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PostgreSQL known as Postgres, is a free and open-source relational database management system emphasizing extensibility and technical standards compliance. It is designed to handle a range of workloads, from single machines to data warehouses or Web services with many concurrent users, it is the default database for macOS Server, is available for Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Windows. PostgreSQL features transactions with Atomicity, Isolation, Durability properties, automatically updatable views, materialized views, foreign keys, stored procedures. PostgreSQL is developed by the PostgreSQL Global Development Group, a diverse group of many companies and individual contributors. PostgreSQL's developers pronounce PostgreSQL as, it is abbreviated as Postgres because of ubiquitous support for the SQL standard among relational databases. Named POSTGRES, the name refers to the project's origins in that RDBMS that originated at University of California, Berkeley. After a review the PostgreSQL Core Team announced in 2007 that the product would continue to use the name PostgreSQL.

PostgreSQL evolved from the Ingres project at the University of Berkeley. In 1982, the leader of the Ingres team, Michael Stonebraker, left Berkeley to make a proprietary version of Ingres, he returned to Berkeley in 1985, began a post-Ingres project to address the problems with contemporary database systems that had become clear during the early 1980s. He won the Turing Award in 2014 for these and other projects, techniques pioneered in them; the new project, POSTGRES, aimed to add the fewest features needed to support data types. These features included the ability to define types and to describe relationships – something used but maintained by the user. In POSTGRES, the database understood relationships, could retrieve information in related tables in a natural way using rules. POSTGRES used many of the ideas of Ingres, but not its code. Starting in 1986, published papers described the basis of the system, a prototype version was shown at the 1988 ACM SIGMOD Conference; the team released version 1 to a small number of users in June 1989, followed by version 2 with a re-written rules system in June 1990.

Version 3, released in 1991, again re-wrote the rules system, added support for multiple storage managers and an improved query engine. By 1993, the number of users features. After releasing version 4.2 on June 30, 1994 – a cleanup – the project ended. Berkeley released POSTGRES under an MIT License variant, which enabled other developers to use the code for any use. At the time, POSTGRES used an Ingres-influenced POSTQUEL query language interpreter, which could be interactively used with a console application named monitor. In 1994, Berkeley graduate students Andrew Yu and Jolly Chen replaced the POSTQUEL query language interpreter with one for the SQL query language, creating Postgres95. Monitor was replaced by psql. Yu and Chen announced the first version to beta testers on May 5, 1995. Version 1.0 of Postgres95 was announced on September 5, 1995, with a more liberal license that enabled the software to be modifiable. On July 8, 1996, Marc Fournier at Networking Services provided the first non-university development server for the open-source development effort.

With the participation of Bruce Momjian and Vadim B. Mikheev, work began to stabilize the code inherited from Berkeley. In 1996, the project was renamed to PostgreSQL to reflect its support for SQL; the online presence at the website began on October 22, 1996. The first PostgreSQL release formed version 6.0 on January 29, 1997. Since developers and volunteers around the world have maintained the software as The PostgreSQL Global Development Group; the project continues to make releases available under its free and open-source software PostgreSQL License. Code comes from contributions from proprietary vendors, support companies, open-source programmers. PostgreSQL manages concurrency through multiversion concurrency control, which gives each transaction a "snapshot" of the database, allowing changes to be made without affecting other transactions; this eliminates the need for read locks, ensures the database maintains ACID principles. PostgreSQL offers three levels of transaction isolation: Read Committed, Repeatable Read and Serializable.

Because PostgreSQL is immune to dirty reads, requesting a Read Uncommitted transaction isolation level provides read committed instead. PostgreSQL supports full serializability via the serializable snapshot isolation method. PostgreSQL includes built-in binary replication based on shipping the changes to replica nodes asynchronously, with the ability to run read-only queries against these replicated nodes; this allows splitting read traffic among multiple nodes efficiently. Earlier replication software that allowed similar read scaling relied on adding replication triggers to the master, increasing load. PostgreSQL includes built-in synchronous replication that ensures that, for each write transaction, the master waits until at least one replica node has written the data to its transaction log. Unlike other database systems, the durability of a transaction can be specified per-database, per-user, per-session or per-transaction; this can be useful for workloads that do not require such guarantees, may not be wanted for all data as it slows down performance due to the requirement of the confirmation of the transaction reaching the synchronous standby.

