Cookware and bakeware
Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers found in a kitchen. Cookware comprises cooking vessels, such as saucepans and frying pans, intended for use on a stove or range cooktop. Bakeware comprises cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven; some utensils are considered both bakeware. The choice of material for cookware and bakeware items has a significant effect on the item's performance in terms of thermal conductivity and how much food sticks to the item when in use; some choices of material require special pre-preparation of the surface—known as seasoning—before they are used for food preparation. Both the cooking pot and lid handles can be made of the same material but will mean that, when picking up or touching either of these parts, oven gloves will need to be worn. In order to avoid this, handles can be made of non-heat-conducting materials, for example bakelite, plastic or wood, it is best to avoid hollow handles because they are difficult to dry. A good cooking pot design has an "overcook edge", what the lid lies on.
The lid has a dripping edge that avoids condensation fluid from dripping off when handling the lid or putting it down. The history of cooking vessels before the development of pottery is minimal due to the limited archaeological evidence; the earliest pottery vessels, dating from 19,600±400 BP, were discovered in Xianrendong Cave, China. The pottery may have been used as cookware, manufactured by hunter-gatherers. Harvard University archaeologist Ofer Bar-Yosef reported that "When you look at the pots, you can see that they were in a fire." It is possible to extrapolate developments based on methods used by latter peoples. Among the first of the techniques believed to be used by stone age civilizations were improvements to basic roasting. In addition to exposing food to direct heat from either an open fire or hot embers it is possible to cover the food with clay or large leaves before roasting to preserve moisture in the cooked result. Examples of similar techniques are still in use in many modern cuisines.
Of greater difficulty was finding a method to boil water. For people without access to natural heated water sources, such as hot springs, heated stones could be placed in a water-filled vessel to raise its temperature. In many locations the shells of turtles or large mollusks provided a source for waterproof cooking vessels. Bamboo tubes sealed at the end with clay provided a usable container in Asia, while the inhabitants of the Tehuacan Valley began carving large stone bowls that were permanently set into a hearth as early as 7,000 BC. According to Frank Hamilton Cushing, Native American cooking baskets used by the Zuni developed from mesh casings woven to stabilize gourd water vessels, he reported witnessing cooking basket use by Havasupai in 1881. Roasting baskets covered with clay would be filled with the product to be roasted; when the thus-fired clay separated from the basket, it would become a usable clay roasting pan in itself. This indicates a steady progression from use of woven gourd casings to waterproof cooking baskets to pottery.
Other than in many other cultures, Native Americans used and still use the heat source inside the cookware. Cooking baskets are filled with roasting pans with wood coals. Native Americans would form a basket from large leaves to boil water, according to historian and novelist Louis L'Amour; as long as the flames did not reach above the level of water in the basket, the leaves would not burn through. The development of pottery allowed for the creation of fireproof cooking vessels in a variety of shapes and sizes. Coating the earthenware with some type of plant gum, glazes, converted the porous container into a waterproof vessel; the earthenware cookware could be suspended over a fire through use of a tripod or other apparatus, or be placed directly into a low fire or coal bed as in the case of the pipkin. Ceramics conduct heat poorly, however, so ceramic pots must cook over low heats and over long periods of time. However, most ceramic pots will crack if used on the stovetop, are only intended for the oven.
The development of bronze and iron metalworking skills allowed for cookware made from metal to be manufactured, although adoption of the new cookware was slow due to the much higher cost. After the development of metal cookware there was little new development in cookware, with the standard Medieval kitchen utilizing a cauldron and a shallow earthenware pan for most cooking tasks, with a spit employed for roasting. By the 17th century, it was common for a Western kitchen to contain a number of skillets, baking pans, a kettle and several pots, along with a variety of pot hooks and trivets. Brass or copper vessels were common in Asia and Europe, whilst iron pots were common in the American colonies. Improvements in metallurgy during the 19th and 20th centuries allowed for pots and pans from metals such as steel, stainless steel and aluminium to be economically produced. At the 1968 Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can", which included pots and pans.
