Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Bouse is a census-designated place in La Paz County, United States. Founded in 1908 as a mining camp, the economy of Bouse is now based on tourism and retirees; the population was 996 at the 2010 census. Bouse is located at 33°56′1″N 114°0′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 10.1 square miles, all of it land. Camp Bouse, 20 mi east in Butler Valley, is the former site of a World War II US Army tank training camp. Although the buildings are gone, a few foundations remain, as do some of the tank tracks from World War II. There is a Camp Bouse memorial monument in Bouse; as of the census of 2010, there were 996 people, 547 households, 303 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 60.9 people per square mile. There were 562 housing units at an average density of 55.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 95.61% White, 0.33% Black or African American, 1.30% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.33% Pacific Islander, 0.81% from other races, 1.46% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.55% of the population. There were 320 households out of which 6.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.5% were married couples living together, 5.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.3% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.92 and the average family size was 2.33. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 9.8% under the age of 18, 1.1% from 18 to 24, 8.5% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, 51.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 65 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $19,479, the median income for a family was $27,935. Males had a median income of $36,250 versus $20,536 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $13,623. About 9.9% of families and 21.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 47.4% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over.
This area has a large amount of sunshine year round due to its stable descending air and high pressure. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Bouse has a desert climate, abbreviated "Bwh" on climate maps. An egg facility owned by Rose Acre Farms broke ground near Bouse on July 13, 2015; the facility was planned to include a pullet farm, a rail spur from the Arizona and California Railroad, a feed mill operation. According to the president of the La Paz Economic Development Corporation, it is the biggest economic development project taken in the county. In early 2017, it was reported by the mayor of Parker that the facility has hens and its first truckload of eggs was out. List of historic properties in Bouse, Arizona Bouse Chamber of Commerce Bouse information and attractions Minerals of Bouse at Mindat.org
The Parker Valley is located along the Lower Colorado River within the Lower Colorado River Valley region, in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California. Its natural habitats are within the Sonoran Colorado Desert ecoregions. Riparian zone habitats on the river include Mesquite Bosques; the river has supported irrigated agricultural conversion of the valley's landscape. Three major drainages of the Colorado River enter in the Parker Valley region; the Bill Williams River and Bouse Wash have confluences with the Colorado in the northern valley area, from watersheds on the east. Tyson Wash crosses the La Posa Plain and enters downstream, with its watershed east of the river in the Colorado River Indian Reservation. In California, the Vidal Valley and the Whipple Mountains border the Parker Valley on the northwest, the Palo Verde Valley on the southwest. In Arizona the Buckskin Mountains border the valley on the north, the Cactus Plain and Dome Rock Mountains border it on the east. Settlements within Parker Valley include: Parker and Poston in Arizona.
It is at the northern area of the Colorado River Indian Reservation on the Colorado River, is at the northern perimeter of the La Posa Plain. Valleys of the Lower Colorado River Valley U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Parker Valley Arizona Atlas & Gazetteer, DeLorme, c. 2002, p. 70
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Salome is a census-designated place in La Paz County, United States. The population was 1,530 at the 2010 census, it was established in 1904 by Dick Wick Hall, Ernest Hall and Charles Pratt, was named after Pratt's wife, Grace Salome Pratt. Salome is located at 33°45′49″N 113°36′31″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 27.4 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,690 people, 780 households, 502 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 61.6 people per square mile. There were 1,176 housing units at an average density of 42.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 91.12% White, 0.30% Black or African American, 2.66% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.24% Pacific Islander, 3.14% from other races, 2.25% from two or more races. 18.52% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 780 households out of which 16.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.4% were married couples living together, 3.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.6% were non-families.
