A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback, performs a multitude of other ranch-related tasks. The historic American cowboy of the late 19th century arose from the vaquero traditions of northern Mexico and became a figure of special significance and legend. A subtype, called a wrangler tends the horses used to work cattle. In addition to ranch work, some cowboys participate in rodeos. Cowgirls, first defined as such in the late 19th century, had a less-well documented historical role, but in the modern world work at identical tasks and have obtained considerable respect for their achievements. Cattle handlers in many other parts of the world South America and Australia, perform work similar to the cowboy; the cowboy has deep historic roots tracing back to Spain and the earliest European settlers of the Americas. Over the centuries, differences in terrain and climate, the influence of cattle-handling traditions from multiple cultures, created several distinct styles of equipment and animal handling.
As the ever-practical cowboy adapted to the modern world, his equipment and techniques adapted, though many classic traditions are preserved. The English word cowboy has an origin from several earlier terms that referred to both age and to cattle or cattle-tending work; the English word cowboy was a direct English translation of vaquero, a Spanish word for an individual who managed cattle while mounted on horseback. It was derived from vaca, it was first used in print by Jonathan Swift in 1725. It was used in Britain from 1820 to 1850 to describe young boys who tended the family or community cows; the English word "cowherd" was used to describe a cattle herder, referred to a pre-adolescent or early adolescent boy, who worked on foot. This word is old in the English language, originating prior to the year 1000. By 1849 "cowboy" had developed its modern sense as an adult cattle handler of the American West. Variations on the word appeared later. "Cowhand" appeared in 1852, "cowpoke" in 1881 restricted to the individuals who prodded cattle with long poles to load them onto railroad cars for shipping.
Names for a cowboy in American English include buckaroo, cowpoke and cowpuncher. Another English word for a cowboy, buckaroo, is an anglicization of vaquero.. Today, "cowboy" is a term common throughout the west and in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains, "buckaroo" is used in the Great Basin and California, "cowpuncher" in Texas and surrounding states. Equestrianism required skills and an investment in horses and equipment available to or entrusted to a child, though in some cultures boys rode a donkey while going to and from pasture. In antiquity, herding of sheep and goats was the job of minors, still is a task for young people in various third world cultures; because of the time and physical ability needed to develop necessary skills, both historic and modern cowboys began as an adolescent. Cowboys earned wages as soon as they developed sufficient skill to be hired. If not crippled by injury, cowboys may handle horses for a lifetime. In the United States, a few women took on the tasks of ranching and learned the necessary skills, though the "cowgirl" did not become recognized or acknowledged until the close of the 19th century.
On western ranches today, the working cowboy is an adult. Responsibility for herding cattle or other livestock is no longer considered suitable for children or early adolescents. However, both boys and girls growing up in a ranch environment learn to ride horses and perform basic ranch skills as soon as they are physically able under adult supervision; such youths, by their late teens, are given responsibilities for "cowboy" work on the ranch. "Cowboy" was used during the American Revolution to describe American fighters who opposed the movement for independence. Claudius Smith, an outlaw identified with the Loyalist cause, was called the "Cow-boy of the Ramapos" due to his penchant for stealing oxen and horses from colonists and giving them to the British. In the same period, a number of guerrilla bands operated in Westchester County, which marked the dividing line between the British and American forces; these groups were made up of local farmhands who would ambush convoys and carry out raids on both sides.
There were two separate groups: the "skinners" fought for the pro-independence side, while the "cowboys" supported the British. In the Tombstone, Arizona area during the 1880s, the term "cowboy" or "cow-boy" was used pejoratively to describe men, implicated in various crimes. One loosely organized band was dubbed "The Cowboys," and profited from smuggling cattle and tobacco across the U. S.–Mexico border. The San Francisco Examiner wrote in an editorial, "Cowboys the most reckless class of outlaws in that wild country... infinitely worse than the ordinary robber." It became an insult in the area to call someone a "cowboy", as it suggested he was a horse thief, robber, or outlaw. Cattlemen were called herders or ranchers; the Cowboys' activities were curtailed by the Gunfight at the O. K. Corral and the resulting Earp Vendetta Ride; the origins of the cowboy tradition come from Spain, beginning with the hacienda system of medieval Spain. This style of cattle ranching spread throughout much of the Iberian peninsula, was imported to the Americas.
Both regions possessed a dry climate with sp
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Canter and gallop
The canter and gallop are variations on the fastest gait that can be performed by a horse or other equine. The canter is a controlled, three-beat gait, while the gallop is a faster, 4 beat variation of the same gait, it is a natural gait possessed by all horses, faster than most horses' trot, or ambling gaits. The gallop is the fastest gait of the horse, averaging about 40 to 48 kilometres per hour; the speed of the canter varies between 16 and 27 kilometres per hour depending on the length of the horse's stride. A variation of the canter, seen in western riding, is called a lope, is quite slow, no more than 13–19 kilometres per hour. Since the earliest dictionaries there has been a agreed suggestion that the origin of the word "canter" comes from the English city of Canterbury, a place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages, as referred to in The Canterbury Tales, where the comfortable speed for a pilgrim travelling some distance on horseback was above that of a trot but below that of a gallop; however a lack of compelling evidence made the 18th-century equestrian Richard Berenger remark in The History and Art of Horsemanship that "the definition must puzzle all who are horsemen and all who are not", suggest his own derivation, noted in contemporary dictionaries, from the Latin word cantherius, a gelding, known of its calmness of temper.
The canter is a three-beat gait. Each footfall is the "grounding" phase of a leg; the three footfalls are evenly spaced, followed by the "suspension" phase of the gait, when all four legs are off the ground. The three beats and suspension are considered one stride; the movement for one stride is. There are many riders who think a front leg is the first beat of the canter, incorrect. At this time, the other three legs are off the ground. Beat Two: the simultaneous grounding phase of the inside hind leg and outside fore leg; the inside fore leg is still off the ground. The outside hind leg, is about to be lifted off. At the gallop, this beat is divided, with the inside hind landing first, making the gallop a four-beat gait Beat Three: The grounding phase of the inside foreleg; the outside hind leg, is off the ground. The inside hind leg and outside foreleg are still touching the ground, but are about to be lifted up; the inside hindleg and outside foreleg are lifted off the ground. The inside foreleg is the only foot supporting the horse's weight.
The inside foreleg is lifted off the ground. Suspension: All four of the horse's legs are off the ground; the faster the horse is moving, the longer the phase of suspension is. The canter and gallop are related gaits, so by asking the horse to gallop from a canter, the rider is asking the horse to lengthen its stride; when the stride is sufficiently lengthened, the diagonal pair of beat two breaks, resulting in a four beat gait, the inside hind striking first, before the outside fore. A careful listener or observer can tell an extended canter from a gallop by the presence of the fourth beat; the gallop is the fastest gait of the horse, averaging about 40 to 48 kilometres per hour, in the wild is used when the animal needs to flee from predators or cover short distances quickly. Horses will gallop more than 1.5 or 3 kilometres before they need to rest, though horses can sustain a moderately paced gallop for longer distances before they become winded and have to slow down. Although the walk and canter can be collected to short, engaged strides, the gallop if collected will turn back into a canter.
The "hand gallop" of the show ring is not an extended canter, but a true lengthening of stride, yet still under control by the rider. A racing gallop, in contrast, pushes the horse to the limits of its speed; the fastest galloping speed is achieved by the American Quarter Horse, which in a short sprint of a quarter mile or less has been clocked at speeds approaching 55 miles per hour. The Guinness Book of World Records lists a Thoroughbred as having averaged 43.97 miles per hour over a two-furlong distance in 2008. The "lead" of a canter refers to the order. If the left hind leg is placed first, which would be followed by the right hind and left foreleg, before the right foreleg, the horse is said to be on the "right lead". If the right hind leg is beat one the left foreleg will be the last leg to ground, the horse will be said to be on the "left lead". Therefore, a person on the ground can tell which lead the horse is on by watching the front and rear legs and determining which side the legs are "leading", landing in front of the opposing side.
When the horse is on a lead, the legs on the inside front and hind, have greater extension than the outside front and hind. Therefore, a horse on the right lead will have its right hind come further under its body than the left hindleg had when it grounded, the right foreleg will reach further out from the horse's body than the left foreleg had extended. In general, the horse is on the "correct" lead. So a horse turning to the right is on the right lead, a horse turning to the left is on the left lead. However, just as people find it easier to write with one hand or the other, most horses have a "better side", on which they find it easier to lead at a canter. In limited circumstances in dressage training, a horse may be deliberately asked to tak
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Independence Day (United States)
Independence Day is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the Declaration of Independence of the United States on July 4, 1776. The Continental Congress declared that the thirteen American colonies were no longer subject to the monarch of Britain and were now united and independent states; the Congress had voted to declare independence two days earlier, on July 2, but it was not declared until July 4. Independence Day is associated with fireworks, barbecues, fairs, concerts, baseball games, family reunions, political speeches and ceremonies, in addition to various other public and private events celebrating the history and traditions of the United States. Independence Day is the National Day of the United States. During the American Revolution, the legal separation of the Thirteen Colonies from Great Britain in 1776 occurred on July 2, when the Second Continental Congress voted to approve a resolution of independence, proposed in June by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia declaring the United States independent from Great Britain's rule.
After voting for independence, Congress turned its attention to the Declaration of Independence, a statement explaining this decision, prepared by a Committee of Five, with Thomas Jefferson as its principal author. Congress debated and revised the wording of the Declaration approving it two days on July 4. A day earlier, John Adams had written to his wife Abigail: The second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable epoch in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival, it ought to be commemorated by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, sports, bells and illuminations, from one end of this continent to the other, from this time forward forever more. Adams's prediction was off by two days. From the outset, Americans celebrated independence on July 4, the date shown on the much-publicized Declaration of Independence, rather than on July 2, the date the resolution of independence was approved in a closed session of Congress.
Historians have long disputed whether members of Congress signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4 though Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin all wrote that they had signed it on that day. Most historians have concluded that the Declaration was signed nearly a month after its adoption, on August 2, 1776, not on July 4 as is believed. Coincidentally, both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, the only signers of the Declaration of Independence to serve as Presidents of the United States, died on the same day: July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the Declaration. Although not a signer of the Declaration of Independence, James Monroe, another Founding Father, elected as President died on July 4, 1831, he was the third President. Calvin Coolidge, the 30th President, was born on July 4, 1872. S. President to have been born on Independence Day. In 1777, thirteen gunshots were fired in salute, once at morning and once again as evening fell, on July 4 in Bristol, Rhode Island. An article in July 18, 1777 issue of The Virginia Gazette noted a celebration in Philadelphia in a manner a modern American would find familiar: an official dinner for the Continental Congress, toasts, 13-gun salutes, prayers, parades, troop reviews, fireworks.
Ships in port were decked with red and blue bunting. In 1778, from his headquarters at Ross Hall, near New Brunswick, New Jersey, General George Washington marked July 4 with a double ration of rum for his soldiers and an artillery salute. Across the Atlantic Ocean, ambassadors John Adams and Benjamin Franklin held a dinner for their fellow Americans in Paris, France. In 1779, July 4 fell on a Sunday; the holiday was celebrated on Monday, July 5. In 1781, the Massachusetts General Court became the first state legislature to recognize July 4 as a state celebration. In 1783, North Carolina held a celebration with a challenging music program assembled by Johann Friedrich Peter entitled The Psalm of Joy; the town claims to be the first public July 4 event, as it was documented by the Moravian Church, there are no government records of any earlier celebrations. In 1870, the U. S. Congress made Independence Day an unpaid holiday for federal employees. In 1938, Congress changed Independence Day to a paid federal holiday.
Independence Day is a national holiday marked by patriotic displays. Similar to other summer-themed events, Independence Day celebrations take place outdoors. According to 5 U. S. C. § 6103, Independence Day is a federal holiday, so all non-essential federal institutions are closed on that day. Many politicians make it a point on this day to appear at a public event to praise the nation's heritage, history and people. Families celebrate Independence Day by hosting or attending a picnic or barbecue. Decorations are colored red and blue, the colors of the American flag. Parades are held in the morning, before family get-togethers, while fireworks displays occur in the evening after dark at such places as parks, fairgrounds, or town squares; the night before the Fourth was once the focal point of celebrations, marked by raucous gatherings incorporating bonfires as their centerpiece. In New E
Equestrianism, more known as horse riding or horseback riding, refers to the skill and sport of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, competitive sport. Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes, such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch, they are used in competitive sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing and rodeo. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding, or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in every part of the world. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes both in specialized para-equestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development.
Horses are driven in harness racing, at horse shows, in other types of exhibition such as historical reenactment or ceremony pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in public service: in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols and for mounted search and rescue. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding. Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests. There is some evidence that about 3,000 BC, near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion, buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit. However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals.
In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses died out at the end of the Ice Age. Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. Equestrianism was introduced in the 1900 Summer Olympics as an Olympic sport with jumping events. Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse or horses were the fastest, horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide. In the UK, it is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom. In the USA, horse racing is governed by The Jockey Club.
Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses jump over obstacles. It is most common in the UK, where it is called National Hunt racing. American Quarter Horse racing—races over distances of a quarter-mile. Seen in the United States, sanctioned by the American Quarter Horse Association. Arabian horses, Akhal-Teke, American Paint Horses and other light breeds are raced worldwide. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top levels, has become popular in the United States and in Europe; the Federation Equestre International governs international races, the American Endurance Ride Conference organizes the sport in North America. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an start. Races are 50 to 100 miles, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness and verify that the horse is fit to continue; the first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner.
Additional awards are given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10. Limited distance rides of about 25–20 miles are offered to newcomers. Ride and Tie. Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: one horse; the humans alternately ride. Show jumping: Show jumping is when a horse carries a rider over an obstacle commonly known as a jump. There are multiple jumps in a show, if the horse hits or refuses a jump, points will be deducted from the rider score; this is a timed event, the rider is expected to complete the course in a certain amount of time, without error. There are the hunter divisions. In the hunters, riders have to make their horses look good; the judges look at the quality of the course, if there are two or more riders who had put down amazing courses the judge or judges looks at how the horse looks and acts with the rider. In harness: Both light and heavy breeds as well as ponies are raced in harness with a sulk