The carrot is a root vegetable orange in colour, though purple, red and yellow cultivars exist. Carrots are a domesticated form of the wild carrot, Daucus carota, native to Europe and southwestern Asia; the plant originated in Persia and was cultivated for its leaves and seeds. The most eaten part of the plant is the taproot, although the stems and leaves are eaten as well; the domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its enlarged, more palatable, less woody-textured taproot. The carrot is a biennial plant in the umbellifer family Apiaceae. At first, it grows a rosette of leaves while building up the enlarged taproot. Fast-growing cultivars mature within three months of sowing the seed, while slower-maturing cultivars need a month longer; the roots contain high quantities of alpha- and beta-carotene, are a good source of vitamin K and vitamin B6, but the belief that eating carrots improves night vision is a myth put forward by the British in World War II to mislead the enemy about their military capabilities.
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports that world production of carrots and turnips for the calendar year 2013 was 37.2 million tonnes. Carrots are used in many cuisines in the preparation of salads, carrot salads are a tradition in many regional cuisines; the word is first recorded in English circa 1530 and was borrowed from Middle French carotte, itself from Late Latin carōta, from Greek καρωτόν or karōton from the Indo-European root *ker-, due to its horn-like shape. In Old English, carrots were not distinguished from parsnips: the two were collectively called moru or more. Various languages still use the same word for "carrot" as they do for "root". Both written history and molecular genetic studies indicate that the domestic carrot has a single origin in Central Asia, its wild ancestors originated in Persia, which remains the centre of diversity for the wild carrot Daucus carota. A occurring subspecies of the wild carrot was bred selectively over the centuries to reduce bitterness, increase sweetness and minimise the woody core.
When they were first cultivated, carrots were grown for their aromatic leaves and seeds rather than their roots. Carrot seeds have been found in Switzerland and Southern Germany dating back to 2000–3000 BC; some close relatives of the carrot are still grown for their leaves and seeds, such as parsley, coriander, anise and cumin. The first mention of the root in classical sources is from the 1st century AD; the plant is depicted and described in the Eastern Roman Juliana Anicia Codex, a 6th-century AD Constantinopolitan copy of the Greek physician Dioscorides' 1st-century pharmacopoeia of herbs and medicines, De Materia Medica. Three different types of carrots are depicted, the text states that "the root can be cooked and eaten"; the plant was introduced into Spain by the Moors in the 8th century. In the 10th century, roots from West Asia and Europe were purple; the modern carrot originated in Afghanistan at about this time. The 11th-century Jewish scholar Simeon Seth describes both red and yellow carrots, as does the 12th-century Arab-Andalusian agriculturist, Ibn al-'Awwam.
Cultivated carrots appeared in China in the 14th century, in Japan in the 18th century. There are many claims that Dutch growers created orange carrots in the 17th century to honor the Dutch flag at the time. Other authorities argue. Modern carrots were described at about this time by the English antiquary John Aubrey: "Carrots were first sown at Beckington in Somersetshire; some old Man there did remember their first bringing hither." European settlers introduced the carrot to colonial America in the 17th century. Outwardly purple carrots, still orange on the inside, were sold in British stores beginning in 2002. Daucus carota is a biennial plant. In the first year, its rosette of leaves produces large amounts of sugars, which are stored in the taproot to provide energy for the plant to flower in the second year. Soon after germination, carrot seedlings show a distinct demarcation between taproot and stem: the stem is thicker and lacks lateral roots. At the upper end of the stem is the seed leaf.
