Celje is the third-largest town in Slovenia. It is a center of the traditional Slovenian region of Styria. It lies 238 m above sea level. Celje was known as Celeia during the Roman period, Early attestations of the name during or following Slavic settlement include Cylia in 452, ecclesiae Celejanae in 579, Zellia in 824, in Cilia in 1310, Cilli in 1311, and Celee in 1575. The proto-Slovene name *Ceľe or *Celьje, from which modern Slovene Celje developed, was borrowed from Vulgar Latin Celeae, the name is of pre-Roman origin and its further etymology is unclear. In the local Slovene dialect, Celje is called Cjele or Cele, in German it is called Cilli, and it is known in Italian as Cilli or Celie. The first settlement in the area of Celje appeared during the Hallstatt era, the settlement was known in the Celtic times and to Ancient Greek historians as Kelea, findings suggest that Celts coined Noric money in the region. Once the area was incorporated in the Roman Empire in 15 BC and it received municipal rights in AD45 under the name municipium Claudia Celeia during the reign of the Roman Emperor Claudius.
Records suggest that the town was rich and densely populated, secured with the walls and towers, containing multi-storied marble palaces, wide squares and it was called Troia secunda, the second, or small Troy. A Roman road through Celeia led from Aquileia to Pannonia, Celeia soon became a flourishing Roman colony, and many great buildings were constructed, such as the temple of Mars, which was known across the Empire. Celeia was incorporated into Aquileia ca.320 under the Roman Emperor Constantine I, the city was razed by Slavic tribes during the Migration period of the 5th and 6th centuries, but was rebuilt in the Early Middle Ages. The first mention of Celje in the Middle Ages was under the name of Cylie in Wolfhold von Admonts Chronicle, which was written between 1122 and 1137. The town was the seat of the Counts of Celje from 1341 to 1456 It acquired market-town status in the first half of the 14th century and town privileges from Count Frederick II on 11 April 1451. After the Counts of Celje died out in 1456, the region was inherited by the Habsburgs of Austria, the city walls and defensive moat were built in 1473.
The town defended itself against Turks and in 1515 during great Slovene peasant revolt against peasants, many local nobles converted to Protestantism during the Protestant Reformation, but the region was converted back to Roman Catholicism during the Counter-Reformation. Celje became part of the Habsburgs Austrian Empire during the Napoleonic Wars, in 1867, after the defeat of Austria in the Austro-Prussian War, the town became part of Austria-Hungary. The first service on the Vienna-Trieste railway line came through Celje on 27 April 1846, in 1895, Celje secondary school, established in 1808, began to teach in Slovene. At the end of the 19th century and in the early 20th century, the 1910 census showed that 66. 8% of the population was German
A sewing needle for hand-sewing is a long slender tool with a pointed tip at one end and a hole or eye at the other. The earliest needles were made of bone or wood, modern ones are manufactured from carbon steel wire and are nickel- or 18K gold-plated for corrosion resistance. The highest quality embroidery needles are plated with platinum and one-third titanium alloy. Traditionally, needles have been kept in books or needlecases which have become objects of adornment. Sewing needles may be kept in an etui, a box that held needles and other items such as scissors, pencils. Hand sewing needles come in a variety of types/ classes designed according to their intended use, sharp Needles, used for general hand sewing, built with a sharp point, a round eye, and are of medium length. Those with a double-eyes are able to carry two strands of thread while minimizing fabric friction, appliqué, These are considered another all-purpose needle for sewing, appliqué, and patch work. Embroidery, Also known as needles, identical to sharps but have a longer eye to enable easier threading of multiple embroidery threads.
Milliners, A class of needles generally longer than sharps, useful for basting and pleating, normally used in millinery work. Beading, These needles are very fine, with an eye to enable them to fit through the centre of beads and sequins along with a long shaft to thread. Bodkin, Also called ballpoints, this is a long, thick needle with a ballpoint end and they can be flat or round and are generally used for threading elastic, ribbon or tape through casings and lace openings. Chenille, These are similar to tapestry needles but with large, long eyes, Sometimes called finishing needles, these are designed with a blunt tip and large eye making them similar to tapestry needles but longer, yarn darners are the heaviest sub-variety. Doll, Not designed for hand sewing at all, these needles are made long and thin and are used for soft sculpturing on dolls, particularly facial details. Leather, Also known as glovers and as wedge needles, these have a point designed to pierce leather without tearing it, often used on leather-like materials such as vinyl.
Sailmaker, Similar to leather needles, but the triangular point extends further up the shaft, These are built long with an even thickness for their entire length, including at the eye, to enable thread to be pulled through the double stitches used in tatting. Straight sizes, 3-12 long, curved,1. 5-6 long, needle size is denoted by one or more numbers on the manufacturers packet. The general convention for sizing of needles, like that of wire gauges, is that any given class of needle the length. For example, a size 9 needle will be thicker and longer than a size 12 needle, the needle sizes are not standardized and so a size 10 of one class may be either thinner or finer than a size 12 of another type
Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia, Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia, in the 1st century BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in between the late 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, the state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is 301 AD. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century, under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the fell in 1045. An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.
By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, during World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the worlds oldest national church, as the countrys primary religious establishment. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD, Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which was proclaimed in 1991, the native Armenian name for the country is Հայք.
The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Հայաստան, by addition of the Persian suffix -stan, the further origin of the name is uncertain. It is postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina, the ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a descendant of Hayk
The Karawanks or Karavankas or Karavanks are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps on the border between Slovenia to the south and Austria to the north. With a total length of 120 kilometres in an east-west direction and it is traversed by important trade routes and has a great tourist significance. Geographically and geologically, it is divided into the higher Western Karawanks and it is traversed by the Periadriatic Seam, separating the Apulian tectonic plate from the Eurasian Plate. The Karawanks form the continuation of the Carnic Alps east of the Slizza stream near the tripoint of Austria and they are confined by the Drava Valley in the north and the Sava in the south, separating it from the adjacent Julian Alps. In the east, they border on the Kamnik–Savinja Alps and Pohorje ranges, a number of mountain passes on important trade routes cross the range, like Wurzen, Loibl or Seeberg, which have been used since prehistory. Nowadays the Austrian Karawanken Autobahn runs from Villach to the Karavanke motorway tunnel, a parallel railway line crosses the range through the Karawanks railway tunnel.
The Karawanks are a popular mountaineering area with numerous mountain huts, many of the peaks offer a good view of the Klagenfurt basin on the Austrian side and the Ljubljana basin on the Slovene side. The northern Austrian side is rocky and precipitous while the Slovenian side is steep, covered with spruce forests. The Karawanks were settled already in the Stone Age, as indicated particularly by findings from the Potok Cave, in Roman times, they represented the southern border of the Noricum province, and later, of the Slavic principality of Carantania. The ancient geographer Claudius Ptolemy mentioned the Karwankas mountains about 150 AD, the name probably is derived from Celtic karv, a tradition that has survived in the Košuta massif. From the first half of the 11th century, the Karawanks formed the border between the territory of the Duchy of Carinthia and the adjacent March of Carniola in the south. After Carniola had been elevated to a duchy in 1364, both became part of Inner Austria and were crown lands of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1526 up to World War I.
In the final weeks of the Second World War the Karawanks passes witnessed intense fighting, the 24th SS Kampfgruppe commanded by SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen-SS Heinz Harmel was ordered to keep the Karawanken passes open between Yugoslavia and Austria. This task was critical in allowing German forces to withdraw from Yugoslavia in order to surrender to British rather than Yugoslav forces. The Kampfgruppe succeeded in its task, and was one of the last German units to surrender. After World War II the Karawanks remained the border between Austria and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and finally the independent Slovenia from 1991
Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the south and southeast, and it covers 20,273 square kilometers and has a population of 2.06 million. It is a republic and a member of the United Nations, European Union. The capital and largest city is Ljubljana, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. The country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a river network, a rich aquifer system. Over half of the territory is covered by forest, the human settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven. Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of South Slavic, Romance, although the population is not homogeneous, the majority is Slovene. South Slavic language Slovene is the language throughout the country.
Slovenia is a largely secularized country, but its culture and identity have been influenced by Catholicism as well as Lutheranism. The economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has strongly influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis, started in the late 2000s. The main economic field is services, followed by industry and construction, the current territory of Slovenia was part of many different state formations, including the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, followed by the Habsburg Monarchy. In October 1918, the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes, Croats, in December 1918, they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II, Slovenia was occupied and annexed by Germany and Hungary, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, in June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country.
Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times, and there is evidence of habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ±700 BP, in the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon such as pierced bones, bone points, and needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. It shows that wooden wheels appeared almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe, in the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found, particularly in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situlas in Novo Mesto, in the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BC
It is listed as least concern by the IUCN. Its range has increased alongside human expansion, having introduced to Australia. Due to its presence in Australia, it is included among the list of the worlds 100 worst invasive species, the red fox originated from smaller-sized ancestors from Eurasia during the Middle Villafranchian period, and colonised North America shortly after the Wisconsin glaciation. Among the true foxes, the red fox represents a progressive form in the direction of carnivory. Apart from its size, the red fox is distinguished from other fox species by its ability to adapt quickly to new environments. Despite its name, the species often produces individuals with other colourings, including albinos, forty-five subspecies are currently recognised, which are divided into two categories, the large northern foxes, and the small, basal southern foxes of Asia and North Africa. Red foxes are usually together in pairs or small groups consisting of families, such as a pair and their young.
The young of the pair remain with their parents to assist in caring for new kits. The species primarily feeds on rodents, though it may target rabbits, game birds, invertebrates. Fruit and vegetable matter is eaten sometimes, the species has a long history of association with humans, having been extensively hunted as a pest and furbearer for many centuries, as well as being represented in human folklore and mythology. Because of its distribution and large population, the red fox is one of the most important furbearing animals harvested for the fur trade. Too small to pose a threat to humans, it has colonised many suburban areas. Females are called vixens, and young cubs, pups, or kits, the word fox comes from Old English, which derived from Proto-Germanic *fuhsaz. Compare with West Frisian foks, Dutch vos, and German Fuchs and this, in turn, derives from Proto-Indo-European *puḱ- ‘thick-haired, tail. Compare to the Hindi pū̃ch ‘tail, Tocharian B päkā ‘tail, the bushy tail forms the basis for the foxs Welsh name, literally ‘bushy, from llwyn ‘bush.
Likewise, raposa from rabo ‘tail, Lithuanian uodẽgis from uodegà ‘tail, and Ojibwa waagosh from waa, the scientific term vulpes derives from the Latin word for fox, and gives the adjectives vulpine and vulpecular. It is, not as adapted for a carnivorous diet as the Tibetan fox. The species is Eurasian in origin, and may have evolved from either Vulpes alopecoides or the related Chinese V. chikushanensis, the earliest fossil specimens of V. vulpes were uncovered in Baranya, Hungary dating from 3. 4-1.8 million years ago
The Upper Paleolithic is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago, roughly coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity, modern humans are believed to have emerged about 195,000 years ago in Africa. Although these humans were modern in anatomy, their lifestyle changed very little from their contemporaries, such as Homo erectus, about 50,000 years ago, there was a marked increase in the diversity of artifacts. In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archeological record, between 45,000 and 43,000 years ago, this new tool technology spread with human migration to Europe. The new technology generated an explosion of modern humans which is believed to have contributed to the extinction of the Neanderthals. The Upper Paleolithic has the earliest known evidence of organized settlements, in the form of campsites, artistic work blossomed, with cave painting, petroglyphs and engravings on bone or ivory.
The first evidence of fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. More complex social groupings emerged, supported by more varied and reliable food sources and this probably contributed to increasing group identification or ethnicity. By 50, 000–40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia, by 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61° north latitude in Europe. By 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, and by 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia above the Arctic Circle, at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed the Bering land bridge and quickly expanded throughout North and South America. Both Homo erectus and Neanderthals used the same crude stone tools, archaeologist Richard G. Klein, who has worked extensively on ancient stone tools, describes the stone tool kit of archaic hominids as impossible to categorize. It was as if the Neanderthals made stone tools, and were not much concerned about their final forms and he argues that almost everywhere, whether Asia, Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago all the stone tools are much alike and unsophisticated.
These new stone-tool types have been described as being distinctly differentiated from each other, the invaders, commonly referred to as the Cro-Magnons, left many sophisticated stone tools and engraved pieces on bone and antler, cave paintings and Venus figurines. The Neanderthals continued to use Mousterian stone tool technology and possibly Chatelperronian technology and these tools disappeared from the archeological record at around the same time the Neanderthals themselves disappeared from the fossil record, about 40,000 years ago. Settlements were often located in valley bottoms, possibly associated with hunting of passing herds of animals. Hunting was important, and caribou/wild reindeer may well be the species of single greatest importance in the anthropological literature on hunting. Technological advances included significant developments in flint tool manufacturing, with industries based on fine blades rather than simpler and shorter flakes and racloirs were used to work bone and hides.
Advanced darts and harpoons appear in period, along with the fish hook, the oil lamp, rope
A lynx is any of the four species within the Lynx genus of medium-sized wild cats, which includes the bobcat. The name lynx originated in Middle English via Latin from the Greek word λύγξ, neither the caracal, sometimes called the desert lynx, nor the jungle cat, called the jungle lynx, is a member of the Lynx genus. Lynx have a tail, characteristic tufts of black hair on the tips of their ears, padded paws for walking on snow. Under their neck, they have a ruff which has black bars resembling a bow tie although this is not visible. Body colour varies from brown to goldish to beige-white, and is occasionally marked with dark brown spots. All species of lynx have white fur on their chests, bellies and on the insides of their legs, fur which is an extension of the chest, the lynxs colouring, fur length and paw size vary according to the climate in their range. In the Southwestern United States, they are short-haired, dark in colour and their paws are smaller, as climates get colder and more northerly, lynx have progressively thicker fur, lighter colour, and their paws are larger and more padded to adapt to the snow.
