Tensor fasciae latae muscle
The tensor fasciae latae is a muscle of the thigh. It is related to the gluteus maximus in function and structure and is continuous with the iliotibial tract, which attaches to the tibia; the muscle assists in walking, or running. It arises from the anterior part of the outer lip of the iliac crest, it is inserted between the two layers of the iliotibial tract of the fascia lata about the junction of the middle and upper thirds of the thigh. The tensor fasciae latae tautens the iliotibial tract and braces the knee when the opposite foot is lifted; the terminal insertion point lies on the lateral condyle of the tibia. Tensor fasciae latae is innervated by the superior gluteal nerve, L5 and S1. At its origins of the anterior rami of L4, L5, S1 nerves, the superior gluteal nerve exits the pelvis via greater sciatic foramen superior to the piriformis; the nerve courses between the gluteus medius and minimus. The superior gluteal artery supplies the tensor fasciae latae; the superior gluteal nerve arises from the sacral plexus and only has muscular innervation associated with it.
There is no cutaneous innervation for sensation. The tensor fasciae latae is a tensor of the fascia lata; the fascia lata is a fibrous sheath that encircles the thigh like a subcutaneous stocking and binds its muscles. On the lateral surface, it combines with the tendons of the gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae to form the iliotibial tract, which extends from the iliac crest to the lateral condyle of the tibia. In the erect posture, acting from below, it will serve to steady the pelvis upon the head of the femur; the basic functional movement of tensor fasciae latae is walking. The tensor fasciae latae is utilized in horse riding and water skiing; some problems that arise when this muscle is tight or shortened are pelvic imbalances that lead to pain in hips, as well as pain in the lower back and lateral area of knees. Because of its insertion point on the lateral condyle of the tibia, it aids in the lateral rotation of the tibia; this lateral rotation may be initiated in conjunction with hip abduction and medial rotation of the femur while kicking a soccer ball.
The tensor fasciae latae works in synergy with the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles to abduct and medially rotate the femur. The TFL is a hip abductor muscle. To stretch the tensor fasciae latae, the knee may be brought medially across the body. If one leans against a wall with crossed legs and pushes the pelvis away from the wall sidebending the lumbar spine should be avoided as it stretches the lumbar region rather than the tensor fasciae latae and other muscles which cross the hip rather than the spine; because it is used for so many movements and is in a shortened position when seated, the TFL becomes tight easily. TFL stretches lengthen this important muscle. A small case notes that “it seems possible that a sloped or banked surface could predispose an individual to a TFL strain.” In such a case, “treatment consists of rest and flexibility exercises”, such as lliotibial band stretching. "Tensor fasciae latae" translates from Latin to English as "stretcher of the side band". "Tensor" is an agent noun that comes from the past participle stem "tens-" of the Latin verb "tendere", meaning "to stretch".
"Fasciae" is in the singular genitive case. "Latae" is the respective singular, feminine form of the Latin adjective "latus" meaning "side". This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 476 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Muscles/TensorFasciaeLatae at exrx.net Coachr
The iliopsoas refers to the joined psoas and the iliacus muscles. The two muscles are separate in the abdomen, but merge in the thigh; as such, they are given the common name iliopsoas. The iliopsoas muscle joins to the femur at the lesser trochanter, acts as the strongest flexor of the hip; the iliopsoas muscle is supplied by parts of the femoral nerve. The iliopsoas muscle is a composite muscle formed from the psoas major muscle, the iliacus muscle; the psoas major originates along the outer surfaces of the vertebral bodies of T12 and L1-L3 and their associated intervertebral discs. The iliacus originates in the iliac fossa of the pelvis; the psoas major unites with the iliacus at the level of the inguinal ligament and crosses the hip joint to insert on the lesser trochanter of the femur. The iliopsoas is classified as an "anterior hip muscle" or "inner hip muscle"; the psoas minor does contribute to the iliopsoas muscle. The inferior portion below the inguinal ligament forms part of the floor of the femoral triangle.
The psoas major is innervated by direct branches of the anterior rami off the lumbar plexus at the levels of L1-L3, while the iliacus is innervated by the femoral nerve. The iliopsoas is the prime mover of hip flexion, is the strongest of the hip flexors; the iliopsoas is important for standing and running. The iliacus and psoas major perform different actions; the iliopsoas muscle is covered by the iliac fascia, which begins as a strong tube-shaped psoas fascia, which surround the psoas major muscle as it passes under the medial arcuate ligament. Together with the iliac fascia, it continues down to the inguinal ligament where it forms the iliopectineal arch which separates the muscular and vascular lacunae, it is a typical posture muscle dominated by slow-twitch red type 1 fibers. Since it originates from the lumbar vertebrae and discs and inserts onto the femur, any structure from the lumbar spine to the femur can be affected directly. A short and tight iliopsoas presents as externally rotated legs and feet.
