Millets are a group of variable small-seeded grasses grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa, with 97% of millet production in developing countries; the crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions. Millets are indigenous to many parts of the world; the most grown millet is pearl millet, an important crop in India and parts of Africa. Finger millet, proso millet, foxtail millet are important crop species. Millets may have been consumed by humans for about 7,000 years and had "a pivotal role in the rise of multi-crop agriculture and settled farming societies". Millets are small-grained, warm-weather cereals belonging to the grass family, they are tolerant of drought and other extreme weather conditions and have a similar nutrient content to other major cereals. The different species of millets are not closely related. All are members of the family Poaceae but can belong to different tribes or subfamilies.
The most cultivated millets are in bold and marked with an *. Eragrostideae tribe in the subfamily Chloridoideae: *Eleusine coracana: Finger millet Eragrostis tef: Teff – not considered to be a millet. Paniceae tribe in the subfamily Panicoideae: Genus Panicum: *Panicum miliaceum: Proso millet *Panicum sumatrense: Little millet *Pennisetum glaucum: Pearl millet *Setaria italica: Foxtail millet, Italian millet, panic Genus Digitaria – of minor importance as crops. Digitaria exilis: known as white fonio, fonio millet, hungry rice or acha rice. Digitaria iburua: Black fonio Digitaria compacta: Raishan, cultivated in the Khasi Hills of northeast India Digitaria sanguinalis: Polish millet Genus Echinochloa: Collectively, the members of this genus are called barnyard grasses or barnyard millets. Other common names to identify these seeds include Jhangora, Samo seeds or Morio / Mario / Moraiaya seeds. Echinochloa esculenta: Japanese barnyard millet Echinochloa frumentacea: Indian barnyard millet known as Sawa millet, Kodisama in Andhra Pradesh and Kuthirai vaali in Tamil Nadu and Bhagar or Varai in Maharashtra), Echinochloa stagnina: Burgu millet Echinochloa crus-galli: Common barnyard grass.
Paspalum scrobiculatum: Kodo millet Brachiaria deflexa: Guinea millet Urochloa ramosa: Browntop millet Andropogoneae tribe in the subfamily Panicoideae: *Sorghum bicolor: Sorghum - considered a separate cereal, but sometimes known as Great millet Coix lacryma-jobi: Job's tears known as adlay millet. Chinese legends attribute the domestication of millet to the legendary Emperor of China. Millets have been mentioned in some of the oldest extant Yajurveda texts, identifying foxtail millet, Barnyard millet and black finger millet, indicating that millet consumption was common, dating to 4500 BCE, during the Indian Bronze Age. Common millet is believed to have been the first domesticated millet dating back about 10,300 years before the present. Specialized archaeologists called palaeoethnobotanists, relying on data such as the relative abundance of charred grains found in archaeological sites, hypothesize that the cultivation of millets was of greater prevalence in prehistory than rice in northern China and Korea.
Millets formed important parts of the prehistoric diet in Indian, Chinese Neolithic and Korean Mumun societies. Broomcorn and foxtail millet were important crops beginning in the Early Neolithic of China. For example, some of the earliest evidence of millet cultivation in China was found at Cishan. Cishan dates for common millet husk phytoliths and biomolecular components have been identified around 8300–6700 BCE in storage pits along with remains of pit-houses and stone tools related to millet cultivation. Evidence at Cishan for foxtail millet dates back to around 6500 BCE. A 4,000-year-old well-preserved bowl containing well-preserved noodles made from foxtail millet and broomcorn millet was found at the Lajia archaeological site in China. Millet was growing wild in Greece as early as 3000 BCE, bulk storage containers for millet have been found from the Late Bronze Age in Macedonia and northern Greece. Hesiod describes that "the beards grow round the millet, which men sow in summer." And millet is listed along with wheat in the 3rd century BCE by Theophrastus in his "Enquiry into Plants".
Palaeoethnobotanists have found evidence of the cultivation of millet in the Korean Peninsula dating to the Middle Jeulmun pottery period. Millet continued to be an important element in the intensive, multicropping agriculture of the Mumun pottery period in Korea. Millets and their wild ancestors, such as barnyard grass and panic grass, were cultivated in Japan during the Jōmon period some time after 4000 BCE. Asian varieties of millet made their way from China to the Black Sea region of Europe by 5000 BCE; the cultivation of common millet as the earliest dry crop in East Asia has been attributed to its resistance to drought, this has been suggested to have aided its spread. Pearl millet was domesticated in the Sahel region of West Africa, where its wild ancestors are found. Evidence for the cultivation of pearl millet in Mali dates back to 2500 BCE, pearl millet is found in the Indian subcontinent by 2300 BCE. Finger millet is o
Maize known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup; the six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, sweet corn. Maize is the most grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol. Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are grown for human consumption as kernels, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed, various corn-based human food uses, as chemical feedstocks.
Maize is used in making ethanol and other biofuels. Most historians believe. Recent research in the early 21st century has modified this view somewhat. An influential 2002 study by Matsuoka et al. has demonstrated that, rather than the multiple independent domestications model, all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. The study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths; this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Archaeologist Dolores Piperno has said: A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP. Since even earlier dates have been published. According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes.
Evidence of cultivation in Peru has been found dating to about 6700 years ago. The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America. Before domestication, maize plants grew only small, 25 millimetres long corn cobs, only one per plant. In Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were several centimetres/inches long each; the Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica. It was believed. Research of the 21st century has established earlier dates; the region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Mapuches of south-central Chile cultivated maize along with quinoa and potatoes in Pre-Hispanic times, however potato was the staple food of most Mapuches, "specially in the southern and coastal territories where maize did not reach maturity". Before the expansion of the Inca Empire maize was traded and transported as far south as 40°19' S in Melinquina, Lácar Department.
In that location maize remains were found inside pottery dated to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP. This maize was brought across the Andes from Chile; the presence of maize in Guaitecas Archipelago, which constitute southernmost outspost of Pre-Hispanic agriculture, is reported by early Spanish explorers. However the Spanish may have misidentified the plant. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for communion bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation and be transformed into the body of Christ; some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities."
Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. Archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates, it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbus's voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for mahiz, it is known by other names around the world. The word "corn" outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. In the United Stat
The soybean, or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses. Fat-free soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many packaged meals. For example, soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein, are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes; the beans contain significant amounts of dietary minerals and B vitamins. Soy vegetable oil, used in food and industrial applications, is another product of processing the soybean crop. Traditional unfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste and tempeh. "Soy" originated as a corruption of the Japanese names for soy sauce. The etymology of the genus, comes from Linnaeus; when naming the genus, Linnaeus observed that one of the species within the species had a sweet root. Based on the sweetness, the Greek word for sweet, glykós, was Latinized; the genus name is not related to the amino acid glycine.
The genus Glycine Willd. is divided into two subgenera and Soja. The subgenus Soja F. J. Herm. Includes the cultivated soybean, Glycine max Merr. and the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. Both species are annuals. Glycine soja is the wild ancestor of Glycine max, grows wild in China, Japan and Russia; the subgenus Glycine consists of at least 25 wild perennial species: for example, Glycine canescens F. J. Herm. and G. tomentella Hayata, both found in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Perennial soybean is now a widespread pasture crop in the tropics. Like some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the modern soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty, it is a cultural variety with a large number of cultivars. Like most plants, soybeans grow in distinct morphological stages as they develop from seeds into mature plants; the first stage of growth is germination, a method which first becomes apparent as a seed's radicle emerges. This is the first stage of root growth and occurs within the first 48 hours under ideal growing conditions.
The first photosynthetic structures, the cotyledons, develop from the hypocotyl, the first plant structure to emerge from the soil. These cotyledons both act as leaves and as a source of nutrients for the immature plant, providing the seedling nutrition for its first 7 to 10 days; the first true leaves develop as a pair of single blades. Subsequent to this first pair, mature nodes form compound leaves with three blades. Mature trifoliolate leaves, having three to four leaflets per leaf, are between 6–15 cm long and 2–7 cm broad. Under ideal conditions, stem growth continues. Before flowering, roots can grow 1.9 cm per day. If rhizobia are present, root nodulation begins by the time. Nodulation continues for 8 weeks before the symbiotic infection process stabilizes; the final characteristics of a soybean plant are variable, with factors such as genetics, soil quality, climate affecting its form. Flowering is triggered by day length beginning once days become shorter than 12.8 hours. This trait is variable however, with different varieties reacting differently to changing day length.
Soybeans form inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers which are borne in the axil of the leaf and are white, pink or purple. Depending of the soybean variety, node growth may cease. Strains that continue nodal development after flowering are termed "indeterminates" and are best suited to climates with longer growing seasons. Soybeans drop their leaves before the seeds are mature; the fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of three to five, each pod is 3–8 cm long and contains two to four seeds 5–11 mm in diameter. Soybean seeds come in a wide variety sizes and hull colors such as black, brown and green. Variegated and bicolored seed coats are common; the hull of the mature bean is hard, water-resistant, protects the cotyledon and hypocotyl from damage. If the seed coat is cracked, the seed will not germinate; the scar, visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in the seed coat which can allow the absorption of water for sprouting.
Some seeds such as soybeans containing high levels of protein can undergo desiccation, yet survive and revive after water absorption. A. Carl Leopold began studying this capability at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University in the mid-1980s, he found soybeans and corn to have a range of soluble carbohydrates protecting the seed's cell viability. Patents were awarded to him in the early 1990s on techniques for protecting biological membranes and proteins in the dry state. Like many legumes, soybeans can fix atmospheric nitrogen, thanks to symbiotic bacteria from the Rhizobia group. Together and soybean oil content account for 56% of dry soybeans by weight; the remainder consists of 9 % water and 5 % ash. Soybeans comprise 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ. 100 grams of raw soybeans supply 446 calories and are 9% water, 30% carbohydrates, 20% total fat and 36% p
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are laid in and bound together by mortar. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, building stone such as marble and limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, adobe. Masonry is a durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, the pattern in which the units are assembled can affect the durability of the overall masonry construction. A person who constructs masonry is called a bricklayer; these are both classified as construction trades. Masonry is used for walls and buildings. Brick and concrete block are the most common types of masonry in use in industrialized nations and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer. Concrete blocks those with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in masonry construction, they provide great compressive strength, are best suited to structures with light transverse loading when the cores remain unfilled. Filling some or all of the cores with concrete or concrete with steel reinforcement offers much greater tensile and lateral strength to structures.
The use of material such as bricks and stones can increase the thermal mass of a building. Masonry can protect the building from fire. Masonry walls are more resistant to projectiles, such as debris from tornadoes. Extreme weather, under certain circumstances, can cause degradation of masonry due to expansion and contractions forces associated with freeze-thaw cycles. Masonry tends to be heavy and must be built upon a strong foundation, such as reinforced concrete, to avoid settling and cracking. Other than concrete, masonry construction does not lend itself well to mechanization, requires more skilled labor than stick-framing. Masonry consists of loose components and has a low tolerance to oscillation as compared to other materials such as reinforced concrete, wood, or metals. Masonry has high compressive strength under vertical loads but has low tensile strength unless reinforced; the tensile strength of masonry walls can be increased by thickening the wall, or by building masonry piers at intervals.
Where practical, steel reinforcements such as windposts can be added. A masonry veneer wall consists of masonry units clay-based bricks, installed on one or both sides of a structurally independent wall constructed of wood or masonry. In this context the brick masonry is decorative, not structural; the brick veneer is connected to the structural wall by brick ties. There is an air gap between the brick veneer and the structural wall; as clay-based brick is not waterproof, the structural wall will have a water-resistant surface and weep holes can be left at the base of the brick veneer to drain moisture that accumulates inside the air gap. Concrete blocks and cultured stones, veneer adobe are sometimes used in a similar veneer fashion. Most insulated buildings that utilize concrete block, adobe, veneers or some combination thereof feature interior insulation in the form of fiberglass batts between wooden wall studs or in the form of rigid insulation boards covered with plaster or drywall. In most climates this insulation is much more effective on the exterior of the wall, allowing the building interior to take advantage of the aforementioned thermal mass of the masonry.
This technique does, require some sort of weather-resistant exterior surface over the insulation and is more expensive. The strength of a masonry wall is not dependent on the bond between the building material and the mortar; the blocks sometimes have grooves or other surface features added to enhance this interlocking, some dry set masonry structures forgo mortar altogether. Solid brickwork is made of two or more wythes of bricks with the units running horizontally bound together with bricks running transverse to the wall; each row of bricks is known as a course. The pattern of headers and stretchers employed gives rise to different'bonds' such as the common bond, the English bond, the Flemish bond. Bonds can differ in insulating ability. Vertically staggered bonds tend to be somewhat stronger and less prone to major cracking than a non-staggered bond; the wide selection of brick styles and types available in industrialized nations allow much variety in the appearance of the final product. In buildings built during the 1950s-1970s, a high degree of uniformity of brick and accuracy in masonry was typical.
In the period since this style was thought to be too sterile, so attempts were made to emulate older, rougher work. Some brick surfaces are made to look rustic by including burnt bricks, which have a darker color or an irregular shape. Others may use antique salvage bricks, or new bricks may be artificially aged by applying various surface treatments, such as tumbling; the attempts at rusticity of the late 20th century have been carried forward by masons specializing in a free, artistic style, where the courses are intentionally not straight, instead weaving to form more organic impressions. A crinkle-crankl
Ouagadougou Vagaga, is the capital of Burkina Faso and the administrative, communications and economic centre of the nation. It is the country's largest city, with a population of 2,200,000 in 2015; the city's name is shortened to Ouaga. The inhabitants are called ouagalais; the spelling of the name Ouagadougou is derived from the French orthography common in former French African colonies. Ouagadougou's primary industries are textiles, it is served by an international airport and is linked by rail to Abidjan in the Ivory Coast and, for freight only, to Kaya. There are several highways linking the city to Niamey, south to Ghana, southwest to Ivory Coast. Ouagadougou has one of West Africa's largest markets, which burned down in 2003 and has since reopened with better facilities and improved fire-prevention measures. Other attractions include the National Museum of Burkina Faso, the Moro-Naba Palace, the National Museum of Music, several craft markets; the name Ouagadougou dates back to the 15th century.
They were in constant conflict until 1441 when Wubri, a Yonyonse hero and an important figure in Burkina Faso's history, led his tribe to victory. He renamed the area from "Kumbee-Tenga", as the Ninsi had called it, to "Wage sabre soba koumbem tenga", meaning "head war chief's village". Ouagadougou is a Francophone spelling of the name; the city became the capital of the Mossi Empire in 1441 and became the permanent residence of the Mossi emperors in 1681. The Moro-Naba Ceremony is still performed every Friday by his court. In 1919 the French made Ouagadougou the capital of the Upper Volta territory. In 1954 the railroad line from Ivory Coast reached the city. Ouagadougou's population doubled from 1954 to 1960 and has been doubling about every ten years since. On 15 January 2016, gunmen armed with heavy weapons attacked the Cappuccino restaurant and the Splendid Hotel in the heart of Ouagadougou. 28 people were killed, at least 56 wounded. Three of the perpetrators were killed. Ouagadougou, situated on the central plateau, grew around the imperial palace of the Mogho Naaba.
An administrative centre of colonial rule, it became an important urban centre in the post-colonial era. First the capital of the Mossi Kingdoms and of Upper Volta and Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou became a veritable communal centre in 1995. Ouagadougou's climate is hot semi-arid under Köppen-Geiger classification, borders with tropical wet and dry; the city is part of the Sudano-Sahelian area, with annual rainfall of about 800 mm. The rainy season stretches from May to October, its height from June to September, with an average temperature of 28 °C; the cold season runs from December to January, with a minimum average temperature of 16 °C. The maximum temperature during the hot season, which runs from March to May, can reach 43 °C; the harmattan and the monsoon are the two main factors. Though Ouagadougou is farther from the equator, its hottest months' temperatures are hotter than those of Bobo-Dioulasso, the country's second most populous city. Ouagadougou's first municipal elections were held in 1956.
The city is governed by a mayor, elected to a five-year term, two senior councillors, 90 councillors. The city is divided into five arrondissements, consisting of 30 sectors, which are subdivided into districts. Districts of Ouagadougou include Gounghin, Koulouba, Niogsin, Peuloghin and Tiendpalogo. Seventeen villages comprise the Ouagadougou metropolitan area, about 219.3 km2. The population of this area is estimated at 48 % of whom are men and 52 % women; the rural population is about 5% and the urban population about 95% of the total, the density is 6,727 inhabitants per square kilometre, according to the 2006 census. Ouagadougou's communes have invested in huge city-management projects; this is because Ouagadougou constitutes a'cultural centre' by merit of holding the SIAO and the FESPACO. Moreover, the villages' growing affluence allows for such investment, the population's rapid growth necessitates it. Though literacy in Ouagadougou is not high, there are three universities in the city; the largest is the state University of Ouagadougou, founded in 1974.
In 2010 it had around 40,000 students. The city's official language is French and the principal local languages are More and Fulfulde; the bilingual program in schools was established in 1994. International schools include: Lycée Saint-Exupéry de Ouagadougou International School of Ouagadougou Ouagadougou's inhabitants play a wide array of sports, including association football and volleyball. There are activities organized by the local authorities. There are a number of cultural and art venues, such as the Maison du Peuple and Salle des Banquets, in addition to performances of many genres of music, including traditional folk music, modern music, rap. Several international festivals and activities are organized within the municipality, such as FESPACO, Africa's largest festival of this type, SIAO (International Art an
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae. Pigs include the domestic pig and its ancestor, the common Eurasian wild boar, along with other species. Related creatures outside the genus include the peccary, the babirusa, the warthog. Pigs, like all suids, are native to the African continents. Juvenile pigs are known as piglets. Pigs are social and intelligent animals. With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is among the most populous large mammals in the world. Pigs can consume a wide range of food. Pigs are biologically similar to humans and are thus used for human medical research; the Online Etymology Dictionary provides anecdotal evidence as well as linguistic, saying that the term derives from Old English *picg, found in compounds, ultimate origin unknown. "young pig". Related to Low German bigge, Dutch big.... Another Old English word for "pig" was fearh, related to furh "furrow," from PIE *perk- "dig, furrow". "This reflects a widespread IE tendency to name animals from typical attributes or activities".
Synonyms grunter, oinker are from sailors' and fishermen's euphemistic avoidance of uttering the word pig at sea, a superstition based on the fate of the Gadarene swine, who drowned. The Online Etymology Dictionary traces the evolution of sow, the term for a female pig, through various historical languages: Old English sugu, su "female of the swine," from Proto-Germanic *su-, from PIE root *su- imitative of pig noise, it is likely that the word to call pigs, "soo-ie," is derived. An adjectival form is porcine. Another adjectival form is suine. A typical pig has a large head with a long snout, strengthened by a special prenasal bone and by a disk of cartilage at the tip; the snout is used to dig into the soil to find food and is a acute sense organ. There are four hoofed toes on each foot, with the two larger central toes bearing most of the weight, but the outer two being used in soft ground; the dental formula of adult pigs is 184.108.40.206.1.4.3. The rear teeth are adapted for crushing. In the male, the canine teeth form tusks, which grow continuously and are sharpened by being ground against each other.
Captive mother pigs may savage their own piglets if they become stressed. Some attacks on newborn piglets are non-fatal. Others may cause the death of the piglets and sometimes, the mother may eat the piglets, it is estimated that 50% of piglet fatalities are due to the mother attacking, or unintentionally crushing, the newborn pre-weaned animals. With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is one of the most numerous large mammals on the planet; the ancestor of the domestic pig is the wild boar, one of the most numerous and widespread large mammals. Its many subspecies are native to all but the harshest climates of continental Eurasia and its islands and Africa as well, from Ireland and India to Japan and north to Siberia. Long isolated from other pigs on the many islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, pigs have evolved into many different species, including wild boar, bearded pigs, warty pigs. Humans have introduced pigs into Australia and South America, numerous islands, either accidentally as escaped domestic pigs which have gone feral, or as wild boar.
