for dancing sat on huge metal coil springs placed uniformly underneath the bearers so that dancers could feel and see the movement of the boards beneath their feet. Other features of the interior were huge decorative columns, sweeping curtains, domed sky lights and chandeliers; the dance floor was framed by private alcoves, decorative curtains, a domed skylights and chandeliers.
Cloudland had an upper circle of tiered seating which overlooked the floor and stage. An impressive tall domed entrance which features a wide, white, 18 metre tall arch was visible from surrounding suburbs. Cloudland was purchased by sisters Mya Winters & Francis Rouch for £16,000 and re-opened on 24 April 1947. On 2 September 1948 Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh visited after doing the play School for Scandal for a débutants ball for the "Royal society of St George". Cloudland was a Sunday markets and an exam venue by the University of Queensland; as a pop/rock/old time music venue Cloudland hosted thousands of dances and concerts in the 50s, 60s and 70s, including a number of notable events. It hosted three of the six concerts performed by rock'n' roll legend Buddy Holly on his only Australian tour in February 1958. Music for Cloudland functions was provided by Brisbane musicians and Australian bands from the'50s to the early'80s, for much of the 1960s it was the central venue for the Sunshine group.
Sunshine was headed by Brisbane businessman Ivan Dayman, who leased Cloudland from Apel around 1963. Dayman's entrepreneurial style had a formula that had proved successful in Adelaide and he applied this to his Cloudland enterprise, he commissioned arrangements of the latest pop tunes adapted to the dances of the day, headhunted the best of Brisbane's musicians and performing artists and paid for rehearsals and dances were run during the week as well as on weekends. On public holidays and significant dates or long weekends during the year, midnight-to-dawn dances were run with featured guest artists of national fame, e.g. The Bee Gees, Little Pattie. Dayman installed a huge mirror ball over the centre of the ballroom's floor; the dance steps 60 % Modern. Music for the dancers was provided by resident bands and vocal performers from the time of Cloudland's reopening after the war until its closure. Resident bands included The Billo Smith Orchestra, The Cloudland Big Band, The Rick Farbach Sextet, Jim Diamond & The Lancers, The Hi-Marks, The Sounds of Seven, The Seasons of the Witch.
The dance programs in those times covered old time,'Modern' and The Twist and other popular dance crazes. Cloudland Ballroom was said to be the finest ballroom in Australia. Despite strenuous public calls for its preservation, the building was demolished overnight on 7 November 1982 to make way for an apartment complex; the demolition was done by the Deen Brothers, a demolition company used by the state government, the Brisbane City Council and the "white shoe brigade" for controversial demolition projects. The demolition took place in spite of its National Trust listing. Midnight Oil, who had played at Cloudland many times, immortalised the demolition in their song Dreamworld which attacked the greed of the pro-development forces. In 2004, a ballet Cloudland choreographed by Francois Klaus was premiered at the Brisbane Festival, has since been performed in a number of Australian and European cities. A sculpture in Cowlishaw Street was created by Jamie Maclean. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the demolition of Cloudland was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "Defining Moment".
The name of this venue was used in 2009 by a new Brisbane nightclub located appro
Queen Street Mall, Brisbane
The Queen Street Mall is a pedestrian mall located on Queen Street in the centre of Brisbane, Australia. The mall extends 500 metres from George Street to Edward Street, has more than 700 retailers over 40,000 square metres of retail space, which includes six major shopping centres, it receives over 26 million visitors each year. It was intended to bring more people into the central business district; the mall was designed by Robin Gibson and opened in 1982, in order to be ready for the Brisbane Commonwealth Games. The section of Queen Street between Albert Street and Edward Street was partitioned off to form a pedestrian-only retail precinct, it was extended in 1988 to include the section of Queen Street between Albert Street and George Street, timed to coincide with Brisbane's Expo'88; the mall underwent a $25,000,000 refurbishment in 1999, which saw the terracotta paving being replaced by granite. The Albert Street section of the mall was refurbished again in 2007; the Brisbane City Council announced in 2009 that Burnett Lane, a narrow laneway that runs between George Street and Albert Street, parallel to the mall, would be refurbished and integrated into the Queen Street Mall precinct.
On 8 March 2013, the mall was the scene of a 90 minute siege. The offender, Lee Matthew Hillier, had a long criminal history, he was shot several times with non-lethal rounds. He pled guilty to charges including going armed to cause fear. In January 2014 he was sentenced to four-and-a-half years in jail. There are a number of shopping centres located in the Queen Street Mall, including: Wintergarden, The Myer Centre, Broadway on the Mall, Queens Plaza, Brisbane Arcade, Q&A Building, Queen Adelaide Building, Tattersall's ArcadeAt the intersection of Queen Street and Albert Street at the centre of the mall is a 15-metre-high steel structure designed to provide shade and cover from the weather. An entertainment stage for music, model shows, other performances is situated near the George Street end of the mall, between the Myer Centre and the Queen Adelaide Building; the stage is covered by an 11-metre-high roof. Underneath the Queen Street Mall is the Queen Street Bus Station. In the development of stage one and stage two of the mall, significant heritage-listed building facades were preserved, giving the mall a restored yesteryear feeling.
There are several significant shopping centres located on the Queen Street Mall. These include the Wintergarden, The Myer Centre, Broadway on the Mall and the lavish Queens Plaza, situated at the northern end of the mall, opened in two stages, the first in 2005, the second in 2008; the Wintergarden is a three level shopping centre with over 70 specialty stores including a gymnasium, ten pin bowling alley, Georg Jensen, Lisa Ho and R. M. Williams. In November 2009, it was announced that the Wintergarden will undergo a A$100 million refurbishment in two 12-month stages; the new Wintergarden will once more become of the Brisbane central business district's premier shopping destinations, an impressive architectural site. The Myer Centre is the Brisbane CBD's largest shopping centre, it has 200 stores spread across 6 floors including Queensland's largest department store, Myer, as well as Target and Birch Carroll and Coyle. Broadway on the Mall is a four level shopping centre with around 60 stores.
It is expected to take 18 months to complete. QueensPlaza is the Brisbane CBD's most upmarket shopping centre, it has around 80 stores on three levels including Australia's largest single location David Jones department store. There are other smaller shopping arcades on the Queen Street Mall; these include the Q&A Building and the heritage Tattersall's Arcade. The mall underwent refurbishment in 1999 from its signature terracotta tile footpath to a grey slate tile footpath, with several significant art commissions and new tree and shrub enclosures throughout. In 2006, the other end of the George Street engagement with the Mall saw the opening of Brisbane Square which further extended the grey slate tile rendering of the Mall, and, in 2008 extension of the Mall along Albert Street to the corner of Albert Street and Adelaide Street; the Brisbane City Council announced in 2009 that Burnett Lane, a narrow laneway that runs between George Street and Albert Street, parallel to the Mall, will be integrated into the Queen Street Mall precinct with a vibrant boutique bar/restaurant scene on the cards.
Management of the mall was covered by the Local Government Act 1981, until it was repealed and replaced by the City of Brisbane Act 2010. List of shopping centres in Australia
Brisbane central business district
The Brisbane central business district gazetted as the suburb of Brisbane City and colloquially referred to as'the city', is the heart of the state capital of Queensland, Australia. It is located on a point on the northern bank of the Brisbane River; the triangular shaped area is bounded by the Brisbane River to the east and west. The point, known at its tip as Gardens Point, slopes upward to the north-west where the city is bounded by parkland and the inner city suburb of Spring Hill to the north; the CBD is bounded to the north-east by the suburb of Fortitude Valley. To the west the CBD is bounded by Petrie Terrace; the Brisbane central business district is an area of densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by several parks such as Roma Street Parklands, City Botanic Gardens and Wickham Park. It occupies an area of 1.367 km². The City is laid out according to a grid pattern surveyed during the city's early colonial days, a feature typical of most Australian street patterns.
As a general rule, the streets aligned northwest-south east are named after male members of the House of Hanover, while the northeast-south west aligned streets are named after female members. Queen Street was the central roadway, turned into a pedestrian mall, it forms the pivotal axis for the grid of roads within the district. The Brisbane central business district was built on a spur of the Taylor Range with the highest spot in the suburb being Wickham Terrace. North Quay is an area in the CBD, a landing point during the first European exploration of the Brisbane River. Petrie Bight is a reach of the Brisbane River, which gives its name to the small pocket of land centred on the area under the Story Bridge's northern point, around the Brisbane River to Admiralty Towers II; the location was known as Petrie Gardens and was an early settlement farm, one of two that provided food for the colony. The site was named after Andrew Petrie and has been the base for water police and in earlier times wharves.