Pottery has been used to make cookware from before dated history. Pots and pans made with this material are inert and non-reactive. Heat is conducted evenly in this material, they can be used for baking in the oven. Metal pots are made from a narrow range of metals because pots and pans need to conduct heat well, but need to be chemically unreactive so that they do not alter the
A flowerpot, flower pot, or plant pot is a container in which flowers and other plants are cultivated and displayed. And still to a significant extent today, they are made from terracotta. Flowerpots are now also made from plastic, stone, or sometimes biodegradable material. An example of biodegradable pots are ones made of heavy brown paper, cardboard, or peat moss in which young plants for transplanting are grown. For seedling starting in commercial greenhouses or polytunnels, pots take the form of trays with cells, each cell acting as one small pot; these trays are called flats. There are holes in the bottom of pots, to allow excess water to flow out, sometimes to a saucer, placed under the flowerpot; the plant can use this water with its roots, as needed. Some flowerpots have been made with an automatic watering system, using a reservoir. Flowerpots have a number of uses such as transporting plants to new locations, starting seeds and indoor cultivation of plants, the growing of tender plants in colder regions indoors.
Through the centuries, the use of flowerpots has influenced the horticultural use of plants, the Egyptians were among the first to use pots to move plants from one location to another. The Romans brought potted plants inside during cold weather. In the 18th century, pots were used to ship breadfruit seedlings from Tahiti to the West Indies. Orchids, African violets and Pelargonium geraniums were shipped in pots from other parts of the world, including Africa, to North America and Europe. In the 18th century, Josiah Wedgwood's flowerpots were as popular as his famous dinner-ware, they were highly decorative and used as table centrepieces. In Athens, earthenware flowerpots were thrown into the sea during the festival of the Gardens of Adonis. Theophrastus, c. 371 – c. 287 BC, mentions that a plant called southern-wood was raised and propagated in pots because it was difficult to grow. The top of the flowerpot underneath the rim is known as the shoulder or collar and can aid handling. Flower pots were traditionally made from terracotta.
They were made and sold by the cast, the number of pots produced from a given quantity of clay. The traditional sizes were as follows, although others existed: Other sources give different values, sometimes names, for the smaller pots, for example The Gardener's Everyday Log Book while agreeing on "twos" to "thirty-twos" has two different types of "sixties" and disagrees on "thumbs" and "thimbles": A taller and thinner shape of pot, suitable for deep-rooting plants, was known as a long tom, a term still used; the traditional size for a long tom used for auriculas was 3 in diameter by 3.75 to 4 in depth. In the nursery business, plants are grown in round or square plastic pots; the sizes of plastic pots have been assigned an ANSI standard by the American Nursery and Landscape Association. Pots designated #1–#100 nominally have the volume of that many gallons, but in fact a #1 pot has a capacity of 0.625 gallons. There is a Small Plant series: SP1, 6.5–8.0 in3. An SP4 pot is called a "4-inch" or "quart" container.
Plastic pots come in a number of standard sizes, with a code indicating the approximate dimensions of the diameter at the top. Drip irrigation Growbag Urban agriculture Vertical farming Window box The archaeology of the flowerpot in England and Wales c. 1650-1950 C. K. Currie.
Pol Pot was a Cambodian revolutionary and politician who served as the general secretary of the Communist Party of Kampuchea from 1963 to 1981. Ideologically a Marxist–Leninist and Khmer nationalist, he led the Khmer Rouge group from 1963 until 1997. From 1976 to 1979, he served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea. Born to a prosperous farmer in Prek Sbauv, French Cambodia, Pol Pot was educated at some of Cambodia's elite schools. In the 1940s, he moved to Paris, where he joined the French Communist Party and adopted Marxism–Leninism as it was presented in the writings of Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong. Returning to Cambodia in 1953, he joined the Marxist–Leninist Khmer Việt Minh organisation in its guerrilla war against King Norodom Sihanouk's newly independent government. Following the Khmer Việt Minh's 1954 retreat into North Vietnam, Pol Pot returned to Phnom Penh, working as a teacher while remaining a central member of the Cambodian Marxist–Leninist movement. In 1959, he helped convert the movement into the Kampuchean Labour Party—later renamed the Communist Party of Kampuchea—and in 1960 took control as party secretary.
To avoid state repression, in 1962 he relocated to a Việt Cộng jungle encampment before visiting Hanoi and Beijing. In 1968, he re-launched the war against Sihanouk. Renaming the country Democratic Kampuchea and seeking to create an agrarian socialist society, Pol Pot's government forcibly relocated the urban population to the countryside to work on collective farms; those regarded. These mass killings, coupled with malnutrition, strenuous working conditions, poor medical care, killed between 1.5 and 3 million people of a population of 8 million, a period termed the Cambodian genocide. Marxist–Leninists unhappy with Pol Pot's government encouraged Vietnamese intervention. However, Pol Pot forced Vietnam's hand by attacking villages in Vietnam and massacring their villagers. In December 1978, the Vietnamese invaded Cambodia, toppling Pol Pot's government in 1979; the Vietnamese installed a rival Marxist–Leninist faction opposed to Pol Pot and renamed the country as the People's Republic of Kampuchea.
Pol Pot and his Khmer Rouge retreated to a jungle base near the Thai border. Until 1993, they remained part of a coalition internationally recognized as Cambodia's rightful government; the Ta Mok faction placed Pol Pot under house arrest, where he died in April 1998. Pol Pot was born outside the city of Kampong Thom, he was named the word sâr referencing his comparatively light skin complexion. Biographer Philip Short placed his birth in March 1925, although an earlier biography by David P. Chandler noted that French colonial records place it on 25 May 1928. Pol Pot himself stated in a 1997 interview with Nate Thayer that his mother had recorded his birth month to be January of 1925, having written it in chalk on the wall of their home. Thayer speculated that he had lied about his birth date in order to remain eligible for a scholarship in France, his family was of mixed Chinese and ethnic Khmer heritage, although they did not speak Chinese and lived as though they were Khmer. His father, Loth—who took the name of Saloth Phem—was a prosperous farmer who owned nine hectares of rice land and several draft cattle.
Loth's house was one of the largest in the village and at transplanting and harvest time he hired poorer neighbors to carry out much of the agricultural labour. Pol Pot's mother, Sok Nem, was locally respected as a pious Buddhist. Pol Pot was the eighth of nine children. Three died young, they were raised as Theravada Buddhists, on festivals travelled to the Kampong Thom monastery. Cambodia was a monarchy, but the king had little political control, instead exercised by the French colonial regime. Pol Pot's family had connections to the Cambodian royal household; when Pol Pot was six years old, he and an older brother were sent to live with Meak in the capital city of Phnom Penh. In Phnom Penh, he spent eighteen months as a novice monk in the city's Vat Botum Vaddei monastery, there learning both Buddhist teachings and how to read and write in the Khmer language. In the summer of 1935, Sâr went to live with the latter's wife and child; that year he began an education at a Roman Catholic primary school, the École Miche, with Meak paying the tuition fees.
Most of his classmates were the children of Catholic Vietnamese. He became literate in familiar with Christianity. Sâr was not academically gifted and he was held back two years, only receiving his Certificat d'Etudes Primaires Complémentaires in 1941 at the age of sixteen. Sâr had continued to visit Meak at the king's palace and it was there, among some of the king's concubines, that he had some of his earliest sexual experiences. While Sâr was at the school, the King of Cambodia died and in 1941 the French authorities appointed Norodom Sihanouk as his replacement. A new junior middle school, the Collége Pream Sihanouk, was established in Kampong Cham and Sâr was selected to become a boarder at the institution in 1942; this level of education afforded him a privileged position in Cambodian society. There, he took part in school plays. Much of his spare time was spent playing basketball. Several fellow pupils, among them Hu Nim and Khieu Samphan served in his government. During the new
Patterson Office Tower
The Patterson Office Tower is a 249-foot high-rise building on the University of Kentucky campus in Lexington, Kentucky. It was completed in 1969 and is named after James Kennedy Patterson, who served as the school's first president from 1869 to 1910, it houses faculty offices and conference rooms, including many of the offices of the College of Arts and Sciences, College of Social Work, Honors at UK, the Dean of Students and Division of Student Affairs. The tower features the Intermezzo Cafe, which serves breakfast and lunch, it is located near the White Hall Classroom Main Building. A statue of Patterson sits near the tower. Construction of the Patterson Office Tower began in 1968 and was completed in 1969, it was named after James Kennedy Patterson, who served as the first president of the University of Kentucky from 1869 to 1910. It replaced the White Hall Dormitory, which stood from 1882 to 1967. Based on a photo printed in the Lexington Herald-Leader, December 1969 was the first time the university's Board Of Trustees met in the building.
In July 2003, a bronze statue of Patterson was relocated to the front of the tower. A fountain existed at the tower, but it was removed in 1999. On February 12, 2016, Australian philosopher David Chalmers visited the campus to give a talk entitled "Perception and Illusion in Virtual Reality" on the 18th floor of the tower. At the end of 2016, about 1,000 ping-pong balls were poured from the roof of the tower to celebrate the end of the semester. More than 100 students stood below, collecting as many balls as they could with plastic bags, open book bags, umbrellas. In an article published on December 11, 2018, by the Lexington Herald-Leader, the tower's 18th floor was mentioned under the heading "recommended capital project". Patterson Office Tower is a 20-story building with 18 floors; the building houses faculty offices and conference rooms, including many of the offices of the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Social Work, Honors at UK, the Dean of Students and Division of Student Affairs.
It includes the Intermezzo Cafe, which serves lunch. The tower features a basement that connects White Hall Classroom Building; the 14th floor of the tower, which provides a space for students to study and make connections with other students with similar interests, was renovated in 2018. The renovations of the floor helped create a new space for students interested in the International Studies Program; the area features a student lounge, a conference room, office space. In 2011, an overflowing urinal caused damage to three floors in the building after a faulty automatic flusher became stuck in the open position, causing flooding on the fourth floor; the water damaged the second and fourth floors, saturating ceiling tiles and carpets, some computers and documents. On May 31, 2013, a flasher was reported on the sixth floor of the building. In 1970, Patterson Office Tower was the site of a protest in response to the Kent State shootings in Kent, Ohio. On April 1, 2011, students held a protest against racism near the tower.
On March 27, 2013, the tower was one of the Fayette County locations for Take Back the Night protests. On April 1, 2014, students protested against privatization of dining services. On December 9, 2014, about 40 students held a die-in on the lobby floor to raise student awareness about the recent deaths of Eric Garner and Michael Brown. On November 9, 2016, students held a protest against Donald Trump after he was elected president on November 8. Patterson Office Tower Campus Guide – Patterson Office Tower Intermezzo
The Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan known as PotashCorp, was a Canadian corporation based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The company merged with Calgary-based Agrium to form Nutrien, in a transaction that closed on January 1, 2018; the company was the world's largest potash producer and the third largest producer of nitrogen and phosphate, three primary crop nutrients used to produce fertilizer. At the end of 2011, the company controlled twenty percent of the world's potash production capacity, two percent of nitrogen production capacity and five percent of phosphate supply; the company was part-owner of Canpotex. It had a joint-venture with Sinochem named Sinofert. In late 2013, it was 60%-owned by institutional shareholders. In 2007, the CEO, William Doyle was by far the highest earning CEO in Canada, earning $320 million; the company was created by the government of Saskatchewan in 1975. In 1989 it became a publicly traded company as the government of Saskatchewan sold off some of its shares, selling the remaining shares in 1990.
The Saskatchewan potash industry began in the 1960s. The government saw it as a promising new field and granted large subsidies to the new projects by American companies. However, this led to overproduction and when a global potash glut began in the late 1960s the industry collapsed; the Liberal government of the province introduced an emergency plan setting up quotas and a price floor in 1969. This plan was popular among the companies; the NDP government, elected in 1971 in Saskatchewan was dissatisfied with this plan as the huge profits went to the companies rather than the government, it wasn't sustainable in the long term. In 1974 the government passed a new potash regulation scheme; this plan was resisted by the potash producers, its constitutionality was challenged. Thus in 1975 the provincial government established the Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan as a government crown corporation. In November 1975 the province announced its intention to take part of the potash industry into public ownership.
The government offered to negotiate with the producers, many of them agreed to sell to the government. Over the next several years PCS bought mines around Saskatchewan, came to control 40% of domestic production. Public ownership drew the ire of the United States government, which criticised the provincial government for buying Americans' assets and creating a monopoly. In the 1980s the Commerce Department accused the corporation of dumping and imposed massive duties on all potash imports to the United States. In the early 1980s the company struggled and lost money for several years accumulating an $800 million debt. In 1989 the Conservative government decided to privatize it by selling the company to private investors. During the 1990s PotashCorp expanded by buying up a number of American potash companies including Potash Company of America, Florida Favorite Fertilizer and Arcadian Corporation. Today it owns assets across Canada, the United States, in Brazil and the Middle East. By March 2008, due to rising potash prices it had become one of the most valuable companies in Canada by market capitalization, valued at C$63 billion.
In August 2010, PotashCorp became the subject of a hostile takeover bid by BHP Billiton. The bid was rejected by the federal government under the Investment Canada Act, as it does not provide a net benefit to the country. BHP withdrew its bid soon thereafter. In October 2013, PotashCorp reported that it had sustained a 43% drop in third quarter profit year-over-year; the company cited Uralkali's decision to break apart its joint venture with Belaruskali, the impending threat of lower potash prices that would result, as having hampered its profits. In December 2013, the company announced. In April 2014, PotashCorp named Jochen Tilk as its new CEO. On September 12, 2016, PotashCorp announced that it had agreed to merge with the Calgary-based firm Agrium, pending government approval; the merged company, which will be known as Nutrien and be based in Saskatoon, will be valued at US$36 billion, be the largest producer of potash and second-largest producer of nitrogen fertilizer worldwide. The deal will be structured so that 52% of the merged company is held by PotashCorp shareholders, 48% by Agrium shareholders.
The year 2016 saw a serious downturn in PotashCorp's profits. The table at right compares 2016 and 2015 performance; the company closed two of its less profitable potash mines in Canada in 2016. On January 1, 2018, the merger between PotashCorp and Agrium was completed. A coalition of conservation organizations are challenging a permit issued by the North Carolina Division of Water Quality to PotashCorp's Aurora, North Carolina, phosphate mining operation, which allows the company to expand its mining operation; the mining expansion will not have a significant impact on high-quality wetlands and aquatic habitat. The permit presumes. A group of community members in Penobsquis, New Brunswick, where PotashCorp has existing and planned potash mines, has launched an action against the mine for damages relating to lost wells, noise and dust pollution as well as anxiety; this action is being handled through the New Brunswick Mining Commissioner. In 2011, a planned sulfur melting plant facility in Morehead City, North Carolina was withdrawn after public opposition.
Official website The story of the creation of PCS from the perspective of the NDP
Pontefract Tanshelf railway station
Pontefract Tanshelf railway station is the most central station in the town of Pontefract, West Yorkshire and serves Pontefract Races, the racecourse located just down the street from the station. It is 8 miles east of Wakefield Kirkgate. In the days of coal mining in the Pontefract area, the station served the needs of the local workforce with regular and frequent services timed for the beginning and the end of mining shifts; the present station was opened by West Yorkshire Metro on 12 May 1992, when the line between Wakefield and Pontefract was reopened. The other stations in the town are Pontefract Baghill. On Monday to Saturday, there is an hourly service to Wakefield Kirkgate and Leeds and hourly to Knottingley. On Sundays, there is a two-hourly service each way to the same destinations. Media related to Pontefract Tanshelf railway station at Wikimedia Commons Train times and station information for Pontefract Tanshelf railway station from National Rail
Pottery is the process of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include earthenware and porcelain; the place where such wares are made by a potter is called a pottery. The definition of pottery used by the American Society for Testing and Materials, is "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical and refractory products." In archaeology of ancient and prehistoric periods, "pottery" means vessels only, figures etc. of the same material are called "terracottas". Clay as a part of the materials used is required by some definitions of pottery, but this is dubious. Pottery is one of the oldest human inventions, originating before the Neolithic period, with ceramic objects like the Gravettian culture Venus of Dolní Věstonice figurine discovered in the Czech Republic dating back to 29,000–25,000 BC, pottery vessels that were discovered in Jiangxi, which date back to 18,000 BC.