28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.63. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 17.3% under the age of 18, 3.6% from 18 to 24, 15.9% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, 33.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 57 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $22,866, the median income for a family was $24,805. Males had a median income of $23,500 versus $21,786 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $12,872. About 16.7% of families and 23.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.4% of those under age 18 and 16.1% of those age 65 or over. Dick Wick Hall and writerHarry Whitney, world renowned horseman Arizona Outback Online
Quartzsite is a town in La Paz County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population was 3,677. Interstate 10 runs directly through Quartzsite, at the intersection of U. S. Route 95 and Arizona State Route 95 with I-10. Where Quartzsite is now located, was from 1863 to the 1880s the site of a waterhole and a stage station, called Tyson's Wells, along the La Paz - Wikenburg Road on Tyson Wash, in what was Yuma County, in the newly created Arizona Territory, it was about 20 miles from the Colorado River steamboat landing of La Paz and 25 miles from the landing of Erhenburg from 1866. The next stop was 25 miles to the east at (Desert Station. Tyson's Wells in 1875, was described by Martha Summerhayes, in her book Vanished Arizona: "At all events, whatever Messrs. Hunt and Dudley were doing down there, their ranch was clean and attractive, more than could be said of the place where we stopped the next night, a place called Tysons Wells. We slept in our tent that night, for of all places on the earth a poorly kept ranch in Arizona is the most melancholy and uninviting.
It reeks of everything unclean and physically." "One more day's travel across the desert brought us to our El Dorado."In the valley around Tyson's Wells were placers that surrounded it, known to have been worked by individual prospectors since the beginning of the Colorado Gold Rush of the 1860's up until the 1950's. Some large scale operations in the early 20th Century were failures. According to the United States Census Bureau Quartzsite is all land and has a total area of 36.3 sq mi. Quartzsite lies on the western portion of the La Posa Plain along Tyson Wash; the Dome Rock Mountains overlook the town on the west with Granite Mountain on the southwest edge of the town and Oldman Mountain on the northwest. The Plomosa Mountains lie across the La Posa Plain to the east; the town has a hot desert climate with mild to warm winters from November to March and hot to extreme summers for the remainder of the year. In the middle of summer, Quartzsite is one of the hottest places in the United States and has recorded temperatures as high as 122 °F or 50.0 °C on 28 July 1995.
There is little precipitation with only 3.51 inches falling during an average year, while in May and June more than 80 percent of years do not have measurable rainfall. Since records began in 1928 the wettest month has been September 1939 with 6.16 inches, part of the wettest year with 11.05 inches and featuring on September 5 the wettest day with 3.00 inches. This moisture was due to the remnants of a rare Gulf of California hurricane; the driest calendar year was 1928 with 0.92 inches. However, between July 2001 and August 2002 as little as 0.45 inches fell over fourteen months. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,354 people, 1,850 households, 1,176 families residing in the town; the population density was 92.4 people per square mile. There were 3,186 housing units at an average density of 87.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.48% White, 0.24% Black or African American, 1.16% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.59% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races.
5.04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,850 households out of which 5.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.0% were married couples living together, 2.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.81 and the average family size was 2.18. In the town, the population was spread out with 5.7% under the age of 18, 1.8% from 18 to 24, 7.7% from 25 to 44, 29.9% from 45 to 64, 54.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 66 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $23,053, the median income for a family was $26,382. Males had a median income of $20,313 versus $16,080 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,889. About 7.8% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.3% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over.
Quartzsite is a popular recreational vehicle camping area for winter visitors with tourism being the major contributor to Quartzsite's economy. Nine major gem and mineral shows, 15 general swap meet shows are popular tourist attractions, attracting about 1.5 million people annually during January and February. Quartzsite is the burial place of Hi Jolly, an Ottoman citizen of Greek-Syrian parentage, who took part in the experimental US Camel Corps as a camel driver. Quartzsite is the site of Joanne's Gum Museum, open to the public and features a large collection of gum wrappers from around the world; the Arizona Peace Trail goes through Quartzsite. The Town of Quartzsite operates demand response buses under the name Camel Express. Freeways and state highways in Quartzsite include: Interstate 10 State Route 95 The following gallery includes the images of: Ruins of Fort Tyson, built in 1856 and is located on the corner of Main St. and Moon Mountain Road. Tyson's Well Stage Station located in 161 West Main Street.
The stage station served the travelers who went back and forth from the towns of Ehrenberg and Wickenburg. The building now houses the Quartzite Historical Society; the restored Oasis Hotel, built in 1900 and located in Main Street. The grave of Hadji Ali