Inferior gluteal artery
The inferior gluteal artery, the smaller of the two terminal branches of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery, is distributed chiefly to the buttock and back of the thigh. It passes down on the sacral plexus of nerves and the piriformis muscle, behind the internal pudendal artery, to the lower part of the greater sciatic foramen, through which it escapes from the pelvis between the piriformis and coccygeus, it descends in the interval between the greater trochanter of the femur and tuberosity of the ischium, accompanied by the sciatic and posterior femoral cutaneous nerves, covered by the gluteus maximus, is continued down the back of the thigh, supplying the skin, anastomosing with branches of the perforating arteries. Superior gluteal artery This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 620 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Inferior_gluteal_artery at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program Anatomy figure: 43:07-12 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Sagittal view of the internal iliac artery and its branches in the female pelvis.
" pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
Quadratus femoris muscle
The quadratus femoris is a flat, quadrilateral skeletal muscle. Located on the posterior side of the hip joint, it is a strong external rotator and adductor of the thigh, but acts to stabilize the femoral head in the acetabulum, it originates on the lateral border of the ischial tuberosity of the ischium of the pelvis. From there, it passes laterally to its insertion on the posterior side of the head of the femur: the quadrate tubercle on the intertrochanteric crest and along the quadrate line, the vertical line which runs downward to bisect the lesser trochanter on the medial side of the femur. Along its course, quadratus is aligned edge to edge with the inferior gemellus above and the adductor magnus below, so that its upper and lower borders run horizontal and parallel. At its origin, the upper margin of the adductor magnus is separated from it by the terminal branches of the medial femoral circumflex vessels. A bursa is found between the front of this muscle and the lesser trochanter. Sometimes absent.
Groin pain can be a disabling ailment with many potential root causes: one such cause overlooked, is quadratus femoris tendinitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can show abnormal signal intensity at the insertion of the right quadratus femoris tendon, which suggests inflammation of the area. Since the muscle works to laterally rotate and adduct the femur, actions involving the lower body can strain the muscle. In addition, patients present with hip pain and an increased signal intensity of the MRI of the quadratus femoris have been shown to have a narrower ischiofemoral space compared to the general populace; the ischiofemoral impingement may be a cause of the hip pain associated with quadratus femoris tendinitis. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 477 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Mcminn, R. M. H.. Last's Applied. Elsevier Australia. ISBN 0-7295-3752-8. Platzer, Werner. Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol 1: Locomotor system. Thieme. ISBN 3-13-533305-1. Thieme Atlas of Anatomy.
Thieme. 2006. ISBN 978-1-60406-062-1. PTCentral Anatomy photo:13:st-0409 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Anterior compartment of thigh
The anterior compartment of thigh contains muscles which extend the knee and flex the hip. The anterior compartment is one of the fascial compartments of the thigh that contains groups of muscles together with their nerves and blood supply; the anterior compartment contains the sartorius muscle and the quadriceps femoris group, which consists of the rectus femoris muscle and the three vasti muscles – the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, the vastus medialis. The iliopsoas is sometimes considered a member of the anterior compartment muscles, as is the articularis genus muscle; the anterior compartment is separated from the posterior compartment by the lateral intermuscular septum and from the medial compartment by the medial intermuscular septum. The nerve of the anterior compartment of thigh is the femoral nerve. Innervation for the quadriceps muscles come from the posterior division of the femoral nerve, while the anterior division gives a lateral and a medial branch, the second being responsible for the innervation of the sartorius muscle.
The iliacus and the psoas major and psoas minor muscles, sometimes considered part of the anterior compartment, do not share the same innervation. Whereas the iliacus is innervated by the femoral nerve, the psoas is innervated by ventral rami of L1-L3; when the external iliac artery crosses the inguinal ligament, it becomes the femoral artery, which supplies blood to the anterior compartment and is the largest blood vessel of the inferior member. The anterior compartment of thigh contains muscles which are extensors of the knee and flexors of the hip joints; the anterior compartment may be affected as part of a compartment syndrome. Antthigh at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman knee/muscles/thigh1 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy Overview at stanford.edu
The semimembranosus is the most medial of the three hamstring muscles. It is so named, it lies posteromedially in the thigh, deep to the semitendinosus. The semimembranosus, so called from its membranous tendon of origin, is situated at the back and medial side of the thigh, its origin is the superolateral aspect of the ischial tuberosity and it inserts on the medial condyle and nearby margin of tibia. It arises by a thick tendon from the upper and outer impression on the ischial tuberosity and medial to the biceps femoris and semitendinosus; the tendon of origin expands into an aponeurosis, which covers the upper part of the anterior surface of the muscle. It is inserted into the horizontal groove on the posterior medial aspect of the medial condyle of the tibia; the semimembranosus is wider and deeper than the semitendinosus. The tendon of insertion gives off certain fibrous expansions: one, of considerable size, passes upward and laterally to be inserted into the posterior lateral condyle of the femur, forming part of the oblique popliteal ligament of the knee-joint.