It can cause pain in the low or mid back, SI joint, groin, knee, or any combination. The iliopsoas gets innervation from the L2-4 nerve roots of the lumbar plexus which send branches to the superficial lumbar muscles; the femoral nerve passes through the muscle and innervates the quadriceps and sartorius muscles. It comprises the intermediate femoral cutaneous and medial femoral cutaneous nerves which are responsible for sensation over the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh, medial shin, arch of the foot nerves; the obturator nerve passes through the muscle, responsible for the sensory innervation of the skin of the medial aspect of the thigh and motor innervation of the adductor muscles of the lower extremity and sometimes the pectineus. Any of these innervated structures can be affected. Psoas abscess Iliopsoas tendonitis Muscles of the hip Muscles/Iliopsoas at exrx.net Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
Gray's Anatomy is an English language textbook of human anatomy written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter. Earlier editions were called Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, Anatomy of the Human Body and Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied, but the book's name is shortened to, editions are titled, Gray's Anatomy; the book is regarded as an influential work on the subject, has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day. The latest edition of the book, the 41st, was published in September 2015; the English anatomist Henry Gray was born in 1827. He studied the development of the endocrine glands and spleen and in 1853 was appointed Lecturer on Anatomy at St George's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1855, he approached his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter with his idea to produce an inexpensive and accessible anatomy textbook for medical students. Dissecting unclaimed bodies from workhouse and hospital mortuaries through the Anatomy Act of 1832, the two worked for 18 months on what would form the basis of the book.
Their work was first published in 1858 by John William Parker in London. It was dedicated by Gray to 1st Baronet. An imprint of this English first edition was published in the United States in 1859, with slight alterations. Gray prepared a second, revised edition, published in the United Kingdom in 1860 by J. W. Parker. However, Gray died the following year, at the age of 34, having contracted smallpox while treating his nephew, his death had come just three years after the initial publication of his Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical. So, the work on his much-praised book was continued by others. Longman's publication began in 1863, after their acquisition of the J. W. Parker publishing business; this coincided with the publication date of the third British edition of Gray's Anatomy. Successive British editions of Gray's Anatomy continued to be published under the Longman, more Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier imprints, reflecting further changes in ownership of the publishing companies over the years.
The full American rights were purchased by Blanchard and Lea, who published the first of twenty-five distinct American editions of Gray's Anatomy in 1862, whose company became Lea & Febiger in 1908. Lea & Febiger continued publishing the American editions until the company was sold in 1990; the first American publication was edited by Richard James Dunglison, whose father Robley Dunglison was physician to Thomas Jefferson. Dunglison edited the next four editions; these were: the Second American Edition. W. W. Keen edited the next two editions, namely: the New American from the Eleventh English Edition. In September 1896, reference to the English edition was dropped and it was published as the Fourteenth Edition, edited by Bern B. Gallaudet, F. J. Brockway, J. P. McMurrich, who edited the Fifteenth Edition. There is an edition dated 1896 which does still reference the English edition stating it is "A New Edition, Thoroughly Revised by American Authorities, from the thirteenth English Edition" and edited by T. Pickering Pick, F.
R. C. S. and published by Lea Brothers & Co. Philadelphia and New York; the Sixteenth Edition was edited by J. C. DaCosta, the Seventeenth by DaCosta and E. A. Spitzka. Spitzka edited the Eighteenth and Nineteenth editions, in October 1913, R. Howden edited the New American from the Eighteenth English Edition; the "American" editions continued with consecutive numbering from the Twentieth onwards, with W. H. Lewis editing the 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th. C. M. Gross edited the 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 29th. Carmine D. Clemente extensively revised the 30th edition. With the sale of Lea & Febiger in 1990, the 30th edition was the last American Edition. Sometimes separate editing efforts with mismatches between British and American edition numbering led to the existence, for many years, of two main "flavours" or "branches" of Gray's Anatomy: the U. S. and the British one. This can cause misunderstandings and confusion when quoting from or trying to purchase a certain edition. For example, a comparison of publishing histories shows that the American numbering kept apace with the British up until the 16th editions in 1905, with the American editions either acknowledging the English edition, or matching the numbering in the 14th, 15th and 16th editions.
