Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health. According to the World Health Organization, "Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases." Personal hygiene refers to maintaining the body's cleanliness. Many people equate hygiene with'cleanliness,' but hygiene is a broad term, it includes such personal habit choices as how to take a shower or bathe, wash hands, trim fingernails, change and wash clothes. It includes attention to keeping surfaces in the home and workplace, including bathroom facilities and pathogen-free; some regular hygiene practices may be considered good habits by a society, while the neglect of hygiene can be considered disgusting, disrespectful, or threatening. First attested in English in 1676s, the word hygiene comes from the French hygiène, the latinisation of the Greek ὑγιεινή hugieinē technē, meaning " of health", from ὑγιεινός hugieinos, "good for the health, healthy", in turn from ὑγιής, "healthful, salutary, wholesome".
In ancient Greek religion, Hygeia was the personification of health and hygiene. Hygiene is a concept related to cleanliness and medicine, it is as well related to professional care practices. In medicine and everyday life settings, hygiene practices are employed as preventative measures to reduce the incidence and spreading of disease. Hygiene practices vary, what is considered acceptable in one culture might not be acceptable in another. In the manufacturing of food, pharmaceutical and other products, good hygiene is a critical component of quality assurance; the terms cleanliness and hygiene are used interchangeably, which can cause confusion. In general, hygiene refers to practices. Cleaning processes remove infectious microbes as well as dirt and soil, are thus the means to achieve hygiene. Other uses of the term appear in phrases including body hygiene, personal hygiene, sleep hygiene, mental hygiene, dental hygiene, occupational hygiene, used in connection with public health. Hygiene is the name of a branch of science that deals with the promotion and preservation of health.
Medical hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices related to the administration of medicine and medical care that prevents or minimizes the spread of disease. Medical hygiene practices include: Isolation or quarantine of infectious persons or materials to prevent spread of infection. Sterilization of instruments used in surgical procedures. Use of protective clothing and barriers, such as masks, caps and gloves. Proper bandaging and dressing of injuries. Safe disposal of medical waste. Disinfection of reusables. Scrubbing up, hand-washing in an operating room, but in more general health-care settings as well, where diseases can be transmitted. Most of these practices were developed in the 19th century and were well established by the mid-20th century; some procedures were refined in response to late-20th century disease outbreaks, notably AIDS and Ebola. Home hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices that prevent or minimize the spread of disease at home and other everyday settings such as social settings, public transport, the workplace, public places, etc.
Hygiene in a variety of settings plays an important role in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. It includes procedures used in a variety of domestic situations such as hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene and water hygiene, general home hygiene, care of domestic animals, home health care. At present, these components of hygiene tend to be regarded as separate issues, although based on the same underlying microbiological principles. Preventing the spread of diseases means breaking the chain of infection transmission. Put, if the chain of infection is broken, infection cannot spread. In response to the need for effective codes of hygiene in home and everyday life settings the International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene has developed a risk-based approach based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point referred to as "targeted hygiene." Targeted hygiene is based on identifying the routes of pathogen spread in the home and introducing hygiene practices at critical times to break the chain of infection.
The main sources of infection in the home are people and water, domestic animals. Sites that accumulate stagnant water—such as sinks, waste pipes, cleaning tools, face cloths, etc. support microbial growth and can become secondary reservoirs of infection, though species are those that threaten "at risk" groups. Pathogens are shed from these sources via mucous membranes, vomit, skin scales, etc. Thus, when circumstances combine, people are exposed, either directly or via food or water, can develop an infection; the main "highways" for the spread of pathogens in the home are the hands and food contact surfaces, cleaning cloths and utensils. Pathogens can be spread via clothing and household linens, such as towels. Utilities such as toilets and wash basins, for example, were invented for dealing safely with human waste but still have risks associated with them. Safe disposal of human waste is a fundamental need. Respiratory viruses and fungal spores are spread via
Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, molecular mediators. The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, initiate tissue repair; the five classical signs of inflammation are heat, redness and loss of function. Inflammation is a generic response, therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity, specific for each pathogen. Too little inflammation could lead to progressive tissue destruction by the harmful stimulus and compromise the survival of the organism. In contrast, chronic inflammation may lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer. Inflammation is therefore closely regulated by the body. Inflammation can be classified as either chronic.
Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues. A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, various cells within the injured tissue. Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation, such as mononuclear cells, is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection. Infection describes the interaction between the action of microbial invasion and the reaction of the body's inflammatory response—the two components are considered together when discussing an infection, the word is used to imply a microbial invasive cause for the observed inflammatory reaction. Inflammation on the other hand describes purely the body's immunovascular response, whatever the cause may be.
But because of how the two are correlated, words ending in the suffix -itis are sometimes informally described as referring to infection. For example, the word urethritis means only "urethral inflammation", but clinical health care providers discuss urethritis as a urethral infection because urethral microbial invasion is the most common cause of urethritis, it is useful to differentiate inflammation and infection because there are typical situations in pathology and medical diagnosis where inflammation is not driven by microbial invasion – for example, trauma and autoimmune diseases including type III hypersensitivity. Conversely, there is pathology where microbial invasion does not cause the classic inflammatory response – for example, parasitosis or eosinophilia. Acute inflammation is a short-term process appearing within a few minutes or hours and begins to cease upon the removal of the injurious stimulus, it involves a coordinated and systemic mobilization response locally of various immune and neurological mediators of acute inflammation.
In a normal healthy response, it becomes activated, clears the pathogen and begins a repair process and ceases. It is characterized by five cardinal signs:An acronym that may be used to remember the key symptoms is "PRISH", for pain, immobility and heat; the traditional names for signs of inflammation come from Latin: Dolor Calor Rubor Tumor Functio laesa The first four were described by Celsus, while loss of function was added by Galen. However, the addition of this fifth sign has been ascribed to Thomas Sydenham and Virchow. Redness and heat are due to increased blood flow at body core temperature to the inflamed site. Loss of function has multiple causes. Acute inflammation of the lung does not cause pain unless the inflammation involves the parietal pleura, which does have pain-sensitive nerve endings; the process of acute inflammation is initiated by resident immune cells present in the involved tissue resident macrophages, dendritic cells, Kupffer cells and mast cells. These cells possess surface receptors known as pattern recognition receptors, which recognize two subclasses of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns.
PAMPs are compounds that are associated with various pathogens, but which are distinguishable from host molecules. DAMPs are compounds that are associated with host-related cell damage. At the onset of an infection, burn, or other injuries, these cells undergo activation and release inflammatory mediators responsible for the clinical signs of inflammation. Vasodilation and its resulting increased blood flow causes increased heat. Increased permeability of the blood vessels results in an exudation of plasma proteins and fluid into the tissue, which manifests itself as swelling; some of the released mediators such as bradykinin increase the sensitivity to pain. The mediator molecules alter the blood vessels to