The muscle overlaps the upper part of the popliteal vessels. The semimembranosus is innervated by the tibial part of the sciatic nerve; the sciatic nerve consists of the anterior divisions of ventral nerve roots from L4 through S3. These nerve roots are part of the larger nerve network–the sacral plexus; the tibial part of the sciatic nerve is responsible for innervation of semitendinosus and the long head of biceps femoris. It may be reduced or absent, or double, arising from the sacrotuberous ligament and giving a slip to the femur or adductor magnus; the semimembranosus helps to flex the knee joint. It helps to medially rotate the knee: the tibia medially rotates on the femur when the knee is flexed, it medially rotates the femur. The muscle can aid in counteracting the forward bending at the hip joint. Semitendinosus Biceps femoris This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 479 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:14:st-0408 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy figure: 14:01-07 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh."
Anatomy figure: 14:02-06 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Muscles that form the superficial boundaries of the popliteal fossa." Knee/surface/surface4 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy PTCentral
The gluteus minimus, the smallest of the three gluteal muscles, is situated beneath the gluteus medius. It is fan-shaped, arising from the outer surface of the ilium, between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines, behind, from the margin of the greater sciatic notch; the fibers converge to the deep surface of a radiated aponeurosis, this ends in a tendon, inserted into an impression on the anterior border of the greater trochanter, gives an expansion to the capsule of the hip joint. It is a local stabilizer for the hip. A bursa is interposed between the greater trochanter. Between the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus are the deep branches of the superior gluteal vessels and the superior gluteal nerve; the deep surface of the gluteus minimus is in relation with the reflected tendon of the rectus femoris and the capsule of the hip joint. The gluteus medius and gluteus minimus abduct the thigh, when the limb is extended, are principally called into action in supporting the body on one limb, in conjunction with the tensor fasciæ latæ.
Their anterior fibers flex the hip, by drawing the greater trochanter forward, rotate the thigh inward, in which action they are assisted by the Tensor fasciæ latæ. Additionally, with the hip flexed, the gluteus minimus internally rotate the thigh. With the hip extended, the gluteus gluteus minimus externally rotate the thigh; the attachment to the superior capsule of the hip may serve to retract the capsule away from the joint during motion. This mechanism may prevent capsular impingement similar to the role of the articularis genus in the knee; the muscle may be divided into an anterior and a posterior part, or it may send slips to the piriformis, the superior gemellus or the outer part of the origin of the vastus lateralis. Paralysis of this muscle or gluteus medius, such as may be caused by the superior gluteal nerve palsy, can lead to difficulty abducting the leg. Patients will compensate for their difficulty walking by adopting a Trendelenburg gait; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 475 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy PTCentral Anatomy photo:13:st-0406 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
The popliteal fossa is a shallow depression located at the back of the knee joint. The bones of the popliteal fossa are the tibia. Like other flexion surfaces of large joints, it is an area where blood vessels and nerves pass superficially, with an increased amount of lymph nodes; the boundaries of the fossa are: The roof is formed by: skin superficial fascia, which contains the small saphenous vein, the terminal branch of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh, posterior division of the medial cutaneous nerve, lateral sural cutaneous nerve, medial sural cutaneous nerve deep fascia or popliteal fascia The floor is formed by: the popliteal surface of the femur the capsule of the knee joint and the oblique popliteal ligament strong fascia covering the popliteus muscle Structures within the popliteal fossa include,: tibial nerve common fibular nerve popliteal vein popliteal artery, a continuation of the femoral artery small saphenous vein Popliteal lymph nodes and Dharmy vesselsIt is of note that the common fibular nerve begins at the superior angle of the popliteal fossa.
Hamstring postthigh at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman MedicalMnemonics.com: 2747 9
A fascial compartment is a section within the body that contains muscles and nerves and is surrounded by fascia. In the human body, the limbs can each be divided into two segments – the upper limb can be divided into the arm and the forearm and the sectional compartments of both of these – the fascial compartments of the arm and the fascial compartments of the forearm contain an anterior and a posterior compartment; the lower limbs can be divided into two segments – the leg and the thigh – and these contain the fascial compartments of the leg and the fascial compartments of the thigh. If these segments are cut transversely, it is apparent; these are called fascial compartments, are formed by tough connective tissue septa. These compartments have a separate nerve and blood supply to their neighbours; the muscles in each compartment will all be supplied by the same nerve. Sometimes the segment is covered by bone profoundly, it is distinguished from pharmacokinetic compartment, a defined volume of body fluids.
Compartment syndrome is an acute medical problem following injury or surgery in which increased pressure occurs within a compartment. Fasciae and Aponeuroses - Organized by Region Department of Anatomy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences