Texas State Highway 289
State Highway 289, known for most of its length as Preston Road, is a north–south Texas state highway. It begins at Loop 12/Northwest Highway in Dallas; the Preston Road designation comes from the fact that the highway follows the course of an older road known as the Preston Trail, which ran to the town of Preston Bend. Preston Bend is now submerged by Lake Texoma; the road is known as Preston all the way north through the remainder of the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex to a junction with State Highway 56 west of Sherman, near the Oklahoma border. Preston Road passes through many of the fast-growing northern Dallas suburbs, including Frisco and Plano, as well as Prosper and Celina, which have started seeing new housing developments along Preston. On September 26, 1939, this route was renumbered from part of SH 14. Prior to June 28, 1989, SH 289 began north of downtown Dallas, Texas in the Oak Lawn neighborhood at an intersection with Pearl Street. From there, the highway designation followed Cedar Springs Road northeast for less than a block, upon an intersection with Maple Avenue, ran northwest up that street.
Less than a mile at an intersection with Oak Lawn Avenue, the highway designation turned northeast up Oak Lawn, which it followed into Highland Park. There it was known as Oak Lawn Avenue until an intersection with Armstrong Parkway, where it became Preston Road. On October 30, 1958, SH 289 extended northward 3.6 miles. Preston Road is one of the most congested highways in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. Instead, the nearby Dallas North Tollway parallels Preston Road. On June 28, 1989, the section of SH 289 from Loop 12 to a deleted section of Loop 354 was cancelled. Before that, SH 289 began north of downtown Dallas, Texas in the Oak Lawn neighborhood at an intersection with Pearl Street. From there, the highway designation followed Cedar Springs Road northeast for less than a block, upon an intersection with Maple Avenue, ran northwest up that street. Less than a mile at an intersection with Oak Lawn Avenue, the highway designation turned northeast up Oak Lawn, which it followed into Highland Park.
There it was known as Oak Lawn Avenue until an intersection with Armstrong Parkway, where it became Preston Road. On November 19, 2009, an extension of SH 289 was completed from its previous terminus at SH 56 northward to a new connection with Farm to Market Road 120 near Pottsboro, another segment of the old Preston Trail which ends on the south shore of Lake Texoma. SH 289 ends at Elks Boulevard; this provides another access route to North Texas Regional Airport, proposed as a third airport for the DFW area. US$63 million in bonds were sold by Grayson County, Texas; the Texas Department of Transportation has promised US$85 million in reimbursements for the bonds sold by the county. Preston Trail Old Preston Road from the Handbook of Texas Online "Bonds sold for new SH 289 project", The Herald Democrat, January 21, 2007
Sherman–Denison metropolitan area
The Sherman–Denison Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of one county – Grayson – in North Texas, anchored by the cities of Sherman and Denison. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 120,877; the Sherman–Denison Metropolitan Statistical Area is a component of the Dallas–Fort Worth Combined Statistical Area, which covers a 19-county area and had an estimated population of 6,805,275 as of July 1, 2009. It is a major part of the Texoma region with proximity to both Lake Texoma and the Red River. Grayson Sherman Denison Whitesboro Howe Van Alstyne Pottsboro Collinsville Whitewright Gunter Bells Tom Bean Southmayd Tioga Sadler Knollwood Dorchester Ambrose Gordonville Luella According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 979 square miles, of which 933 square miles is land and 46 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 69 U. S. Highway 75 U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 377 State Highway 5 State Highway 11 State Highway 56 State Highway 91 State Highway 160 State Highway 289 Spur 503 As of the census of 2000, there were 110,595 people, 42,849 households, 30,208 families residing in the county.
The population density was 118 people per square mile. There were 48,315 housing units at an average density of 52 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.20% White, 5.85% Black or African American, 1.31% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.90% from other races, 2.13% from two or more races. 6.80 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 42,849 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.20% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.50% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,178, the median income for a family was $45,048. Males had a median income of $32,998 versus $23,414 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,862. About 8.40% of families and 11.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.80% of those under age 18 and 10.10% of those age 65 or over. Grayson Magazine The Herald Democrat KLAK Adult Contemporary 97.5 KMAD Mad Rock 102.5 KMKT Katy Country 93.1 KDOC Doc FM 107.3 KTEN Channel 10 - KTEN DT Channel 10.2 - KTEN DT Channel 10.3 - KXII Channel 12 - QF KXII DT Channel 12.2 KXII DT Channel 12.3 Also, Southeastern Oklahoma State University in Durant is within a 30-minute drive from the area. SOSU is the closest Public university to the area. A public bus transit called'Taps' serves the Sherman-Denison Metroplex as well as the North Texas Region and extends into part of Oklahoma.
The company is a regional transit agency. Two major routes run through the Sherman-Denison metroplex, one known as the Viking route because it is funded by Grayson County College and the other is known as the Roo Route and is funded by Austin College. In addition to this both Sherman and Denison each are served by a 24-hour cab service. There are North Texas Regional Airport and Sherman Municipal Airport. Both airports serve general aviation; the closest airport with airline service is Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, it is a one-hour road journey south of the area. Lake Texoma is one of the largest reservoirs in the United States, the 12th largest US Army Corps of Engineers' lake, the largest in USACE Tulsa District. Lake Texoma is formed by Denison Dam on the Red River in Bryan County and Grayson County, about 726 miles upstream from the mouth of the river, it is located at the confluence of the Red Washita Rivers. The damsite is 5 miles northwest of Denison, 15 miles southwest of Durant, Oklahoma.
Lake Texoma is the most developed and most popular lake within the USACE Tulsa District, attracting 6 million visitors a year. Diverse recreational opportunities include two wildlife refuges, two state parks, fifty four USACE-managed parks, twelve marinas, twenty-six resorts, hundreds of campgrounds and a variety of excellent golf courses. Power boating, personal watercraft, water skiing and wind surfing are all popular; the lake has become a major sailing center based on its size and miles of sailing shoreline. During the spring break and Fourth of July holidays, many college students home for the holidays will gather in an area called "Fobb Bottom" on the Oklahoma side. Lake Texoma is home to the Lakefest Regatta considered to be the first inland charity regatta in the United States; the event attracts up to 100 keelboats and more than 500 sailors each spring. Since its inception, Lakefest has raised more than $2 million in support of various children's charities in North Texas; the current beneficiary is the Make-A-Wish Foundation® of North Texas.
Former professional Funny Car race driver "Flash" Gordon Mineo organized many "Poker Run" events on Lake Texoma. The lake was stocked with striped b
A cotton gin is a machine that and separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. The fibers are processed into various cotton goods such as linens, while any undamaged cotton is used for textiles like clothing; the separated seeds may be used to produce cottonseed oil. Handheld roller gins had been used in the Indian subcontinent since at earliest AD 500 and in other regions; the Indian worm-gear roller gin, invented sometime around the 16th century, according to Lakwete, remained unchanged up to the present time. A modern mechanical cotton gin was created by American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793 and patented in 1794. Whitney's gin used a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through, while brushes continuously removed the loose cotton lint to prevent jams, it revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States, but led to the growth of slavery in the American South as the demand for cotton workers increased.
The invention has thus been identified as an inadvertent contributing factor to the outbreak of the American Civil War. Modern automated cotton gins use multiple powered cleaning cylinders and saws, offer far higher productivity than their hand-powered precursors. Eli Whitney invented his cotton gin in 1793, he began to work on this project after moving to Georgia in search of work. Given that farmers were searching for a way to make cotton farming profitable, a woman named Catharine Greene provided Whitney with funding to create the first cotton gin. Whitney created two cotton gins: a small one that could be hand-cranked and a large one that could be driven by a horse or water power. A single-roller cotton gin came into use in India by the 5th century. An improvement invented in India was the two-roller gin, known as the "churka", "charki", or "wooden-worm-worked roller". Cotton fibers are produced in the seed pods of the cotton plant where the fibers in the bolls are interwoven with seeds. To make the fibers usable, the seeds and fibers must first be separated, a task, performed manually, with production of cotton requiring hours of labor for the separation.
Many simple seed-removing devices had been invented, but until the innovation of the cotton gin, most required significant operator attention and worked only on a small scale. The earliest versions of the cotton gin consisted of a single roller made of iron or wood and a flat piece of stone or wood. Evidence for this type of gin has been found in Africa and North America; the first documentation of the cotton gin by contemporary scholars is found in the fifth century AD, in the form of Buddhist paintings depicting a single-roller gin in the Ajanta Caves in western India. These early gins required a great deal of skill. A narrow single roller was necessary to expel the seeds from the cotton without crushing the seeds; the design was similar to that of a mealing stone, used to grind grain. The early history of the cotton gin is ambiguous, because archeologists mistook the cotton gin's parts for other tools. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in China; the Indian version of the dual-roller gin was prevalent throughout the Mediterranean cotton trade by the 16th century.
This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power. The worm gear roller gin, invented in the Indian subcontinent during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th to 14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire sometime around the 16th century, is still used in the Indian subcontinent through to the present day. Another innovation, the incorporation of the crank handle in the cotton gin, first appeared sometime during the late Delhi Sultanate or the early Mughal Empire; the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin led to expanded Indian cotton textile production during the Mughal era. It was reported that, with an Indian cotton gin, half machine and half tool, one man and one woman could clean 28 pounds of cotton per day. With a modified Forbes version, one man and a boy could produce 250 pounds per day. If oxen were used to power 16 of these machines, a few people's labour was used to feed them, they could produce as much work as 750 people did formerly.
The Indian roller cotton gin, known as the churka or charkha, was introduced to the United States in the mid-18th century, when it was adopted in the southern United States. The device was adopted for cleaning long-staple cotton, but was not suitable for the short-staple cotton, more common in certain states such as Georgia. Several modifications were made to the Indian roller gin by Mr. Krebs in 1772 and Joseph Eve in 1788, but their uses remained limited to the long-staple variety, up until Eli Whitney's development of a short-staple cotton gin in 1793. Eli Whitney applied for a patent of his cotton gin on October 28, 1793. Whitney's patent was assigned patent number 72X. There is slight controversy over whether the idea of the modern cotton gin and its constituent elements are attributed to Eli Whitney; the popular image of Whitney inventing the cotton gin is attributed to an article on the subject written in the early 1870s and reprinted in 1910 in The Library of Southern Literature. In this article, the author claimed Catharine Littlefield Greene suggested to Whitney the use of a brush-like component instrumental in separating out the seeds and cotton.