The wild pig can take advantage of any forage resources. Therefore, it can live in any productive habitat that can provide enough water to sustain large mammals such as pigs. If there is increased foraging of wild pigs in certain areas, it can cause a nutritional shortage which can cause the pig population to decrease. If the nutritional state returns to normal, the pig population will most rise due to the pigs' increased reproduction rate. Pigs are omnivores, which means that they consume both animals. In the wild, they are foraging animals eating leaves, roots and flowers, in addition to some insects and fish; as livestock, pigs are fed corn and soybean meal with a mixture of vitamins and minerals added to the diet. Traditionally, they were raised on dairy farms and called "mortgage lifters", due to their ability to use the excess milk as well as whey from cheese and butter making combined with pasture. Older pigs will consume three to five gallons of water per day; when kept as pets, the optimal healthy diet consists of a balanced diet of raw vegetables, although some may give their pigs conventional mini pig pellet feed.
Domesticated pigs miniature breeds, are kept as pets. Domestic pigs are raised commercially as livestock; because of their foraging abilities and excellent sense of smell, they are used to find truffles in many European countries. Both wild and feral pigs are hunted; the short, coarse hairs of the pig are called brist
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, are most classified collectively as Bos taurus. Cattle are raised as livestock for meat, for milk, for hides, which are used to make leather, they are used as riding animals and draft animals. Another product of cattle is dung, which can be used to create fuel. In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning. Cattle small breeds such as the Miniature Zebu, are kept as pets. Around 10,500 years ago, cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 progenitors in central Anatolia, the Levant and Western Iran. According to an estimate from 2011, there are 1.4 billion cattle in the world. In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a mapped genome; some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, cattle raiding one of the earliest forms of theft. Cattle were identified as three separate species: Bos taurus, the European or "taurine" cattle.
The aurochs is ancestral to both taurine cattle. These have been reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with three subspecies: Bos taurus primigenius, Bos taurus indicus, Bos taurus taurus. Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other related species. Hybrid individuals and breeds exist, not only between taurine cattle and zebu, but between one or both of these and some other members of the genus Bos – yaks and gaur. Hybrids such as the beefalo breed can occur between taurine cattle and either species of bison, leading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bos, as well; the hybrid origin of some types may not be obvious – for example, genetic testing of the Dwarf Lulu breed, the only taurine-type cattle in Nepal, found them to be a mix of taurine cattle and yak. However, cattle cannot be hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as water buffalo or African buffalo; the aurochs ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, much of Asia. In historical times, its range became restricted to Europe, the last known individual died in Mazovia, Poland, in about 1627.
Breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing traditional types of domesticated cattle, creating the Heck cattle breed. The noun cattle encompasses both sexes; the singular, technically means the female, the male being bull. The plural form cows is sometimes used colloquially to refer to both sexes collectively, as e.g. in a herd, but that usage can be misleading as the speaker's intent may indeed be just the females. The bovine species per se is dimorphic. Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals, it was borrowed from Anglo-Norman catel, itself from medieval Latin capitale'principal sum of money, capital', itself derived in turn from Latin caput'head'. Cattle meant movable personal property livestock of any kind, as opposed to real property; the word is a variant of chattel and related to capital in the economic sense. The term replaced earlier Old English feoh ` property', which survives today as fee; the word "cow" came via Anglo-Saxon cū, from Common Indo-European gʷōus = "a bovine animal", compare Persian: gâv, Sanskrit: go-, Welsh: buwch.
The plural cȳ became ki or kie in Middle English, an additional plural ending was added, giving kine, but kies and others. This is the origin of the now archaic English plural, "kine"; the Scots language singular is coo or cou, the plural is "kye". In older English sources such as the King James Version of the Bible, "cattle" refers to livestock, as opposed to "deer" which refers to wildlife. "Wild cattle" may refer to undomesticated species of the genus Bos. Today, when used without any other qualifier, the modern meaning of "cattle" is restricted to domesticated bovines. In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world, but with minor differences in the definitions; the terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United Kingdom and other British-influenced parts of the world such as Canada, New Zealand and the United States. An "intact" adult male is called a bull. A wild, unmarked bull is known as a micky in Australia. An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a maverick in the Canada.
An adult female that has had a calf is a cow. A young female before she has had a calf of her own and is under three years of age is called a heifer. A young female that has had only one calf is called a first-calf heifer. Young cattle of both sexes are called calves until they are weaned weaners until they are a year old in some areas. After that, they are referred to as stirks if between one and two years of age. A castrated male is called a steer in the United States.