The location of Customs House and the preference for wharves was due to site being directly downstream from the central business district. The Brisbane City Library opened in 1965, moving into Brisbane Square in 2006. Up until 1964, a Brisbane City Council regulation limited building heights to 132 ft; some of the first skyscrapers built in the CBD include the SGIO building in 1970 and AMP Place in 1977. In the last few decades the number of apartment buildings that have been constructed has increased substantially. Brisbane is home to several of Australia's tallest buildings. Brisbane's tallest buildings are Skytower at 270 metres, One William Street at 260 metres, Soleil at 243 metres, Aurora Tower at 207 metres, Riparian Plaza at 200 metres, One One One Eagle Street at 195 metres, Infinity at 249 metres, completed in 2014; the Brisbane CBD is one of the major business hubs in Australia. The City contains many tall office buildings occupied by organisations and all three levels of government that have emerged into a number of precincts.
The areas around the Queen Street Mall and Adelaide Street is a retail precinct. A legal precinct exists around the various court buildings located around the intersections of George Street and Adelaide and Ann Streets; the government precinct is an area centred on the Executive Building that includes many Queensland Government offices. 111 George Street, Mineral House, Education House are located here. The Brisbane CBD has only one third the number of premium hotel rooms that either Sydney or Melbourne's central business districts have; the city is serviced by a number of schools in the surrounding suburbs including the Petrie Terrace State School in Paddington and The Albert Park Flexi School in Petrie Terrace. Like most other Australian capital cities, Brisbane has experienced dramatic rises in rental prices for residential and office space before the global financial crisis. At the beginning of 2008, the Brisbane central business district contained 1.7 million square metres of office space.
High demand in the office market had pushed vacancy rates in the Brisbane CBD to 0.7% by January 2008, the lowest in Australia. Premium grade office space was less vacant with an occupancy rate of 99.9%. By the end of 2009 the situation had reversed. In mid 2013 the market for office space had declined to its worst position in two decades with a vacancy rate of just under 13%. In the CBD there many attractions; the Queens Gardens, Post Office Square, King George Square and the City Botanic Gardens are open public spaces located here. The Brisbane City Council operates a public library in Brisbane Square at 266 George Street. Brisbane has many heritage-listed sites, including: a number of properties in Adelaide Street, Brisbane a number of properties in Albert Street, Brisbane a number of properties in Alice Street, Brisbane a number of properties in Ann Street, Brisbane Boundary Street: Howard Smith Wharves a number of properties in Charlotte Street, Brisbane Coronation Drive: Coronation Drive retaining wall 15 Countess Street: Roma Street railway station a number of properties in Creek Street, Brisbane 118 Eagle Street: Mooney Memorial Fountain 118A Eagle Street: Eagle Street Fig Trees a number of properties in Edward Street, Brisbane a number of properties in Elizabeth Street, Brisbane a number of properties in Margaret Street, Brisbane 20-30 Market Street: Wenley House a number of properties in Mary Street, Brisbane a number of properties in North Quay, Brisb
General Post Office, Brisbane
The General Post Office in Brisbane, Queensland, in Australia is a heritage-listed post office located at 261 Queen Street in 1872 and extended through to Elizabeth Street in 1908. It is still in use by Australia Post. Opposite the GPO building is Post Office Square; the first full-time postmaster in Brisbane was J. E. Barney in 1852. In 1862, the first Postmaster-General for the state of Queensland Thomas Lodge Murray Prior was appointed. A small convict era building was used as for postal services but was too far from the telegraph office; the Postmaster-General choose a half hectare site, centrally located. The building located at the Queen Street site which once hosted women convicts was demolished in 1871. Freestone and bricks were sourced from local materials; the GPO was opened on 28 September 1872. In 1873, the Queensland Museum was housed in the General Post Office building, but moved in 1879 to the William Street building. In the same year a second wing, constructed by John Petrie was completed which allowed the telegraph office to move to the building, pleasing business customers.