To date, Greene's role in the invention of the gin has not been verified independently. Whitney's cotton gin model was capable of clea
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Sherman is a U. S. city in and the county seat of Grayson County, Texas. The city's population in 2010 was 38,521, it is one of the two principal cities in the Sherman–Denison Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is part of the Texoma region of North Texas and southern Oklahoma. Sherman was named after a hero of the Texas Revolution; the community was designated as the county seat by the act of the Texas legislature which created Grayson County on March 17, 1846. In 1847, a post office began operation. Sherman was located at the center of the county, but in 1848 it was moved about 3 miles east to its current location. By 1850, Sherman had become an incorporated town under Texas law, it had become a stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail route through Texas. By 1852, Sherman had a population of 300, it consisted of a public square with a log court house, several businesses, a district clerk's office, a church along the east side of the square. During the 1850s and 1860s, Sherman continued to participate in regional politics.
The first flour mill was built in 1861. Because many residents of North Texas had migrated from the Upper South and only a low percentage were slaveholders, there was considerable Unionist sentiment in the region. E. Junius Foster, the publisher of Sherman's anti-secessionist Whig newspaper, the Patriot, circulated a petition to establish North Texas as an independent free state. Following Confederate passage of a conscription law, there was resistance in North Texas to conscription as large slaveholders were exempted. Slaveholders in nearby Cooke County feared that some Unionists might ally with others, in October 1862, state militia captured and arrested 150-200 suspects from the area on suspicion of insurrection. In the Great Hanging at Gainesville, the county seat, 42 men were murdered hanged by a mob, with several men sentenced by a so-called "Citizens' Court". While the court was operating, Col. William Young had been killed by unknown assailants, he had organized the jury for the court and by the time of his death, it was responsible for more than 20 deaths.
After Foster "applauded" Young's death in his newspaper, he was murdered by Capt. Jim Young, son of the colonel. Anti-Unionist state militia rounded up more suspects in Sherman, but Confederate Brigadier General James W. Throckmorton intervened, saving all but five men, lynched. During and after the Civil War, north Texas outlaw bands led by Jesse James and William Quantrill were seen in Sherman. Years James spent at least part of his honeymoon in Sherman, where he was photographed on horseback. Education developed in north Texas during this time; the Sherman Male and Female High School started accepting students during 1866, under the patronage of the North Texas Methodist Conference. It was one of three private schools in Sherman at the time; this school operated under several names until 1935. It lost Methodist support, after the opening of Southern Methodist University in 1915 in Dallas. In 1876, Austin College, the oldest continuously operating college in Texas, relocated from Huntsville to Sherman.
Sherman Female Institute known as Mary Nash College, opened in 1877 under sponsorship of the Baptist Church. It continued operation until 1901. Carr–Burdette College, a women's college affiliated with the Disciples of Christ, operated there from 1894 to 1929. Jews have had a long history in Sherman, settling in the area and meeting for the High Holidays by 1873. While there was general depression and lawlessness during Reconstruction, Sherman remained commercially active. During the 1870s Sherman's population reached 6,000. In 1875, two fires destroyed many buildings east of the square, they were rebuilt with superior materials. This included a new Grayson County Courthouse built in 1876. In 1879, the Old Settlers' Association of North Texas met near Sherman; the Old Settlers' Association of Grayson County incorporated in 1898 and completed purchase of Old Settlers' Park in 1909. On May 15, 1896, a tornado measuring F5 on the Fujita scale struck Sherman; the tornado had a damage path 400 yards wide and 28 miles long, killing 73 people and injuring 200.
About 50 homes were destroyed, with 20 of them being obliterated. In 1901 the first electric "Interurban" railway in Texas, the Denison and Sherman Railway, was completed between Sherman and Denison; the Texas Traction Company completed a 65-mile interurban between Sherman and Dallas in 1908, it purchased the Denison and Sherman Railway in 1911. Through the connections in Dallas and Denison, it was possible to travel to the Texas destinations of Terrell, Waco, Fort Worth and Denton, as well as to Durant, Oklahoma, by interurban railways. One popular destination on the Interurban between Sherman and Denison was Wood Lake Park, a private amusement park at the time. By 1948, all interurban rail service in Texas had been discontinued. During the Sherman Riot of May 9, 1930, Sherman's elegant 1876 courthouse was burned down by arson during the trial of an African American man, George Hughes. During the riot, Hughes was died in the fire. After rioters retrieved Hughes' body from the vault, it was dragged behind a car and set afire.
The black business section was destroyed. Texas Ranger Frank Hamer was in Sherman during this riot and reported the situation to Texas Governor Dan Moody. Governor Moody sent National Guard troops to Sherman on May 9 and more on May 10 to control
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif