Milton Keynes, locally abbreviated to MK, is a large town in Buckinghamshire, about 50 miles north-west of London. It is the principal settlement of the Borough of a unitary authority. At the 2011 Census, its population was 229,000; the River Great Ouse forms its northern boundary. 25% of the urban area is parkland or woodland and includes an SSI. In the 1960s, the UK Government decided that a further generation of new towns in the South East of England was needed to relieve housing congestion in London; the New Town of Milton Keynes was to be the biggest yet, with a target population of 250,000, in a "designated area" of about 22,000 acres. At designation, its area incorporated the existing towns of Bletchley and Stony Stratford, along with another fifteen villages and farmland in between; these settlements had an extensive historical record since the Norman conquest. The government established a Development Corporation to deliver this New City; the Corporation decided on a softer, more human-scaled landscape than in the earlier new towns but with an emphatically modernist architecture.
Recognising how traditional towns and cities had become choked in traffic, they established a'relaxed' grid of distributor roads about 1 kilometre between edges, leaving the spaces between to develop more organically. An extensive network of shared paths for leisure cyclists and pedestrians criss-crosses through and between them. Again rejecting the residential tower blocks, so fashionable but unloved, they set a height limit of three stories outside the planned centre. Facilities include a 1,400 seat theatre, an art gallery, multiplex cinemas, a 400 seat concert hall, a teaching hospital, a 30,500 seat football stadium and a 65,000 capacity open-air concert venue. There are five railway stations; the Open University is based here and there is a campus of the University of Bedfordshire. Most sports are represented at amateur level; the Peace Pagoda overlooking Willen Lake was the first such to be built in Europe. Milton Keynes has one of the more successful economies in the UK, ranked on a number of criteria.
As one of the UK's top five fastest growing centres, it has benefited from above-average economic growth. It has the fifth highest number of business startups per capita, it is home to several major international companies. However, despite this economic success and personal wealth for some, there are pockets of nationally significant poverty. In the 1960s, the UK Government decided that a further generation of new towns in the South East of England was needed to relieve housing congestion in London. Since the 1950s, overspill housing for several London boroughs had been constructed in Bletchley. Further studies in the 1960s identified north Buckinghamshire as a possible site for a large new town, a new city, encompassing the existing towns of Bletchley, Stony Stratford and Wolverton; the New Town was to be the biggest yet, with a target population of 250,000, in a "designated area" of 21,883 acres The name "Milton Keynes" was taken from that of an existing village on the site. On 23 January 1967, when the formal new town designation order was made, the area to be developed was farmland and undeveloped villages.
The site was deliberately located equidistant from London, Leicester and Cambridge, with the intention that it would be self-sustaining and become a major regional centre in its own right. Planning control was taken from elected local authorities and delegated to the Milton Keynes Development Corporation. Before construction began, every area was subject to detailed archaeological investigation: doing so has exposed a rich history of human settlement since Neolithic times and has provided a unique insight into the history of a large sample of the landscape of North Buckinghamshire; the Corporation's modernist designs were featured in the magazines Architectural Design and the Architects' Journal. MKDC was determined to learn from the mistakes made in the earlier New Towns, revisit the Garden City ideals, they set in place the characteristic grid roads that run between districts, as well as the intensive planting and parkland that are so evident today. Central Milton Keynes was not intended to be a traditional town centre but a central business and shopping district to supplement Local Centres in most of the grid squares.
This non-hierarchical devolved city plan was a departure from the English New Towns tradition and envisaged a wide range of industry and diversity of housing styles and tenures across the city. The largest and the last of the British New Towns, Milton Keynes has'stood the test of time far better than most, has proved flexible and adaptable'; the radical grid plan was inspired by the work of Californian urban theorist Melvin M. Webber, described by the founding architect of Milton Keynes, Derek Walker, as the "father of the city". Webber thought that telecommunications meant that the old idea of a city as a concentric cluster was out of date an
A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being. The legal definition of a charitable organization varies between countries and in some instances regions of the country; the regulation, the tax treatment, the way in which charity law affects charitable organizations vary. Charitable organizations may not use any of its funds to profit individual entities. Financial figures are indicators to assess the financial sustainability of a charity to charity evaluators; this information can impact a charity's reputation with donors and societies, thus the charity's financial gains. Charitable organizations depend on donations from businesses; such donations to charitable organizations represent a major form of corporate philanthropy. The Organizational Test: If the organization doesn't follow the exemption organizational test, it will be under mentoring, in order to meet the organizational test it has to be organized and operated.
Serving the public interest: In order to receive and pass the exemption test, charitable organization must follow the public interest and all exempt income should be for the public interest. Until the mid-18th century, charity was distributed through religious structures and bequests from the rich. Both Christianity and Islam incorporated significant charitable elements from their beginnings and dāna has a long tradition in Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism. Charities provided education, health and prisons. Almshouses were established throughout Europe in the Early Middle Ages to provide a place of residence for poor and distressed people. In the Enlightenment era charitable and philanthropic activity among voluntary associations and rich benefactors became a widespread cultural practice. Societies, gentleman's clubs, mutual associations began to flourish in England, the upper-classes adopted a philanthropic attitude toward the disadvantaged. In England this new social activism was channeled into the establishment of charitable organizations.
This emerging upper-class fashion for benevolence resulted in the incorporation of the first charitable organizations. Captain Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, set up the Foundling Hospital in 1741 to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This, the first such charity in the world, served as the precedent for incorporated associational charities in general. Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the Enlightenment era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763 the Society had recruited over 10,000 men. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard - some charities received state recognition in the form of the royal charter.
Charities began to adopt campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded at the turn of the 19th century in ending the slave trade throughout the British Empire and within its considerable sphere of influence; the Enlightenment saw growing philosophical debate between those who championed state intervention and those who believed that private charities should provide welfare. The Reverend Thomas Malthus, the political economist, criticized poor relief for paupers on economic and moral grounds and proposed leaving charity to the private sector, his views became influential and informed the Victorian laissez-faire attitude toward state intervention for the poor. During the 19th century a profusion of charitable organizations emerged to alleviate the awful conditions of the working class in the slums; the Labourer's Friend Society, chaired by Lord Shaftesbury in the United Kingdom in 1830, aimed to improve working-class conditions.
It promoted, for example, the allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement. In 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company - one of a group of organizations that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment; this was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavour that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust and the Guinness Trust; the principle of philanthropic intention with capitalist return was given the label "five per cent philanthropy". There was strong growth in municipal charities; the Brougham Commission led on to the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, which reorganized
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Bletchley is a constituent town of Milton Keynes, in the ceremonial county of Buckinghamshire, England. It is situated in the south-west of Milton Keynes, is split between the civil parishes of Bletchley and Fenny Stratford and West Bletchley. Bletchley is best known for Bletchley Park, the headquarters of Britain's World War II codebreaking organisation, now a major tourist attraction; the National Museum of Computing is located on the Park. The town name means Blæcca's clearing, it was first recorded in manorial rolls in the 12th century as Bicchelai later as Blechelegh and Blecheley. Bletchley grew from an obscure hamlet on the road from Fenny Stratford to Buckingham with the arrival of the London and North Western Railway in 1845 and its subsequent junction with the Oxford-Cambridge Varsity Line shortly afterwards. Bletchley grew to service the junction. Bletchley railway station was for many years an important node on the railway, it is now one of the four stations. In the urban growth of the Victorian period brought by the railway, the town merged with nearby Fenny Stratford.
Fenny Stratford had been constituted an urban district in 1895, Bletchley was added in 1898. The urban district was renamed Bletchley in 1911. In the early 1960s, there was a further substantial expansion of the town, with people from London being relocated by the Greater London Council to a London overspill estate to the south of Water Eaton; the population of the urban district increased from 5,500 in 1921 to 17,000 in 1961. It was The Plan for Milton Keynes that would bring the most dramatic change to the future of Bletchley. Bletchley was included in the "designated area" when the "New City" of Milton Keynes was founded in 1967. Bletchley thrived in the early years of the growth of Milton Keynes, since it was the main shopping area. Bletchley centre was altered when the Brunel Shopping Centre was built in the early 1970s, creating a new end to Queensway.. Bletchley's boom came to an end when the new Central Milton Keynes Shopping Centre was built and commercial Bletchley has declined as a retail destination in recent years.
The districts that make up this civil parish are Brickfields, Central Bletchley, Eaton Manor, Fenny Stratford, Manor Farm, Mount Farm, Newton Leys and Water Eaton. For many years, Denbigh has been an important employment area on the immediate north-eastern outskirts of Bletchley along Watling Street, although still in the civil parish of Bletchley and Fenny Stratford, its most famous residents are Milton Keynes Dons F. C. and their former club sponsors Marshall Amplification. In 2005, large commercial retail developments opened; the supermarket chain Asda opened their biggest store in the UK in November of the same year. The Asda supercentre remains, to date, the largest Asda store built at over 120'000 sq.ft. And the Swedish furniture retailer IKEA built and opened large stores at Denbigh North on land occupied by the Sanctuary Music Arena, the Irish Club, a sports ground and other sports facilities. Tesco responded by expanding its store at the north-east edge of Bletchley/Fenny Stratford; the sale of the land to Asda and IKEA provided the capital to develop Stadium MK.
In subsequent developments, an hotel, a variety of shops, a multiscreen cinema and a number of restaurants have been added.. Newton Leys is a new development with housing for up to 1650 homes with employment areas, shops, a school, community facilities, new park and leisure facilities built on two former Newton Longville Brickworks and farmland. Although it forms a part of the Bletchley and Fenny Stratford Town, it is beyond the Town boundary marker, is separated from Bletchley and Fenny Stratford by the West Coast Main Line, from West Bletchley parish by the Oxford to Bletchley railway line. An area of the Newton Leys development site has a history going back as far as the Iron Age, an archaeological evaluation commissioned by the developer in 2006, found an area of occupation in the floor of a stream valley in the southern part of the site; this comprised at least one circular enclosure interpreted as either a roundhouse or stock enclosure, a series of ditches and small pits and postholes as well as several spreads of occupation deposits including a significant find of Iron Age pottery.
One of the original claypits created by extracting clay for use in the brick making industry, now forms Willow Lake. The lakes at Newton Leys form part of a sustainable drainage system/balancing pond system designed to manage excess water caused by storms. Jubilee Brooks runs through the centre of the development, which rises north of Drayton Parslow and flows through the settlement towards the West Coast Main Line passing through the Lakes Estate where it joins with the Water Eaton Brook flowing into the River Ouzel; the Blue Lagoon is a Local Nature Reserve. Schoolchildren in Bletchley are taken on trips to learn about the history of this site, it was formed in the winter of 1946 when the site, a former clay pit of the London Brick Company, filled up when the Water Eaton brook broke its banks. It is now used to train divers from the Milton Keynes Sub-Aqua club, who have planted two cars, a bus and a light aircraft in its depths to be explored; because of the obligation to accept waste from London, the adjacent landfill site has increa