The building features high ceilings. A clock mounted in the pediment positioned above the main entrance was once illuminated by a gas powered light, it was replaced by a smaller, electric clock. The first typewriter to be used in any post office in any Australian city was used at the GPO in 1892. Stamps and money orders were once available to customers outside the building via windows are now closed; the building has been listed on the Brisbane City Council Heritage Register. Other General Post Offices Further historical details
A town square is an open public space found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Other names for town square are civic center, city square, urban square, market square, public square, piazza and town green. Most town squares are hardscapes suitable for open markets, political rallies, other events that require firm ground. Being centrally located, town squares are surrounded by small shops such as bakeries, meat markets, cheese stores, clothing stores. At their center is a fountain, monument, or statue. Many of those with fountains are called fountain square. In urban planning, a city square or urban square is a planned open area in a city. In Mainland China, People's Square is a common designation for the central town square of modern Chinese cities, established as part of urban modernization within the last few decades; these squares are the site of government buildings and other public buildings. The best-known and largest such square in China is Tienanmen Square.
The German word for square is Platz, which means "Place", is a common term for central squares in German-speaking countries. These have been focal points of public life in cities from the Middle Ages to today. Squares located opposite a Palace or Castle are named Schlossplatz. Prominent Plätze include the Alexanderplatz, Pariser Platz and Potsdamer Platz in Berlin, Heldenplatz in Vienna, the Königsplatz in Munich. A piazza is a city square in Italy, along the Dalmatian coast and in surrounding regions. San Marco in Venice may be the worlds best known; the term is equivalent to the Spanish plaza. In Ethiopia, it is used to refer to a part of a city; when the Earl of Bedford developed Covent Garden – the first private-venture public square built in London – his architect Inigo Jones surrounded it with arcades, in the Italian fashion. Talk about the piazza was connected in Londoners' minds not with the square as a whole, but with the arcades. A piazza is found at the meeting of two or more streets.
Most Italian cities have several piazzas with streets radiating from the center. Shops and other small businesses are found on piazzas. Many metro stations and bus stops are found on piazzas. In Britain, piazza now refers to a paved open pedestrian space, without grass or planting in front of a significant building or shops. King's Cross station in London is to have a piazza as part of its redevelopment; the piazza will replace the existing 1970s concourse and allow the original 1850s façade to be seen again. There is a good example of a piazza in Scotswood at Newcastle College. In the United States, in the early 19th century, a piazza by further extension became a fanciful name for a colonnaded porch. Piazza was used by some in the Boston area, to refer to a verandah or front porch of a house or apartment. A central square just off Gibraltar's Main Street, between the Parliament Building and the City Hall named John Mackintosh Square is colloquially referred to as The Piazza. A large open square common in villages and cities of Indonesia is known as alun-alun.
It is a Javanese term which in modern-day Indonesia refers to the two large open squares of kraton compounds. It is located adjacent a mosque or a palace, it is a place for court celebrations and general non-court entertainments. In traditional Persian architecture, town squares are known as meydan. A maydan is considered as one of the essential features in urban planning and they are adjacent to bazaars, large mosques and other public buildings. Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan and Azadi Square in Tehran are examples of classic and modern squares. Squares are called "markt" because of the usage of the square as a market place; every town in Belgium and the southern part of the Netherlands has a "Grote Markt" or "Grand Place" in French. The "Grote Markt" is the place where the town hall is situated and therefore the centre of the town; the same naming can be found in surrounding regions as for example Cologne has several central squares named "-markt" or "Markt". In Russia, central square is a common term for an open area in the heart of the town.
In a number of cities this square does not have an individual name, i.e. named so: Tsentráĺnaya Plóshchad́, e.g. Central Square. Throughout Spain, Spanish America, the Spanish East Indies, the plaza mayor of each center of administration held three related institutions: the cathedral, the cabildo or administrative center, which might be incorporated in a wing of a governor's palace, the audiencia or law court; the plaza remains a center of community life, only equaled by the market-place. This open space at the center of the cities is from the Mediterranean where public spaces always had important role for public life; the origin of the word Plaza is, via Latin platea, from Greek πλατεῖα plateia, meaning "broad". The Plaza is the heir to the Roman "Forum", this is the heir of the Greek. Most viceregal cities in Spanish America and the Philippines were planned around a square "plaza de armas", where troops could be mustered, as the name implies, surrounded by the governor's palace and the main church.
In the United Kingdom, in London and Edinburgh, a "square" has a wider meaning. There are public squares of the type desc