Their paws may be larger than a hand or foot. The smallest species are the bobcat and the Canada lynx, while the largest is the Eurasian lynx, the four living species of the Lynx genus are believed to have evolved from the Issoire lynx, which lived in Europe and Africa during the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. Of the four species, the Eurasian lynx is the largest in size. It is native to European, Central Asian, and Siberian forests, while its conservation status has been classified as least concern, populations of Eurasian lynx have been reduced or extirpated from Europe, where it is now being reintroduced. The Eurasian lynx is the third largest predator in Europe after the brown bear and it is a strict carnivore, consuming about one or two kilograms of meat every day. The Eurasian lynx is one of the widest-ranging, during the summer, the Eurasian lynx has a relatively short, reddish or brown coat which is replaced by a much thicker silver-grey to greyish-brown coat during winter. The lynx hunts by stalking and jumping its prey, helped by the rugged, forested country in which it resides, a favorite prey for the lynx in its woodland habitat is roe deer.
It will feed however on whatever animal appears easiest, as it is a predator much like its cousins. The Canada lynx, or Canadian lynx, is a North American felid that ranges in forest and tundra regions across Canada and into Alaska, the Canadian lynx ranged from Alaska across Canada and into many of the northern U. S. states. In the eastern states, it resided in the zone in which boreal coniferous forests yielded to deciduous forests. By 2010, after an 11-year effort, it had successfully reintroduced into Colorado
The cave bear was a species of bear that lived in Europe and Asia during the Pleistocene and became extinct about 24,000 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum. Both the word cave and the scientific name spelaeus are used because fossils of species were mostly found in caves. This reflects the views of experts that cave bears may have spent more time in caves than the brown bear, Cave bear skeletons were first described in 1774 by Johann Friederich Esper in his book Newly Discovered Zoolites of Unknown Four Footed Animals. While scientists at the time considered that the skeletons could belong to apes, felids, or even dragons or unicorns, twenty years later, Johann Christian Rosenmüller, an anatomist at the Leipzig University, gave the species its binomial name. The bones were so numerous that most researchers had little regard for them, during World War I, with the scarcity of phosphate dung, earth from the caves where cave bear bones occurred were used as a source of phosphates. When the dragon caves in Austrias Steiermark region were exploited for this purpose, only the skulls, many caves in Central Europe have skeletons of cave bears inside, for example the Heinrichshöhle in Hemer, the Dechenhöhle in Iserlohn, Germany.
A complete skeleton, five complete skulls, and 18 other boness were found inside Jaskinia Niedźwiedzia in 1966 in Poland, in Romania, in a cave called Bears Cave,140 cave bear skeletons were discovered in 1983. Both the cave bear and the bear are thought to be descended from the Plio-Pleistocene Etruscan bear that lived about 5.3 Mya to 10,000 years ago. The last common ancestor of cave bears and brown bears lived between 1.2 and 1.4 Mya. The immediate precursor of the bear was probably Ursus deningeri. Ursus spelaeus deningeroides, while other authorities consider both taxa to be variants of the same species. Cave bears found in different regions vary in age, thus facilitating investigations into evolutionary trends, the three anterior premolars were gradually reduced, possibly in response to a largely vegetarian diet. In a fourth of the found in the Conturines, the third premolar is still present. The last remaining premolar became conjugated with the molars, enlarging the crown and granting it more cusps.
This phenomenon, known as molarization, improved the mastication capacities of the molars and this allowed the cave bear to gain more energy for hibernation, while eating less than its ancestors. The cave bear had a broad, domed skull with a steep forehead. Its stout body had long thighs, massive shins and in-turning feet, Cave bears were comparable in size to the largest modern-day bears. The average weight for males was 400 to 500 kilograms, with a specimen weighing 817 kg or more
Logar Valley (Slovenia)
The Logar Valley is a valley in the Kamnik Alps, in the Municipality of Solčava, Slovenia. The Slovene name for the valley is of recent coinage and is derived from the Logar Farm. In 1987, the valley received protected status as a park encompassing 24.75 square kilometres. The Logar Valley is a typical U-shaped glacial valley and it is divided into three parts. The lower part is named Log, the middle part Plest or Plestje, altogether 35 people live on the isolated farmsteads in the valley. The Logar Valley is ringed by the peaks, Krofička, Ojstrica, Lučka Baba, Brana, Turska Gora. It terminates in a wall beneath the Okrešelj Cirque, where the Savinja River starts at an ice-cold spring at an elevation of 1,280 meters. Although the Logar Valley is not particularly narrow, inversions are common due to the influence of a northern anticyclone. Temperature distributions on the slopes are influenced by differences between the sunny and shady areas, which is seen in different snow and ice conditions in the winter.
A walking path through the valley leads past a number of points of interest, the source of Black Creek, wooden logging chutes, an ash tree, a charcoal-maker’s hut. Media related to Logar Valley at Wikimedia Commons