The American numbering crept ahead, with the 17th American edition published in 1908, while the 17th British edition was published in 1909. This increased to a three-year gap for the 18th and 19th editions, leading to the 1913 publication of the New American from the Eighteenth English, which brought the numbering back into line. Both 20th editions were published in the same year. Thereafter, it was the British numbering that pushed ahead, with the 21st British edition in 1920, the 21st American edition in 1924; this discrepancy continued to increase, so that the 30th British edition was published in 1949, while the 30th and last American edition was published in 1984. The newest, 41st edition of Gray's Anatomy was published on 25 September 2015 by Elsevier in both print and online versions, and
Lateral rotator group
The lateral rotator group is a group of six small muscles of the hip which all externally rotate the femur in the hip joint. It consists of the following muscles: Piriformis, gemellus superior, obturator internus, gemellus inferior, quadratus femoris and the obturator externus. All muscles in the lateral rotator group originate from the hip bone and insert on to the upper extremity of the femur; the muscles are innervated by the sacral plexus, except the obturator externus muscle, innervated by the lumbar plexus. This group does not include all muscles which aid in lateral rotation of the hip joint: rather it is a collection of ones which are known for performing this action. Other muscles that contribute to lateral rotation of the hip include: Gluteus maximus muscle Gluteus medius muscle and gluteus minimus muscle when the hip is extended Psoas major muscle Psoas minor muscle Sartorius muscle Hip anatomy Glutealregion at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
The gluteal muscles are a group of three muscles which make up the buttocks: the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus. The three muscles insert on the femur; the functions of the muscles include extension, external rotation and internal rotation of the hip joint. The gluteus maximus is the most superficial of the three gluteal muscles, it makes up a large portion of the appearance of the hips. It is a narrow and thick fleshy mass of a quadrilateral shape, forms the prominence of the nates; the gluteus medius is a broad, radiating muscle, situated on the outer surface of the pelvis. It lies profound to the gluteus maximus and its posterior third is covered by the gluteus maximus, its anterior two-thirds by the gluteal aponeurosis, which separates it from the superficial fascia and integument; the gluteus minimus is the smallest of the three gluteal muscles and is situated beneath the gluteus medius. The bulk of the gluteal muscle mass contributes only to shape of the buttocks; the other major contributing factor is that of the panniculus adiposus of the buttocks, well developed in this area, gives the buttock its characteristic rounded shape.
The gluteal muscle bulk and tone can be improved with exercise. However, it is predominantly the disposition of the overlying panniculus adiposus which may cause sagging in this region of the body. Exercise in general which can contribute to fat loss can lead to reduction of mass in subcutaneal fat storage locations on the body which includes the panniculus, so for leaner and more active individuals, the glutes will more predominantly contribute to the shape than someone less active with a fattier composition; the degree of body fat stored in various locations such as the panniculus is dictated by genetic and hormonal profiles. The gluteus maximus arises from the posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium, the rough portion of bone including the crest above and behind it; the fibers are lateralward. Its action is to extend and to laterally rotate the hip, to extend the trunk; the gluteus medius muscle originates on the outer surface of the ilium between the iliac crest and the posterior gluteal line above, the anterior gluteal line below.
The fibers of the muscle converge into a strong flattened tendon that inserts on the lateral surface of the greater trochanter. More the muscle's tendon inserts into an oblique ridge that runs downward and forward on the lateral surface of the greater trochanter; the gluteus minimus is fan-shaped, arising from the outer surface of the ilium, between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines, behind, from the margin of the greater sciatic notch. The fibers converge to the deep surface of a radiated aponeurosis, this ends in a tendon, inserted into an impression on the anterior border of the greater trochanter, gives an expansion to the capsule of the hip joint; the functions of muscles includes extension, lateral rotation and medial rotation of the hip joint. The gluteus maximus supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract. Sitting for long periods can lead to the gluteal muscles atrophying through constant pressure and disuse; this may be associated with lower back pain, difficulty with some movements that require the gluteal muscles, such as rising from the seated position, climbing stairs.
Any exercise that works and/or stretches the buttocks is suitable, for example lunges, hip thrusts, climbing stairs, bicycling, squats, arabesque and various specific exercises for the bottom. Weight training exercises which are known to strengthen the gluteal muscles include the squat, leg press, any other movements involving external hip rotation and hip extension. Gluteal crease McMinn, RMH Last applied. London: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-04662-X 8b; the Muscles and Fasciæ of the Thigh Bartleby.com, Henry Gray, Anatomy of the Human Body, 1918
The femoral sheath is formed by a prolongation downward, behind the inguinal ligament, of the abdominal fascia, the transverse fascia being continued down in front of the femoral vessels and the iliac fascia behind them. The femoral sheath is contained within the femoral triangle; the sheath assumes the form of a short funnel, the wide end of, directed upward, while the lower, narrow end fuses with the fascial investment of the vessels, about 4 cm. below the inguinal ligament. It is strengthened in front by a band termed the iliopubic tract; the lateral wall of the sheath is perforated by the lumboinguinal nerve. The sheath is divided by two vertical partitions which stretch between its anterior and posterior walls; the lateral compartment contains the femoral artery and femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve, the intermediate the femoral vein, while the medial and smallest compartment is named the femoral canal, contains some lymphatic vessels and a lymph gland embedded in a small amount of areolar tissue.
The femoral canal is conical and measures about 1.25 cm. in length. Its base, directed upward and named the femoral ring, is oval in form, its long diameter being directed transversely and measuring about 1.25 cm. The spermatic cord in the male and the round ligament of the uterus in the female lie above the anterior margin of the ring, while the inferior epigastric vessels are close to its upper and lateral angle; the femoral ring is closed by a somewhat condensed portion of the extraperitoneal fatty tissue, named the septum femorale, the abdominal surface of which supports a small lymph gland and is covered by the parietal peritoneum. The septum femorale is pierced by numerous lymphatic vessels passing from the deep inguinal to the external iliac lymph glands, the parietal peritoneum above it presents a slight depression named the femoral fossa; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 625 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Photo and overview at gla.ac.uk antthigh at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Diagram at washington.edu