The first true leaf appears about 10–15 days after germination. Subsequent leaves are alternate, spirally arranged, pinnately compound, with leaf bases sheathing the stem; as the plant grows, the bases of the seed leaves, near the taproot, are pushed apart. The stem, located just above the ground, is compressed and the internodes are not distinct; when the seed stalk elongates for flowering, the tip of the stem narrows and becomes pointed, the stem extends upward to become a branched inflorescence up to 60–200 cm tall. Most of the taproot consists of an inner core. High-quality carrots have a large proportion of cortex compared to core. Although a xylem-free carrot is not possible, some cultivars have small and pigmented cores. Taproots are long and conical, although cylindrical and nearly-spherical cultivars are available
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad
A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit, consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds. In horticultural usage, the term ` fruit tree' is limited to those. Types of fruits are described and defined elsewhere, but would include "fruit" in a culinary sense, as well as some nut-bearing trees, such as walnuts; the scientific study and the cultivation of fruits is called pomology, which divides fruits into groups based on plant morphology and anatomy. Some of those groups are: Pome fruits, which include apples and pears, stone fruits, which include peaches/nectarines, apricots and cherries. Abiu Almond Amla Apple Apricot Avocado Bael Ber Carambola Cashew Cherry Citrus Coconut Crab Apple Damson Durian Elderberry Fig Grapefruit Guava Jackfruit Jujube Lemon Lime Loquat Lychee Mango Medlar Morello cherry Mulberry Olive Orange Pawpaw, both the tropical Carica papaya and the North American Asimina triloba Peach and nectarine Pear Pecan Persimmon Plum Pomelo Quince Pomegranate Rambutan Sapodilla Soursop Sugar-apple Sweet chestnut Tamarillo Ugli fruit Walnut Fruit tree forms Fruit tree pollination Fruit tree propagation List of fruits Multipurpose tree Orchard Pruning fruit trees Drupe Pennsylvania tree fruit production guide.
Pottage is a term for a thick soup or stew made by boiling vegetables, and, if available, meat or fish. As explained in The Oxford Companion to Food, it was a staple food for many centuries; the word pottage comes from the same Old French root as potage, a dish of more recent origin. Pottage ordinarily consisted of various ingredients available to serfs and peasants, could be kept over the fire for a period of days, during which time some of it could be eaten, more ingredients added; the result was a dish, changing. Pottage remained a staple of the poor's diet throughout most of 9th to 17th-century Europe; when wealthier people ate pottage, they would add more expensive ingredients such as meats. The pottage that these people ate was much like modern-day soups; this is similar to the Welsh cawl, a broth, soup or stew cooked on and off for days at a time over the fire in a traditional inglenook. In Nigeria the words pottage and porridge are synonymous, such foods are consumed as a main meal. Nigerian yam pottage/porridge includes other culinary vegetables along with the yam.
It may have fish and/or other meat. In the King James Bible translation of the story of Jacob and Esau in the Book of Genesis, being famished, sold his birthright to his twin brother Jacob in exchange for a meal of "bread and pottage of lentiles"; this incident is the origin of the phrase a "mess of pottage" to mean a bad bargain involving short-term gain and long-term loss. Pottage was boiled for several hours until the entire mixture took on a homogeneous texture and flavour, it was served, when possible, with bread. In Middle English thick pottages made with cereals, shredded meat, seasoned with spices and sometimes thickened with egg yolks and bread crumbs were called by various names like brewet, mortrew, mawmenee and blance dessore. Thinner pottages were said to be ronnyng. Frumenty was a pottage made with fresh cleaned wheat grain, boiled until it burst, allowed to cool boiled with broth and either cow milk or almond milk; the pottage was flavored with sugar and spices. Pottage had long been a staple of the English diet.
During the Middle Ages it was made with wheat, rye, or oats. Native American cuisine had a similar dish, but it was made with maize rather than the traditional European grain varieties. An early 17th century British recipe for pottage with made by boiling mutton and oatmeal with violet leaves, chicory, strawberry leaves, langdebeefe, marigold flowers and parsley. In the cuisine of New England, pottage began as boiled grain, vegetables and meat, fowl or fish; this simple staple of early American cuisine evolved into the chowders and baked beans typical of New England's cuisine. A version of "scotch barley broth" is attested to in the 18th century colonial recipe collection called Mrs Gardiner's Family Receipts. Indian succotash, sometimes called pondomenast or Indian pottage was made with boiled corn and, when available, meat like venison, moose, raccoon or beaver. Dried fish like shad, eel, or herring could be used in place of the meat. Kidney beans were sometimes mixed into Indian pottage, along with roots like Jerusalem artichoke, squash.