Early Neolithic pottery artefacts have been found in places such as Jōmon Japan, the Russian Far East, Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Pottery is made by forming a ceramic body into objects of a desired shape and heating them to high temperatures in a kiln and induces reactions that lead to permanent changes including increasing the strength and solidity of the object's shape. Much pottery is purely utilitarian, but much can be regarded as ceramic art. A clay body can be decorated after firing. Clay-based pottery can divided in three main groups: earthenware and porcelain; these require more specific clay material, higher firing temperatures. All three are made for different purposes. All may be decorated by various techniques. In many examples the group a piece belongs to is visually apparent, but this is not always the case; the fritware of the Islamic world does not use clay, so technically falls outside these groups. Historic pottery of all these types is grouped as either "fine" wares expensive and well-made, following the aesthetic taste of the culture concerned, or alternatively "coarse", "popular" "folk" or "village" wares undecorated, or so, less well-made.
All the earliest forms of pottery were made from clays that were fired at low temperatures in pit-fires or in open bonfires. They were hand undecorated. Earthenware can be fired as low as 600°C, is fired below 1200°C; because unglazed biscuit earthenware is porous, it has limited utility for the storage of liquids, eating off. However, earthenware has a continuous history from the Neolithic period to today, it can be made from a wide variety of clays, some of which fire to a buff, brown or black colour, with iron in the constituent minerals resulting in a reddish-brown. Reddish coloured varieties are called terracotta when unglazed or used for sculpture; the development of ceramic glaze which makes it impermeable makes it a popular and practical form of pottery. The addition of decoration has evolved throughout its history. Stoneware is pottery, fired in a kiln at a high temperature, from about 1,100°C to 1,200°C, is stronger and non-porous to liquids; the Chinese, who developed stoneware early on, classify this together with porcelain as high-fired wares.
In contrast, stoneware could only be produced in Europe from the late Middle Ages, as European kilns were less efficient, the right sorts of clay less common. It remained a speciality of Germany until the Renaissance. Stoneware is tough and practical, much of it has always been utilitarian, for the kitchen or storage rather than the table, but "fine" stoneware has been important in China and the West, continues to be made. Many utilitarian types have come to be appreciated as art. Porcelain is made by heating materials including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C; this is higher than used for the other types, achieving these temperatures was a long struggle, as well as realizing what materials were needed. The toughness and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Although porcelain was first made in China, the Chinese traditionally do not recognise it as a distinct category, grouping it with stoneware as "high-fired" ware, opposed to "low-fired" earthenware.
This confuses the issue of. A degree of translucency and whiteness was achieved by the Tang Dynasty, considerable quantities were being exported; the modern level of whiteness was not reached until much in the 14th century. Porcelain was made in Korea and in Japan from the end of the 16th century, after suitable kaolin was located in those countries, it was not made outside East Asia until the 18th century. Before being shaped, clay must be prepared. Kneading helps to ensure an moisture content throughout the body. Air trapped within the clay body needs to be removed; this is called de-airing and can be accomplished either by a machine called a vacuum pug or manually by wedging. Wedging can help produce an moisture content. Once a clay body has been kneaded and de-aired or wedged, it is shaped by a variety of techniques. After it has been shaped, it is dried and fired. Greenware refers to unfired objects. At sufficient moisture content, bodies at this stage are in their most plastic form (as they are soft and mal