The Reverse-wing Pouter is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. Reverse-wing Pouters, along with other varieties of domesticated pigeons, are all descendants from the rock pigeon; the breed is known for its eye-catching markings. The breed originated in Thuringia in the early 19th century. List of pigeon breeds
Fancy pigeon refers to any breed of domestic pigeon, a domesticated form of the wild rock dove. They are bred by pigeon fanciers for various traits relating to size, shape and behavior, who exhibit their birds at pigeon shows and other livestock exhibits. There are about 800 pigeon breeds; the European list of fancy pigeons alone names about 500 breeds. No other domestic animal has branched out into such a variety of colours. Charles Darwin is known to have crossbred fancy pigeons the Ice Pigeon, to study variation within species, this work coming three years before his groundbreaking publication, On the Origin of Species. Pigeon fanciers from many different countries exhibit their birds at local, inter-state or national shows and compete against one another for prizes. One typical country show in Australia in 2008 had hundreds of pigeons on display and prizes for the winners. In England, the Philoperisteron Society conducted annual shows in the mid 1800s. There were a London Columbarian Society.
The extensive variations in the breeds attracted the attention of Charles Darwin and played a major role in developing ideas on evolution. Some fanciers organize exhibitions for pigeons; the largest pigeon show is held in Nuremberg: the German National Pigeon Show, which had over 33,500 pigeons at the 2006 show. In the United States, there are hundreds of local and national pigeon clubs that sponsor shows; the largest shows are the National Young Bird Show, held in Louisville, Kentucky in October, the National Pigeon Association's Grand National, held in a different city each year and in January. This grouping system is adapted from Australian Fancy Pigeons National Book of Standards. Consideration was given to the new UK standards book which followed the German and European grouping; this version differs from that of the European grouping. This group includes breeds developed for extensive feathering that originated in the Asian region, as well as breeds cultivated for their trumpeting, or laughing, voice.
Fantail Frillback Jacobin Lahore Trumpeter English Trumpeter Most of these pigeons originate in Germany, are sometimes listed as German Toys. There are many different varieties, with a wide selection of markings. Archangel Danish Suabian Saxon Field Pigeon Starling Swallow Thuringen Field Pigeon Ice Pigeon The word "frill" here relates to the reversed feathering on the chest of these varieties; this group is noted for having short beaks. Aachen Lacquer Shield Owl African Owl Chinese Owl Italian Owl Old German Owl Oriental Frill Turbit This group includes breeds developed for their homing ability, includes show-type racing pigeons. American Show Racer Dragoon English Carrier German Beauty Homer Homing pigeon This group includes breeds developed for the ability to inflate their crops. English Pouter Brunner Pouter Gaditano Pouter Holle Cropper Horseman Pouter Norwich Cropper Pigmy Pouter Pouter Voorburg shield cropper Old German Croppers This group consisted of flying/tumbler breeds, but has now been refined to include only purely ornamental/exhibition breeds.
Budapest Short-faced Tumbler English Long-faced Tumbler English Short-faced Tumbler Helmet English Magpie Nun This group is dual purpose in that its members can be shown, but retain acrobatic or sporting ability and can therefore be used in flying competitions. Flying tumbler varieties belong in this group. Although many varieties in this grouping have become show varieties, they are still expected to display characteristics of performing birds. Armenian Tumbler Australian Performing Tumbler Danzig Highflyer Donek Roller Tippler This group includes breeds developed as sources of meat. Carneau French Mondain King Runt Strasser Domestic pigeon Homing pigeon List of pigeon breeds National Pigeon Association - USA Purebred Pigeon Magazine National Young Bird Show - USA Fancy Pigeon Portraits Egypt Swifts - Pigeon News
The domestic pigeon is a pigeon subspecies, derived from the rock dove. The rock pigeon is the world's oldest domesticated bird. Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets mention the domestication of pigeons more than 5,000 years ago, as do Egyptian hieroglyphics. Research suggests. Pigeons have made contributions of considerable importance to humanity in times of war. In war the homing ability of pigeons has been put to use by making them messengers. So-called war pigeons have carried many vital messages and some have been decorated for their services. Medals such as the Croix de guerre, awarded to Cher Ami, the Dickin Medal awarded to the pigeons G. I. Joe and Paddy, amongst 32 others, have been awarded to pigeons for their services in saving human lives. Domestic pigeons reproduce in a similar way to the wild rock pigeon. Humans will select breeding partners. Crop milk or pigeon milk produced by both male and female parent birds may be replaced with artificial substitutes. Pigeons are protective of their eggs, in some cases will go to severe lengths to protect their productive eggs and have been known to seek revenge on those who interfere with their productive process.
Baby pigeons are called squabs. Trained domestic pigeons are able to return to the home loft if released at a location that they have never visited before and that may be up to 1000 km away. A special breed, called homing pigeons has been developed through selective breeding to carry messages and members of this variety of pigeon are still being used in the sport of pigeon racing and the white release dove ceremony at weddings and funerals; the ability a pigeon has to return home from a strange location necessitates two sorts of information. The first, called "map sense" is their geographic location; the second, "compass sense" is the bearing they need to fly from their new location in order to reach their home. Both of these senses, respond to a number of different cues in different situations; the most popular conception of how pigeons are able to do this is that they are able to sense the Earth's magnetic field with tiny magnetic tissues in their head. This is all the more surprising as they are not a migratory species, a fact used by some ornithologists to dispute this theory.
Another theory is that pigeons have compass sense, which uses the position of the sun, along with an internal clock, to work out direction. However, studies have shown that if magnetic disruption or clock changes disrupt these senses, the pigeon can still manage to get home; the variability in the effects of manipulations to these sense of the pigeons indicates that there is more than one cue on which navigation is based and that map sense appears to rely on a comparison of available cuesOther potential cues used include: The use of a sun compass Nocturnal navigate by stars Visual landmark map Navigation by infrasound map Polarised light compass Olfactory stimulisee: Olfactory navigation Pigeons are bred for meat called squab and harvested from young birds. Pigeons grow to a large size in the nest before they are fledged and able to fly, in this stage of their development they are prized as food. For commercial meat production a breed of large white pigeon, named "King pigeon," has been developed by selective breeding.
Breeds of pigeons developed for their meat are collectively known as utility pigeons. Pigeon fanciers developed many exotic forms of pigeon; these are classed as fancy pigeons. Fanciers compete against each other at exhibitions or shows and the different forms or breeds are judged to a standard to decide who has the best bird. Among those breeds are the English carrier pigeons, a variety of pigeon with wattles and a unique vertical, stance. There are many ornamental breeds of pigeons, including the "Duchess" breed, which has as a prominent characteristic feet that are covered by a sort of fan of feathers; the fantail pigeons are very ornamental with their fan-shaped tail feathers. Pigeons are kept by enthusiasts for the enjoyment of Flying/Sporting competitions. Breeds such as tipplers are flown in endurance contests by their owners. Domestic pigeons are commonly used in laboratory experiments in biology and cognitive science. Pigeons have been trained to distinguish for instance. In Project Sea Hunt, a US coast guard search and rescue project in the 1970s/1980s, pigeons were shown to be more effective than humans in spotting shipwreck victims at sea.
Research in pigeons is widespread, encompassing shape and texture perception and prototype memory, category-based and associative concepts, many more unlisted here. Pigeons are able to acquire orthographic processing skills, which form part of the ability to read, basic numerical skills equivalent to those shown in primates. In the United States, some pigeon keepers illegally trap and kill hawks and falcons to protect their pigeons. In American pigeon-related organizations, some enthusiasts have shared their experiences of killing hawks and falcons, although this is frowned upon by the majority of fanciers. None of the major clubs condone this practice, it is estimated that 1,000 birds of prey have been killed in Oregon and Washington, that 1,000–2,000 are killed in southern California annually. In June 2007, three Oregon men were indicted with misdemeanour violations of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act for killing birds of prey. Seven Californians and a Texan were charged in the case. In the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom pigeon
The Brunner Pouter is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. Brunner Pouters along with other varieties of domesticated pigeons are all descendants from the rock pigeon; the breed is one of the most popular blower breeds. List of pigeon breeds Brunn
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
A crop is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion. This anatomical structure is found in a wide variety of animals, it has been found in birds, in invertebrate animals including gastropods, earthworms and insects. Cropping is used by bees to temporarily store nectar of flowers; when bees "suck" nectar, it is stored in their crops. In a bird's digestive system, the crop is an expanded, muscular pouch near the throat, it is a part of the digestive tract an enlarged part of the esophagus. As with most other organisms that have a crop, the crop is used to temporarily store food. Not all birds have a crop. In adult doves and pigeons, the crop can produce crop milk to feed newly hatched birds. Scavenging birds, such as vultures, will gorge themselves when prey is abundant, causing their crop to bulge, they subsequently sit, sleepy or half torpid. Most raptors, including hawks and vultures, have a crop. All true quail have a crop, but buttonquail do not.
While chickens and turkeys possess a crop, geese do not have one. The fact that geese do not have crops occasioned what many consider to be the great fictional detective Sherlock Holmes'—or rather author Arthur Conan Doyle's—biggest forensic blunder. In "The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle", a large valuable gem is hidden in a goose's crop. Esophagus Gizzard Gular pouch, in bird anatomy, a flap used to store fish and other prey while hunting Intestines Proventriculus Stomach The Alimentary Canal in Birds