Ground nuts like acorns, chestnuts or walnuts were used to thicken the pottage. Casserole Cawl Lancashire hotpot Lentil soup List of soups List of stews Pease pudding Potted meat Food portal Stavely, Keith W. F.. Northern Hospitality: Cooking by the Book in New England. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-1-55849-861-7. Smith, Edward. Foods. D. Appleton
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603. The Tudor period coincides with the dynasty of the House of Tudor in England whose first monarch was Henry VII. In terms of the entire span, the historian John Guy argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, more optimistic under the Tudors" than at any time in a thousand years. Following the Black Death and the agricultural depression of the late 15th century, the population began to increase, it was less than 2 million in 1450, about 4 million in 1600. The growing population stimulated economic growth, accelerated the commercialisation of agriculture, increased the production and export of wool, encouraged trade, promoted the growth of London; the high wages and abundance of available land seen in the late 15th century and early 16th century were replaced with low wages and a land shortage. Various inflationary pressures due to an influx of New World gold and a rising population, set the stage for social upheaval with the gap between the rich and poor widening.
This was a period of significant change for the majority of the rural population, with manorial lords beginning the process of enclosure of village lands, open to everyone. The Reformation transformed English religion during the Tudor period; the four sovereigns, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, Elizabeth I had different approaches, with Henry replacing the pope as the head of the Church of England but maintaining Catholic doctrines, Edward imposing a strict Protestantism, Mary attempting to reinstate Catholicism, Elizabeth arriving at a compromising position that defined the not-quite-Protestant Church of England. It began with the insistent demands of Henry VIII for an annulment of his marriage that Pope Clement VII refused to grant. Historians agreed that the great theme of Tudor history was the Reformation, the transformation of England from Catholicism to Protestantism; the main events, constitutional changes, players at the national level have long been known, the major controversies about them resolved.
Historians until the late 20th century assumed that they knew what the causes were: on the one hand, a widespread dissatisfaction or disgust with the evils, corruptions and contradictions of the established religion, setting up an undertone of anti-clericalism that indicated a rightness for reform. A second, less powerful influence was the intellectual impact of certain English reformers, such as the long-term impact of John Wycliffe and his “Lollardy” reform movement, together with a stream of Reformation treatises and pamphlets from Martin Luther, John Calvin, other reformers on the continent; the interpretation by Geoffrey Elton in 1960 is representative of the orthodox interpretation. He argues that: The existing situation proved untenable because the laity feared and despised much about the Church, its officers, its courts and its wealth.... A poverty-stricken and ignorant lower clergy, wealthy bishops and abbots, a wide ramification of jurisdiction, a mixture of high claims and low deeds did not make for respect or love among the laity.
Social historians after 1960 began in-depth investigations of English religion at the local level, discovered the orthodox interpretation was quite mistaken. The Lollardy movement had expired, the pamphleteering of continental reformers hardly reached beyond a few scholars at the University of Cambridge—King Henry VIII had vigorously and publicly denounced Luther's heresies. More important, the Catholic Church was in a strong condition in 1500. England was devoutly Catholic, it was loyal to the pope, local parishes attracted strong local financial support, religious services were quite popular both at Sunday Mass and at family devotions. Complaints about the monasteries and the bishops were uncommon; the kings got along well with the popes and by the time Luther appeared on the scene, England was among the strongest supporters of orthodox Catholicism, seemed a most unlikely place for a religious revolution. Henry VII, founder of the House of Tudor, became King of England by defeating King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses.
Henry engaged in a number of administrative and diplomatic initiatives. He paid close attention to detail and, instead of spending lavishly, concentrated on raising new revenues, his new taxes were unpopular, when Henry VIII succeeded him, he executed Henry VII's two most hated tax collectors. Henry VIII, energetic and headstrong, remains one of the most visible kings of England because of his six marriages, all designed to produce a male heir, his heavy retribution in executing many top officials and aristocrats. In foreign-policy, he focused on fighting France—with minimal success—and had to deal with Scotland and the Holy Roman Empire with military mobilisation or actual expensive warfare that led to high taxes; the chief military success came over Scotland. The main policy development was Henry's taking full control of the Church of England; this followed from his break from Rome, caused by the refusal of the Pope to annul his original marriage. Henry thereby introduced a mild variation of the Protestant Reformation.
There were two main aspects. First Henry rejected the Pope as the head of the Church in England, insisting that national sovereignty required the Absolute supremacy of the king. Henry worked with Parliament in passing a series of laws that implemented the break. Englishmen could no longer appeal to Rome. All the decisions were to be made in England, ultima
Mess of pottage
A mess of pottage is something attractive but of little value taken foolishly and carelessly in exchange for something more distant and less tangible but immensely more valuable. The phrase alludes to Esau's sale of his birthright for a meal of lentil stew in Genesis 25:29-34 and connotes shortsightedness and misplaced priorities; the mess of pottage motif is a common theme in art, appearing for example in Mattia Bortoloni's Esau selling his birthright and Mattias Stomer's painting of the same title. Although this phrase is used to describe or allude to Esau's bargain, the phrase itself does not appear in the text of any English version of Genesis, its first attested use associated with Esau's bargain, is in the English summary of one of John Capgrave's sermons, c1452, " supplanted his broþir, bying his fader blessing for a mese of potage." In the sixteenth century it continues its association with Esau, appearing in Bonde's Pylgrimage of Perfection and in the English versions of two influential works by Erasmus, the Enchiridion and the Paraphrase upon the New Testament: "th'enherytaunce of the elder brother solde for a messe of potage".
It can be found here and there throughout the sixteenth century, e.g. in Johan Carion's Thre bokes of cronicles and at least three times in Roger Edgeworth's collected sermons. Within the tradition of English Biblical translations, it appears first in the summary at the beginning of chapter 25 of the Book of Genesis in the so-called Matthew Bible of 1537, "Esau selleth his byrthright for a messe of potage". According to the OED, Coverdale "does not use the phrase, either in the text or the chapter heading... but he has it in 1 Chronicles 16:3 and Proverbs 15:7." Miles Smith used the same phrase in "The Translators to the Reader," the lengthy preface to the 1611 King James Bible, but by the seventeenth century the phrase had become widespread indeed and had achieved the status of a fixed phrase with allusive, quasi-proverbial, force. In different literary hands, it could be used either earnestly, or mockingly. Benjamin Keach falls into the former camp: "I know not.. / whether those who did our Rights betray, / And for a mess of Pottage, sold away / Our dear bought / Freedoms, shall now trusted be, / As Conservators of our Libertie."
As does Henry Ellison "O Faith.. The disbelieving world would sell thee so. Karl Marx' lament in Das Kapital has been translated using this phrase: The worker "is compelled by social conditions, to sell the whole of his active life, his capacity for labour, in return for the price of his customary means of subsistence, to sell his birthright for a mess of pottage." Swift and Byron use the phrase satirically: "Thou sold'st thy birthright, Esau! for a mess / Thou shouldst have gotten more, or eaten less." The Hindu nationalist V. D. Savarkar borrowed the phrase, along with quotations from Shakespeare, for his pamphlet Hindutva, which celebrated Hindu culture and identity, asking whether Indians were willing to'disown their seed, forswear their fathers and sell their birthright for a mess of pottage'; the most famous use in American literature is that by Henry David Thoreau: "Perhaps I am more than jealous with respect to my freedom. I feel that my connection with and obligation to society are still slight and transient.
Those slight labors which afford me a livelihood, by which it is allowed that I am to some extent serviceable to my contemporaries, are as yet a pleasure to me, I am not reminded that they are a necessity. So far I am successful, but I foresee that if my wants should be much increased, the labor required to supply them would become a drudgery. If I should sell both my forenoons and afternoons to society, as most appear to do, I am sure that for me there would be nothing left worth living for. I trust. I wish to suggest that a man may be industrious, yet not spend his time well. There is no more fatal blunderer than he who consumes the greater part of his life getting his living."Another prominent instance of using the phrase in American fiction is James Weldon Johnson's famous protagonist Ex-Coloured Man who, retrospectively reflecting upon his life as a black man passing for white, concludes that he has sold his "birthright for a mess of pottage". By a conventional spoonerism, an overly propagandistic writer is said to have "sold his birthright for a pot of message."
Terry Pratchett has his character Sergeant Colon say this in Feet of Clay, after Nobby of the Watch has guessed that the phrase is “a spot of massage.” Theodore Sturgeon had one of his characters say this about H. G. Wells in his 1948 short story Unite and Conquer; the phrase appears in Myra Brooks Welch's poem "The Touch of the Master's Hand," in which "a mess of pottage — a glass of wine — a game" stand for all such petty worldly pursuits, contrasted to life after a spiritual awakening. The phrase appears in the 1919 African-American film Within Our Gates, as used by the preacher character'Old Ned' who having ingratiated himself by acting the clown with two white men turns away and states, "again, I've sold my birthright. All for a miserable mess of pottage." Translators to the Reader
The cottage garden is a distinct style that uses informal design, traditional materials, dense plantings, a mixture of ornamental and edible plants. English in origin, it depends on charm rather than grandeur and formal structure. Homely and functional gardens connected to working-class cottages go back centuries, but their stylized reinvention occurred in 1870s England, as a reaction to the more structured, rigorously maintained estate gardens with their formal designs and mass plantings of greenhouse annuals; the earliest cottage gardens were more practical than today's, with emphasis on vegetables and herbs, fruit trees a beehive, livestock. Flowers, used to fill spaces became more dominant; the traditional cottage garden was enclosed with a rose-bowered gateway. Flowers common to early cottage gardens included traditional florists' flowers such as primroses and violets, along with flowers with household use such as calendula and various herbs. Others were the richly scented old-fashioned roses that bloomed once a year, simple flowers like daisies.
In time, cottage-garden sections were added to some large estate gardens as well. Modern cottage gardens include countless regional and personal variations and embrace plant materials, such as ornamental grasses or native plants not seen in the rural gardens of cottagers. Traditional roses, with their full fragrance and lush foliage, continue to be a cottage-garden mainstay—along with modern disease-resistant varieties that retain traditional attributes. Informal climbing plants, whether traditional or modern hybrids, are common, as are the self-sowing annuals and spreading perennials favoured in traditional cottagers' gardens. Cottage gardens, which emerged in Elizabethan times, appear to have originated as a local source for herbs and fruits. One theory is that they arose out of the Black Death of the 1340s, when the death of so many laborers made land available for small cottages with personal gardens. According to the late 19th-century legend of origin, these gardens were created by the workers that lived in the cottages of the villages, to provide them with food and herbs, with flowers planted in for decoration.
Helen Leach analysed the historical origins of the romanticised cottage garden, subjecting the garden style to rigorous historical analysis, along with the ornamental potager and the herb garden. She concluded that their origins were less in workingmen's gardens in the 19th century and more in the leisured classes' discovery of simple hardy plants, in part through the writings of John Claudius Loudon. Loudon helped to design the estate at Great Tew, where farm workers were provided with cottages that had architectural quality set in a smallholding or large garden—about an acre—where they could grow food and keep pigs and chickens. Authentic gardens of the yeoman cottager would have included a beehive and livestock, a pig and sty, along with a well; the peasant cottager of medieval times was more interested in meat than flowers, with herbs grown for medicinal use and cooking, rather than for their beauty. By Elizabethan times there was more prosperity, thus more room to grow flowers; the early cottage garden flowers had their practical use—violets were spread on the floor.
Others, such as sweet william and hollyhocks were grown for their beauty. The "naturalness" of informal design began to be noticed and developed by the British leisured class. Alexander Pope was an early proponent of less formal gardens, calling in a 1713 article for gardens with the "amiable simplicity of unadorned nature". Other writers in the 18th century who encouraged less formal, more natural, gardens included Joseph Addison and Lord Shaftesbury; the evolution of cottage gardens can be followed in the issues of The Cottage Gardener, edited by George William Johnson, where the emphasis is squarely on the "florist's flowers", carnations and auriculas in fancy varieties that were cultivated as a competitive blue-collar hobby. William Robinson and Gertrude Jekyll helped to popularise less formal gardens in their many books and magazine articles. Robinson's The Wild Garden, published in 1870, contained in the first edition an essay on "The Garden of British Wild Flowers", eliminated from editions.
In his The English Flower Garden, illustrated with cottage gardens from Somerset and Surrey, he remarked, "One lesson of these little gardens, that are so pretty, is that one can get good effects from simple materials." From the 1890s his lifelong friend Jekyll applied cottage garden principles to more structured designs in quite large country houses. Her Colour in the Flower Garden is still in print today. Robinson and Jekyll were part of the Arts and Crafts Movement, a broader movement in art and crafts during the late 19th century which advocated a return to the informal planting style derived as much from the Romantic tradition as from the actual English cottage garden; the Arts and Crafts Exhibition of 1888 began a movement toward an idealised natural country garden style. The garden designs of Robinson and Jekyll were associated with Arts and Crafts style houses. Both were influenced by William Morris, one of the leaders of the Arts and Crafts Movement—Robinson quoted Morris's views condemning carpet bedding.
When Morris built his Red House in Kent, it influenced new ideas in architecture and gardening—the "old-fashioned" garden became a fashion accessory among the British artistic middle class