Standby servers can be asynchronous. Synchronous standby servers can be sp

Dharmavaram handloom pattu sarees and paavadas

Dharmavaram handloom pattu sarees and paavadas are textiles woven by hand with mulberry silk and zari. They are made in Dharmavaram of Anantapur district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, it was registered as one of the geographical indication from Andhra Pradesh by Geographical Indications of Goods Act, 1999. Kriya Shakthi Vodavaru Swamy named Dharmavaram after the name of his mother, Dharmambai in the year 1153–54 AD. By 19th century, silk handloom industry emerged as the main occupation. Paintings on the roof wall of Lepakshi temple and Latha Mandapam depicts the designs of Dharmavaram saris; the production of the Dharmavaram saris and Paavadas includes different stages which includes: Raw materials – pure Mulberry silk in yarn form or raw silk, zari threads of red, green and gold, acid dyes and soda for degumming, water Quality of silk – cocoons are boiled in steam to obtain yarn and Denier silk and undergoes twisting and formation of warp and weft. Degumming of silk purification – process involves boiling of yarn with soda ash and soap to remove natural gums.

Plying of Yarn – Plying of yarn is done to create a balanced yarn, done for both sari and pavadas. Dyeing – usage of acid dyes for shades from rainbow colors, plied yarn absorbs dye in hot water, the entire process involves certain aspects like liquor ratio, chemicals in dye, PH etc. Kuttu Dharmavaram sari weaving involves Tie and dye method Drying – after the above process, the yarn is dried indoor on bamboo sticks. Pre-loom process Winding of hank yarn into warp and weft – charka, shift bamboo and bobbin are used to form warp. While, the weft is made with help of a pirn. Street sizing – the warp extension, spraying of rice conjee ensures suitable weaving followed by drying. Weaving process – it involves Warp and Weft method of weaving and sometimes replaced by Jacquard weaving and Dobby. Usage of only pitlooms for weaving and no powerlooms and petni technique. Cutting and folding – designing and cutting per the goods demand for marketing take place The saris are worn in winter or cold conditions, for functions, are used by dancers of Bharath Natyam and Kuchipudi


Sajāwand is a village in Baraki Barak district, Logar province, Afghanistan. Sajāwand was known in the early Islamic era as Sakāwand or Sagāwand Shakāwand in the writings of Al-Biruni, Arabized into Sajāwand from the 10th-century onwards; this name may stem from the Pali word सक्क used as an epithet for the god Indra, the Vedic King of the Gods and the possessive suffix -vant. This understanding is supported by the notes of the Chinese traveler monk Xuanzang, who in the 7th-century CE described the site as the Śunāsīra mountain, Śunāsīra being another epithet for Indra. In medieval sources the town has been known under the name Bahāwand meaning "place of value"; the first known mention of the site, today known as Sajāwand is in the notes of the Chinese traveler monk Xuanzang. In the year 644 CE, during his stay in the country of Jāguda, he writes about the religious practices of the country as being Mahayana Buddhist and pagan with the majority of worshippers venerating the god Śunā, he describes the home of this deity as being the Śunāsīra mountain, where people came "from far and near and high and low" attracting kings, ministers and common people of regions where different customs were observed, to pay homage and make donations."They either offer gold and rare gems or present sheep and other domestic animals to the god in competition with each other to show their piety and sincerity.

Therefore gold and silver are scattered all over the ground, sheep and horses fill up the valley. Nobody dares to covet them. To those who respect and serve the heretics and practice asceticism whole-heartedly, the god imparts magical incantations, of which the heretics make effective use in most cases; as the Saffarid brothers Ya'qūb and'Amr ibn al-Layth set out from Zaranj on their successful plundering and conquering of the Hindu and Buddhist regions east of Nimruz, local royal families were decimated to such a degree that holy places such as Zamindawar and Sakawand became exposed to Muslim onslaught. With the defeat of its last surrounding patrons in 870 CE, the Saffarid commander Fardghān was appointed as governor of Zabulistan under the command of four thousand horsemen. Hearing of the wealth of the temple of Sakāwand, he led his army against it, took the temple, smashed its idols and overthrew its Zhūn worshipping guardians. Distributing some of the plunder among his troops, Fardghān sent the rest to'Amr ibn al-Layth asking for reinforcements against the certain reaction of the Hindu rulers of Zabulistans eastern border.

Hearing of the fall of Sakawand, the Hindu Shahi Kallar of Kabul raised an army to retake the temple, though was unable to compete with the Saffarids greater numbers. As'Amr ibn al-Layth was defeated by the Samanids at the battle of Balkh in 901 CE, Saffarid influence over Zabulistan waned and Sakawand once again became a dependency of local Hindu-Buddhist dynasties such as the Bamiyan Sher, the Loyaks of Zabulistan, the Hindu Shahis of Kabul and the kings of Parwan. With the defeat of the Bamiyan Sher as well as the expulsion of Abu Bakr Loyak from Ghazni by the Samanid slave-commander Alp Tegin in 962 CE, Sajawand fell under Ghaznavid control. Benefiting from the surge of loot flowing into Ghazni under the rule of Mahmud and his sons, Sajawand recovered as a bustling town, producing a number of great Islamic scholars of the 12th century, most notably Muhammad ibn Tayfour Sajawandi and Siraj ud-Din Muhammad ibn Abd ur-Rashid Sajawandi. After Baburs conquest of Kabul in 1504, he mentions Sajawand during his traverse through Logar in his memoirs the Baburnama.

At this time, Sajawand was a town known for its shrines and holy men, having produced a number of masters of the Naqshbandi sect, the most famous of these being the brothers Khwaja Ahmad Sajawandi and Khwaja Yunus Sajawandi, whom Babur mentions. In the reign of Akbar, Sajawand was one of many centers of the missionary-minded Naqshbandi order of Islamic mysticism. One of Sajawands most notable members of the order, Mawlana Bekasi Sajawandi, is known to have frequented the Majlis of Mirza Muhammad Hakim, governor of Kabul and a staunch adherent of the sect; the remains of the temple of Zhun can today be found on a hill at the outskirts of Sajawand. Brief archeological work conducted by Warwick Ball in the 1970s suggests that the temple was rebuilt by the Hindu Shahi after its sacking by Fardghān in 870 CE, with architectural and documentary evidence showing influence from the Hindu Shahi culture of the 10th century; the mud-brick structure sitting on top of the original pre-Islamic platform further suggests that the temple was at some point again destroyed and rebuilt in the Islamic era.

The site has in modern times been known locally as the Takht-i Jamshēd, from the mythological character Jamshēd of Ferdowsi's Shahnamah. The site is outside the regulation of the Afghan authorities and have been subject to looting. In the 90s during Taliban rule, two golden statues are known to have been unearthed from the site and sold on the black market, yet to have been recovered. In Sajawand lies the shrine of the Naqshbandi masters Khwaja Ahmad Sajawandi and Khwaja Yunus Sajawandi, known as the Ziārat-e Hazrat-o'Āshiqān wa Ārifān meaning "the shrine of the master o

Gracemont, Oklahoma

Gracemont is a town in Caddo County, United States. The population was 318 at the 2010 census; the town name is a portmanteau of Grace and Montgomery, the names of two friends of the first postmaster, Alice L. Bailey. Gracemont is located east of the center of Caddo County at 35°11′16″N 98°15′31″W, in the valley of Sugar Creek, a tributary of the Washita River and part of the Red River watershed. U. S. Route 281 passes through the town, leading south 8 miles to Anadarko, the county seat, north 12 miles to Binger. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town of Gracemont has a total area of 0.15 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 336 people, 143 households, 90 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,199.3 people per square mile. There were 169 housing units at an average density of 1,106.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 80.65% White, 12.50% Native American, 4.46% from other races, 2.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.52% of the population.

There were 143 households out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.05. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $21,875, the median income for a family was $34,167. Males had a median income of $24,792 versus $18,000 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,026. About 14.9% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.3% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over.

T. C. Cannon, Native American artist Sunset Carson, B-western star of the 1940s Joe Edelen, former Major League Baseball relief pitcher, 1973 Major League Baseball Draft Doris McLemore, last fluent speaker of the Wichita language Kaycee Nicole Swenson, fictitious persona, well-known case of Münchausen by Internet from 1999 to 2001 Harry Teague, former U. S. Representative for New Mexico's 2nd congressional district Gracemont Public School Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Gracemont

Oskar Kohnstamm

Dr. Oskar Felix Kohnstamm was a German neurologist and psychiatrist. Trained in internal medicine in Giessen and Strassbourg he received his doctors degree in Berlin in 1894. Kohnstamm began as a general practitioner in Königstein im Taunus, a small town in Hesse. There, he became more interested in neurology and psychiatry, his wife, daughter of Johannes Gad - one of Kohnstamm's Berlin professors, agreed to have depressive patients as guests in the house, who got chores assigned in housekeeping, gardening or minding the children. The idea ripened to build a small sanatorium for treating clinical depressions; the house, build in Jugendstil style, opened in 1905 and was expanded in 1912. Kohnstamm was no follower of Sigmund Freud but worked with hypnosis. Among his patients were three young men who would become world-famous: the painter Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, the actor Alexander Moissi and the conductor Otto Klemperer; the playwright Carl Sternheim has been in medical treatment in Kohnstamms sanatorium during the First World War.

The poets Stefan George, Karl Wolfskehl, the archaeologist Botho Graef and the architect Henry van de Velde have been friends of him. Gertrude Kingston was Phyllis Konstam a niece; the tale Peter and Anneli's Journey to the Moon, written by a former patient Gerdt von Bassewitz, was playing in his sanatorium with his children as the main character. Kohnstamm's phenomenon Kohnstamm, Oskar Erscheinungsforme der Seele. Munich: Ernst Reinhardt Verlag. Laudenheimer, R. Oskar Kohnstamm, eine biographische Skizze. In Kohnstamm,O. Erscheinungsformen der Seele. Heyworth, Peter Otto Klemperer, his life and times, Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Grisebach, Lucius Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 1880-1938. Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag. Grossmann-Hofman, B. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner in Königstein. Königstein: City archive. Kohnstamm, Peter Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen - Erinnerungen an vergangene Zeiten, Königstein im Taunus

Sámi Parliament of Norway

The Sámi Parliament of Norway is the representative body for people of Sámi heritage in Norway. It acts as an institution of cultural autonomy for the indigenous Sami people; the Parliament was opened on 9 October 1989. The seat is in the village of Kárášjohka in Kárášjohka Municipality in Finnmark county, it has 39 representatives, who are elected every four years by direct vote from 7 constituencies. The last election was in 2017. Unlike in Finland, the 7 constituencies cover all of Norway; the current president is Aili Keskitalo. In 1964, the Norwegian Sámi Council was established to address Sámi matters; the members of the body were appointed by state authorities. This body was replaced by the Sámi Parliament. In 1978, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate published a plan that called for the construction of a dam and hydroelectric power plant that would create an artificial lake and inundate the Sámi village of Máze; this plan was met by strong opposition from the Sámi, resulted in the Alta controversy.

As a result of the controversy, the Norwegian government held meetings in 1980 and 1981 with a Sámi delegation appointed by the Norwegian Sámi Association, the Sámi Reindeer Herders’ Association of Norway and the Norwegian Sámi Council. The meetings resulted in the establishment of a committee to discuss Sámi cultural issues, the Sámi Rights Committee addressing Sámi legal relations; the latter proposed a democratically elected body for the Sámi, resulting in the Sámi Act of 1987. In addition, the Sámi Rights Committee resulted in the 1988 amendment of the Norwegian Constitution, the adoption of the Finnmark Act in 2005; the Sámi Act, stipulating the responsibilities and powers of the Norwegian Sámi Parliament, was passed by the Norwegian Parliament on 12 June 1987 and took effect on 24 February 1989. The first session of the Sámi Parliament was convened on 9 October 1989 and was opened by King Olav V; the Norwegian Sámi Parliament plenary has 39 representatives elected by direct vote from 7 constituencies.

The plenary is the highest body in the Sámi Parliament and it is sovereign in the execution of the Sámi Parliaments duties within the framework of the Sámi Act. The representatives from the largest party form a governing council, selects a president. Although the position of vice-president was formally removed from the Sámi Parliament's Rules of Procedure in 2013, it is considered the concern of the President of the Sámi Parliament whether he or she wants to appoint a vice-president; the governing council is responsible for executing the roles and responsibilities of the parliament between plenary meetings. In addition there are multiple thematic committees addressing specific cases; the Sámi Parliament of Norway is located in Karasjok, the building was inaugurated on 2 November 2000. There are offices in Guovdageaidnu, Unjárga, Gáivuotna, Snåase; the town of Kárášjohka is considered an important center of Sámi culture in Norway. 80% of the town's population is Sámi-speaking, the town hosts Sámi broadcasting stations and several public and private Sámi institutions such as the Sámi Museum and the organization Sami Trade and Industry.

The building was designed by the architects Stein Halvorsen & Christian Sundby, who won the Norwegian government's call for projects in 1995, inaugurated in 2005. The government called for a building such that "the Sami Parliament appears in a dignified way" and "reflects Sami architecture." Hence the peaked structure of the Plenary Assembly Hall resembles the tipis the Sámi used as a nomadic culture. The parliament building houses a Sámi library focusing on books in the Sámi language or on Sámi topics, the Sámi chamber of commerce, Sámi Trade and Industry'; the parliament works of interest to the Sámi people. The responsibilities of the Sámi Parliament in Norway are: " to serve as the Sámi’s elected political body to promote political initiatives and to carry out the administrative tasks delegated from national authorities or by law to the Sami Parliament.". The extent of responsibility, assigned and transferred from the Norwegian government at the time of establishment was modest. However, more responsibilities have been added including: Management of the Sámi Development Fund, used for grants to Sami organizations and Sami duodji.

Responsibility for the development of the Sámi language in Norway, including allocation of funds to Sámi language municipalities and counties. Responsibility for Sámi culture, including a fund from the Norwegian Council for Cultural Affairs. Protection of Sámi cultural heritage sites. Development of Sámi teaching aids, including allocation of grants for this purpose. Election of 50% of the members to the board in the Finnmark Estate. One of the responsibilities is ensuring that the section 1–5 of the Saami Act is upheld, i.e. that the Sámi languages and Norwegian continue to have the same status. A good example of this is the current situation in Tysfjord, where speakers of Lule Sámi cannot conduct their official business in that language as the municipality has not provided anyone who can speak it to assist them; this is the only municipality in Norway where speakers of that language should theoretically be able to speak it with officials, but this has not come to fruition.