SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder is a mental disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, traffic collisions, child abuse, or other threats on a person's life. Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, feelings, or dreams related to the events, mental or physical distress to trauma-related cues, attempts to avoid trauma-related cues, alterations in how a person thinks and feels, an increase in the fight-or-flight response; these symptoms last for more than a month after the event. Young children are less to show distress, but instead may express their memories through play. A person with PTSD is at a higher risk for suicide and intentional self-harm. Most people who experience traumatic events do not develop PTSD. People who experience interpersonal trauma such as rape or child abuse are more to develop PTSD as compared to people who experience non-assault based trauma, such as accidents and natural disasters. About half of people develop PTSD following rape.

Children are less than adults to develop PTSD after trauma if they are under 10 years of age. Diagnosis is based on the presence of specific symptoms following a traumatic event. Prevention may be possible when counselling is targeted at those with early symptoms but is not effective when provided to all trauma-exposed individuals whether or not symptoms are present; the main treatments for people with PTSD are medication. Antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor type are the first-line medications for PTSD and result in benefit in about half of people. Benefits from medication are less than those seen with counselling, it is not known whether using medications and counselling together has greater benefit than either method separately. Medications, other than SSRIs, do not have enough evidence to support their use and, in the case of benzodiazepines, may worsen outcomes. In the United States, about 3.5% of adults have PTSD in a given year, 9% of people develop it at some point in their life.

In much of the rest of the world, rates during a given year are between 0.5% and 1%. Higher rates may occur in regions of armed conflict, it is more common in women than men. Symptoms of trauma-related mental disorders have been documented since at least the time of the ancient Greeks. During the World Wars, the condition was known under various terms including "shell shock" and "combat neurosis"; the term "posttraumatic stress disorder" came into use in the 1970s in large part due to the diagnoses of U. S. military veterans of the Vietnam War. It was recognized by the American Psychiatric Association in 1980 in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Symptoms of PTSD begin within the first 3 months after the inciting traumatic event, but may not begin until years later. In the typical case, the individual with PTSD persistently avoids trauma-related thoughts and emotions, discussion of the traumatic event, may have amnesia of the event. However, the event is relived by the individual through intrusive, recurrent recollections, dissociative episodes of reliving the trauma, nightmares.

While it is common to have symptoms after any traumatic event, these must persist to a sufficient degree for longer than one month after the trauma to be classified as PTSD. Some following a traumatic event experience posttraumatic growth. Trauma survivors develop depression, anxiety disorders, mood disorders in addition to PTSD. Drug abuse and alcohol abuse co-occur with PTSD. Recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder or other anxiety disorders may be hindered, or the condition worsened, when substance use disorders are comorbid with PTSD. Resolving these problems can bring about improvement in an individual's mental health status and anxiety levels. In children and adolescents, there is a strong association between emotional regulation difficulties and post-traumatic stress symptoms, independent of age, gender, or type of trauma. Persons considered at risk include combat military personnel, victims of natural disasters, concentration camp survivors, victims of violent crime. Persons employed in occupations that expose them to violence or disasters are at risk.

Other occupations that are at higher risk include police officers, ambulance personnel, health care professionals, train drivers, divers and sailors, in addition to people who work at banks, post offices or in stores. The size of the hippocampus is inversely related to post-traumatic stress disorder and treatment success. PTSD has been associated with a wide range of traumatic events; the risk of developing PTSD after a traumatic event varies by trauma type and is highest following exposure to sexual violence rape. Men are more to experience a traumatic event, but women are more to experience the kind of high-impact traumatic event that can lead to PTSD, such as interpersonal violence and sexual assault. Motor vehicle collision survivors, both children and adults, are at an increased risk of PTSD. About 20% of children were diagnosed with PTSD following a road traffic accident, compared to 22% of adults. Females were more to be diagnosed with PTSD following a road traffic accident, whether the accident occurred during childhood or adulthood.

Posttraumatic stress reactions have been studied in childre

The Times of India

The Times of India is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group. It is the third-largest newspaper in India by circulation and the second-largest selling English-language daily in the world according to Audit Bureau of Circulations, it is the oldest English-language newspaper in India still in circulation, albeit under different names since its first edition published in 1838. It is the second-oldest Indian newspaper still in circulation after the Bombay Samachar. Near the beginning of the 20th century, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, called The Times of India "the leading paper in Asia". In 1991, the BBC ranked The Times of India among the world's six best newspapers, it is owned and published by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., owned by the Sahu Jain family. In the Brand Trust Report 2012, The Times of India was ranked 88th among India's most-trusted brands. In 2017, the newspaper was ranked 355th; the Times of India issued its first edition on 3 November 1838 as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce.

The paper published Wednesdays and Saturdays under the direction of Raobahadur Narayan Dinanath Velkar, a Maharashtrian Reformist, contained news from Britain and the world, as well as the Indian Subcontinent. J. E. Brennan was its first editor. In 1850, it began to publish daily editions. In 1860, editor Robert Knight bought the Indian shareholders' interests, merged with rival Bombay Standard, started India's first news agency, it wired Times dispatches to papers across the country and became the Indian agent for Reuters news service. In 1861, he changed the name from the Bombay Times and Standard to The Times of India. Knight fought for a press free of prior restraint or intimidation resisting the attempts by governments, business interests, cultural spokesmen and led the paper to national prominence. In the 19th century, this newspaper company employed more than 800 people and had a sizeable circulation in India and Europe. Subsequently, The Times of India saw its ownership change several times until 1892 when an English journalist named Thomas Jewell Bennett along with Frank Morris Coleman acquired the newspaper through their new joint stock company, Coleman & Co. Ltd.

Sir Stanley Reed edited The Times of India from 1907 until 1924 and received correspondence from the major figures of India such as Mahatma Gandhi. In all he lived in India for fifty years, he was respected in the United Kingdom as an expert on Indian current affairs. He christened Jaipur as "the Pink City of India". Bennett Coleman & Co. Ltd was sold to sugar magnate Ramkrishna Dalmia of the then-famous industrial family, the Dalmias, for ₹20 million in 1946, as India was becoming independent and the British owners were leaving. In 1955 the Vivian Bose Commission of Inquiry found that Ramkrishna Dalmia, in 1947, had engineered the acquisition of the media giant Bennett Coleman & Co. by transferring money from a bank and an insurance company of which he was the Chairman. In the court case that followed, Ramkrishna Dalmia was sentenced to two years in Tihar Jail after having been convicted of embezzlement and fraud, but for most of the jail term he managed to spend in hospital. Upon his release, his son-in-law, Sahu Shanti Prasad Jain, to whom he had entrusted the running of Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. rebuffed his efforts to resume command of the company.

In the early 1960s, Shanti Prasad Jain was imprisoned on charges of selling newsprint on the black market. And based on the Vivian Bose Commission's earlier report which found wrongdoings of the Dalmia – Jain group, that included specific charges against Shanti Prasad Jain, the Government of India filed a petition to restrain and remove the management of Bennett and Company. Based on the pleading, Justice directed the Government to assume control of the newspaper which resulted in replacing half of the directors and appointing a Bombay High Court judge as the Chairman. Following the Vivian Bose Commission report indicating serious wrongdoings of the Dalmia–Jain group, on 28 August 1969, the Bombay High Court, under Justice J. L. Nain, passed an interim order to disband the existing board of Bennett Coleman and to constitute a new board under the Government; the bench ruled that "Under these circumstances, the best thing would be to pass such orders on the assumption that the allegations made by the petitioners that the affairs of the company were being conducted in a manner prejudicial to public interest and to the interests of the Company are correct".

Following that order, Shanti Prasad Jain ceased to be a director and the company ran with new directors on board, appointed by the Government of India, with the exception of a lone stenographer of the Jains. Curiously, the court appointed D K Kunte as Chairman of the Board. Kunte had no prior business experience and was an opposition member of the Lok Sabha. In 1976, during the Emergency in India, the Government transferred ownership of the newspaper back to Ashok Kumar Jain; the Jains too landed themselves in various money laundering scams and Ashok Kumar Jain had to flee the country when the Enforcement Directorate pursued his case in 1998 for alleged violations of illegal transfer of funds to an overseas account in Switzerland. On 26 June 1975, the day after India declared a state of emergency, the Bombay edition of The Times of India carried an entry in its obituary column that read "D. E. M. O'Cracy, beloved husband of T. Ruth, father of L. I. Bertie, brother of Faith and Justice expired on 25 June".

The move was a critique of Prime Minister Indir

Someday (M People song)

"Someday" is the third single from British band M People from their first album Northern Soul. It was written by Marshall Jefferson; the single was a cover version of the original song of the same name sung by CeCe Rogers in 1987. The song peaked at number thirty eight on the UK Singles Chart. "Someday" was the only cover version to appear on the Northern Soul album and the original version was released in 1987 by CeCe Rogers. "Someday" was the first house song to be signed by a major label and it sold millions worldwide in the late eighties. As a DJ, M People's Mike Pickering had always played the track as part of his set as it was a perennial club classic and 5 years after its original release, Mike decided to give the song a Northern nineties soul groove; the single became their third consecutive Top 40 hit, but is their lowest ranking chart single of all the M People releases, not performing as well as predecessors How Can I Love You More? and Colour My Life entering the chart at number 39 and climbing up one place to 38 in its second week selling around 6,300 copies in its first two weeks to land at number 39 and 38 in its respective weeks.

A considerable sales decline in its third and final week the single charted at 62 selling 7,500 copies. There are only a few mixes of the single, with instrumental album track "Platini" being the B-side. On the CD the remixes are from M People themselves who issued two other versions of the single alongside the radio edit from the original Northern Soul album. "Someday" appeared on the original Northern Soul and "Someday" was a revised funked up version. On the re-issued Northern Soul released in 1992, Sasha had remixed the single and this replaced the original version; the studio-set video features Heather Small singing and dancing alone surrounded by darkness and with a strobe lighting effect in the background. She wears a yellow jacket on a black polo neck with enormous earrings; this is intercut with footage of the band performing the song live from their 1992 Northern Soul Tour featuring the rest of the band, Mike Pickering, Paul Heard and the live session musicians. The artwork of the single incorporates the House of Lancashire Red Rose, hailing both the Northern origins of the music but reflecting Mike Pickering's Lancashire roots.

The Red Rose itself has been symbolic for various countries around the world but in Northern England the imagery is steeped in history with a series of civil wars called Wars of the Roses dealing with two branches of noble power who wanted the English throne for themselves, the house of Lancashire represented by the red rose and the house of York represented by the white rose. These wars were fought off and on throughout the years of 1455 and 1485, with the final "battle" being won by Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond and the house of Lancashire. Henry Tudor VII married Elizabeth of York uniting the two families as one. So all the fighting was for nothing since in the end they all came together in a "Happily Ever After" sort of way, fitting the sentiments to the lyrics of the song. For the first and only time, the sleeve states,'M People with Heather Small'. 7" Mini"Someday" 3:30 "Platini" 5:0212" Maxi"Someday" 3:30 "Someday" 5:57 "Someday" 6:39 "Platini" 5:02CD Maxi"Someday" 3:30 "Someday" 5:57 "Someday" 6:39 "Platini" 5:02 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics