Executive Magistrate of Bangladesh
Executive Magistrate is the Magistrate of the executive organ of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The members of the Bangladesh Civil Service i.e. Bangladesh Administrative Service are the Executive Magistrates, they exercise vast executive and limited judicial power in their respective jurisdiction. Bangladesh High Court on 13 May 2017 issued a verdict that declared the rules under which executive magistrates operate contratry to the constitution of Bangladesh. According to the section-10 of the Code of Criminal Procedure,1898. In every Administrative District, there are following Executive Magistrates:- District Magistrate: In every district and in every Metropolitan Area, the Government shall appoint as many persons as it thinks fit to be Executive Magistrates and shall appoint one of them to be the District Magistrate. Additional District Magistrate:The Government may appoint any Executive Magistrate to be an Additional District Magistrate. Additional Deputy Commissioner: All the ADC's in the district are Executive Magistrate.
Upazila Nirbahi Officer: Assistant Commissioner: including Senior Assistant Commissioner and Assistant Commissioner (Land Executive Magistrate, District Administration Executive Magistrate, All Airports of Bangladesh Executive Magistrate, Chittagong Port Executive Magistrate, Dhaka North & South City Corporation Executive Magistrate, Chittagong City Corporation Executive Magistrate, Water Supply and Sewerage Authority Executive Magistrate, Department of Environment Executive Magistrate, Dhaka Metropolitan Police Executive Magistrate, Chittagong Metropolitan Police Executive Magistrate, Rajshahi Metropolitan Police Executive Magistrate, Bangladesh Road and Transport Authority Executive Magistrate, Rapid Action Battalion Executive Magistrates of the Roman Empire Magistrate District Administration,Rangamati Upazila Nirbahi Officer
Rajshahi is a metropolitan city, a major urban and educational centre of Bangladesh. It is the administrative seat of eponymous division and district. Located on the north bank of the Padma River, near the Bangladesh-India border, the city has a population of over 763,952 residents; the city is surrounded by the satellite towns of Nowhata and Katakhali, which together build an urban agglomeration of about 1 million population. Modern Rajshahi lies in the ancient region of Pundravardhana; the foundation of the city dates to 1634, according to epigraphic records at the mausoleum of Sufi saint Shah Makhdum. The area hosted a Dutch settlement in the 18th century; the Rajshahi municipality was constituted during the British Raj in 1876. It was a divisional capital of the Bengal Presidency. Rajshahi is an important administrative, educational and business centre in Bangladesh today, it is a historic center of silk production. Varendra Research Museum, the oldest of its kind in Bangladesh, is located in the city.
The city is home to many renowned educational institutions of Bangladesh. The head office of Rajshahi Agricultural Development Bank and Barind Multipurpose Development Authority is situated in the city. Rajshahi is served by the Shah Makhdum Airport. Rajshahi district was a part of the Pundra region of ancient Bengal; the capital of Vijay Sen, the king who led military operations in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia was located 9 miles to the west of Rajshahi town. In medieval times, the region came to be known as "Rampur Boalia"; the origin of the present name of "Rajshahi" is debated among scholars. Most say that it zamindars as Raj and the persianised Shahi; the administrative district was established in 1772 and the municipal corporation in 1876. Rajshahi was dominated by various Maharajas and Zamindars, it was made a city corporation in 1991. During the British Raj, it was known as "Beuleah" and was the administrative headquarters of Rajshahi district in Eastern Bengal and Assam, it was chosen as a commercial factory for the silk trade, being encouraged by the agricultural department of that time.
The town contained a government college, an industrial school for sericulture. Most of the public buildings were damaged by the earthquake of 12 June 1897. Throughout much of the early part of the twentieth century there was a daily steamer service on the Ganges which connected it to rail-heads that led to the provincial capital of Calcutta as well as other cities in the province of Bengal. Along with all of Bangladesh, Rajshahi witnessed both great atrocities by the Pakistan army and heroic struggles by the freedom fighters during the liberation war in 1971; the largest mass grave in Bangladesh is located in Rajshahi University, used as an army camp during the war. On the other hand, one of the great battles of the war took place near Rajshahi. Captain Mohiuddin Jahangir, who died in battle, was awarded the highest honour by the Bangladesh government after the war. Geographically Rajshahi is situated within Barind Tract, 23 m above sea level, lies at 24°22′26″N 88°36′04″E; the city is located on the alluvial plains of the Padma River, which runs through southern side of the city.
It is bounded on the east and west by Paba Upazila of the district. Under Köppen climate classification, Rajshahi has a tropical dry climate; the climate of Rajshahi is marked with monsoons, high temperature, considerable humidity and moderate rainfall. The hot season continues till the middle of July; the maximum mean temperature observed is about 32 to 36 °C during the months of April, May and July and the minimum temperature recorded in January is about 7 to 16 °C. The highest rainfall is observed during the months of monsoon; the annual rainfall in the district is about 1,448 millimetres. Although once noted for its air pollution, since 2014 the levels of particulates have been reduced by various efforts to switch to cleaner fuels and to battery-powered vehicles, to pave earth streets, to encourage walking and bicycle transport, to plant vegetation; the levels of PM10 dropped by 67% and PM2.5 which are harmful to human health, dropped from 70 to 37 micrograms per cubic metre between 2014 and 2016.
Shahid Qumruzzaman central park and zoo is one of the popular public places of Rajshahi city. A wide area with lush green trees and grasses houses different animal species, it is located by the bank of the Padma River. Other parks in the city are Captain Monsur Ali park. Shahid Zia children's park is specially designed for children's amusement; the bank of the Padma river along the city is popular destination for recreation. The bank is a planned zone in many parts of the city to accommodate city dwellers for recreation purposes. Munsguard park near the old Dutch Borokuthi building and Lalonshah park near Shahmukhdum Eidgah have been built to give residents a place to enjoy the views of the Padma river. Banks of the Padma River: A lovely sight of one of the largest rivers in South Asia. During the Monsoon season, the water level rises, along with its beauty. Varendra Research Museum: Established in 1910, the museum is dedicated to ancient history and culture, it is recognised as the oldest museum in the country.
It has a rich collection of artefacts, relating to Hindu and Muslim heritage. Some of these date back to the 16th century, it is maintained by the University, located in the heart of town. Shrine of Shah
Textile industry in Bangladesh
The textile and clothing industries provide the single source of growth in Bangladesh's developing economy. Exports of textiles and garments are the principal source of foreign exchange earnings. By 2002 exports of textiles and ready-made garments accounted for 77% of Bangladesh's total merchandise exports. In 1972, the World Bank approximated the gross domestic product of Bangladesh at US$6.29 billion, it grew to $173.82 billion by 2014, with $31.2 billion of that generated by exports, 82% of, ready-made garments. As of 2016 Bangladesh held the 2nd place in producing garments just after China. Bangladesh is the world's second-largest apparel exporter of western fashion brands. Sixty percent of the export contracts of western brands are with European buyers and about forty percent with American buyers. Only 5% of textile factories are owned by foreign investors, with most of the production being controlled by local investors. In the financial year 2016-2017 the RMG industry generated US$28.14 billion, 80.7% of the total export earnings in exports and 12.36% of the GDP.
Bangladesh's textile industry has been part of the trade versus aid debate. The encouragement of the garment industry of Bangladesh as an open trade regime is argued to be a much more effective form of assistance than foreign aid. Tools such as quotas through the WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing and Everything but Arms and the US 2009 Tariff Relief Assistance in the global clothing market have benefited entrepreneurs in Bangladesh's ready-made garments industry. In 2012 the textile industry accounted for 45% of all industrial employment in the country yet only contributed 5% of the Bangladesh's total national income. After several building fires and collapses, resulting in the deaths of thousands of workers, the Bangladeshi textile industry and its buyers have faced criticism. Many are concerned with possible worker safety violations and are working to have the government increase safety standards; the role of women is important in the debate as some argue that the textile industry has been an important means of economic security for women while others focus on the fact that women are disproportionately textile workers and thus are disproportionately victims of such accidents.
Measures have been taken to ensure better worker conditions, but many still argue that more can be done. Under Mughal rule, Bengal Subah was a midpoint of the worldwide muslin and silk trades during the 16th to 18th centuries. During the Mughal era, the most important center of cotton production was Bengal around its capital city of Dhaka, leading to muslin being called "daka" in distant markets such as Central Asia. Bengal exported cotton and silk textiles to markets such as Europe and Japan. Bengal produced more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks imported by the Dutch from Asia, for example. Bengal was conquered by the British East India Company after the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and the Bengal Presidency was founded in 1765. British colonization forced open the Bengali market to British goods, while at the same time Britain implemented protectionist policies such as bans and high tariffs that restricted Bengali imports to Britain. Raw cotton was imported without taxes or tariffs to British factories, which used them to manufacture textiles, many of which were exported back to Bengal.
British economic policies led to deindustrialization in Bengal. From 1947 to 1971 the textile industry, like most industries in East Pakistan, were owned by West Pakistanis. During that period, in the 1960s, local Bengali entrepreneurs had set up their own large textile and jute factories. Following its separation from West Pakistan, the newly formed Bangladesh lost access to both capital and technical expertise; until the liberation of Bangladesh in 1971, the textile sector was part of the process of import substitution industrialization to replace imports. After the liberation, Bangladesh adopted export-oriented industrialization by focusing on the textile and clothing industry the readymade garment sector. After the founding of Bangladesh and jute were the most export-oriented sectors, but with the constant threat of flooding, declining jute fiber prices and a significant decrease in world demand, the contribution of the jute sector to the country's economy deteriorated. In 1972 the newly formed government of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the head of the Awami League, enacted the Bangladesh Industrial Enterprises Order, taking over owned textile factories and creating a state-owned enterprise called Bangladesh Textile Mills Corporation.
President Rahman promoted a socialist form of capitalism. The BTMC never managed to match the pre-1971 output and in every year after the 1975–1976 fiscal year, lost money; until the early 1980s the state owned all spinning mills in Bangladesh and 85 percent the textile industry's assets. Under the 1982 New Industrial Policy a large number of these assets including jute mills and textile mills were privatized and returned to their original owners. In the devastating famine in 1974, one million people died of starvation caused in part by the flooding of the Brahmaputra river in 1974, a steep rise in the price of rice. In response to the economic and political repercussions of the famine, the Bangladeshi government shifted public policy away from its concentration on a socialist economy, began to denationalize and reduce the role of the public sector in the textile industry while encouraging private sector participation; the 1974 New
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Chittagong known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh. The city has a population of more than 2.5 million while the metropolitan area had a population of 4,009,423 in 2011, making it the second-largest city in the country. It is the capital of an eponymous Division; the city is located on the banks of the Karnaphuli River between the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Bay of Bengal. Chittagong plays a vital role in the Bangladeshi economy; the Port of Chittagong is the principal maritime gateway to the country. The port is the busiest international seaport on the Bay of Bengal and the third busiest in South Asia; the Chittagong Stock Exchange is one of the country's two stock markets. Several Chittagong-based companies are among the largest industrial conglomerates and enterprises in Bangladesh; the port city is the largest base of the Bangladesh Bangladesh Coast Guard. Chittagong is the headquarters of the Eastern Zone of the Bangladesh Railway, having been the headquarters of British India's Assam Bengal Railway and East Pakistan's Pakistan Eastern Railway.
A controversial ship breaking industry on the outskirts of the city, which supplies local steel but causes pollution, has come under international scrutiny. Chittagong is an ancient seaport due to its natural harbor, it was noted as one of the largest Eastern ports by the Roman geographer Ptolemy in the 1st century. The harbor has been a gateway through southeastern Bengal in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Arab sailors and traders, who once explored the Bay of Bengal, set up a mercantile station in the harbor during the 9th century. During the 14th century, the port became a "mint town" of the Sultanate of Bengal, with the status of an administrative center. During the 16th century, Portuguese historian João de Barros described Chittagong as "the most famous and wealthy city of the Kingdom of Bengal". Portuguese Chittagong was the first European colonial settlement in Bengal. A naval battle in 1666 between the Mughal Empire and Arakan resulted in the expulsion of Portuguese pirates. British colonization began in 1760 when the Nawab of Bengal ceded Chittagong to the East India Company.
During World War II, Chittagong was a base for Allied Forces engaged in the Burma Campaign. The port city began to expand and industrialize during the 1940s after the Partition of British India. During the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, Chittagong was site of the country's declaration of independence. Chittagong has a high degree of religious and ethnic diversity among Bangladeshi cities, despite having an overwhelming Bengali Muslim majority. Minorities include Bengali Hindus, Bengali Christians, Bengali Buddhists, the Chakmas, the Marmas, the Bohmong, the Rohingyas and Rakhines. Modern Chittagong is Bangladesh's second most significant urban center after Dhaka. In 2018, the government of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina decided to change the city's name to a version of its Bengali spelling without public consultation, drawing protests and concern; the etymology of Chittagong is uncertain. One explanation credits the first Arab traders for shatt ghangh where shatt means "delta" and ghangh stood for the Ganges.
The Burmese tradition is that an Arakanese king, invading in the 9th century, gave the city the name Tsit-ta-gung. Another legend dates the name to the spread of Islam, when a Muslim lit a chati at the top of a hill in the city and called out for people to come to prayer. However, the local name of the city Chatga, a corruption of Chatgao or Chatigao, Chottogram bears the meaning of "village or town of Chatta." The port city has been known by various names in history, including Chatigaon, Chattagrama, Chattala and Porto Grande De Bengala. In April 2018, the Bangladesh government decided that the English spelling would change from Chittagong to Chattogram to make the name sound similar to the Bangla spelling. Stone age fossils and tools unearthed in the region indicate that Chittagong has been inhabited since Neolithic times, it is an ancient port city, with a recorded history dating back to the 4th century BC. Its harbour was mentioned in Ptolemy's world map in the 2nd century as one of the most impressive ports in the East.
The region was part of the ancient Bengali Harikela kingdoms. The Candra dynasty once dominated the area, was followed by the Varman dynasty and Deva dynasty. Chinese traveler Xuanzang described the area as "a sleeping beauty rising from mist and water" in the 7th century. Arab Muslim traders frequented Chittagong from the 9th century. In 1154, Al-Idrisi wrote of a busy shipping route between Basra and Chittagong, connecting it with the Abbasid capital of Baghdad. Many Sufi missionaries played an instrumental role in the spread of Islam. Sultan Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah of Sonargaon conquered Chittagong in 1340, making it a part of Sultanate of Bengal, it was the principal maritime gateway to the kingdom, reputed as one of the wealthiest states in the Indian subcontinent. Medieval Chittagong was a hub for maritime trade with China, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, the Middle East and East Africa, it was notable for its medieval trades in pearls, muslin, bullion and gunpowder. The port was a major shipbuilding hub.
Ibn Battuta visited the port city in 1345. Niccolò de' Conti, from Venice visited around the same time as Battuta. Chinese admiral Zheng He's treasure fleet an
Sylhet, is a metropolitan city in northeastern Bangladesh. It is the administrative seat of Sylhet Division; the city is located on the right bank of the Surma River in northeastern Bengal. It has lush highland terrain; the city has a population of more than half a million. Sylhet is one of cultural centres, it is one of the most important cities of Bangladesh, after Dhaka and Chittagong due to its importance to the country's economy. The name of Sylhet is the anglicized form of the ancient Indo-Aryan term Srihatta. In 1303, the Sultan of Bengal Shamsuddin Firoz Shah conquered Sylhet by defeating the local Hindu Raja. Ibn Battuta visited Sylhet in the 14th century and saw Bengali Muslims transforming the region into an agricultural basket. Sylhet was a mint town of the Bengal Sultanate. In the 16th-century, Sylhet was controlled by the Baro-Bhuyan zamindars and became a district of the Mughal Empire. British rule began in the 18th century under the administration of the East India Company. With its ancient seafaring tradition, Sylhet became a key source of lascars in the British Empire.
The Sylhet municipal board was established in 1867. Part of the Bengal Presidency and Eastern Bengal and Assam; the Sylhet City Corporation was constituted in 2001. The Government of Bangladesh designated Sylhet a metropolitan area in 2009; the hinterland of the Sylhet valley is the largest gas-producing region in Bangladesh. It is the largest hub of tea production in Bangladesh, it agarwood. The city is served by the Osmani International Airport, named after General M A G Osmani, the Commander of the Bangladesh Liberation Forces. People from Sylhet form a significant portion of the Bangladeshi diaspora in the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as other countries in the Middle East; the name Sylhet is anglicized from Srihatta. In Indo-Aryan languages, Sri means beauty. Hatta is a term for a marketplace; the name of the region was changed to Jalalabad during the Sultanate period, but the actual town of Srihatta kept its name. In the Mughal Empire's records, Srihatta was used as the name for the city in the Bengal Subah.
In British India, Srihatta became known as Sylhet in English and in Pakistan, the name Sylhet remained however the division was called Jalalabad. Sylhet was under the realm of the Kamarupa kingdoms of ancient Bengal and Assam. Buddhism was prevalent in the first millennium. In the early medieval period, the area was dominated by Hindu principalities, which were under the nominal suzerainty of the Senas and Devas; the history of the dynasties in the region is documented by their copper-plate charters. The 14th century marked the beginning of Islamic influence in Sylhet; the Muslim general Shamsuddin Firoz Shah's army defeated the local Hindu Raja Gour Govinda. The general's army was aided by a Middle Eastern Sufi missionary, Shah Jalal, 360 of his companions; the area became known as Jalalabad. It hosted a mint; when the Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta visited Shah Jalal in Sylhet in 1345, he noted that the locals embraced Islam due to Shah Jalal's missionary activities."It was by his labours that the people of these mountains became converted to Islam" wrote Battuta in his diary.
Bengali Muslims were exploiting the fertile land of Sylhet for agricultural production and enjoyed relative prosperity. The region began to experience an influx of Muslim settlers, including Turks and Persians; the Mughals subsequently conquered the region. The place is famous for the shrine of Shah Jalal. Sylhet came under British administration in 1765. Sylhet was strategically important for the British in their pursuit of conquering Northeast India and Upper Burma; the first commercial tea plantation in British India was opened in the Mulnicherra Estate in Sylhet in 1857. Sylhet was constituted as a municipality in 1867. Despite protests to the Viceroy from its Bengali-majority population, the district was made part of the Chief Commissioner's Province of Assam in 1874 in order to facilitate Assam's commercial development; the Assam Bengal Railway was established in the late 19th century to connect Assam and Sylhet with the port city of Chittagong. In 1905, Sylhet became part of Eastern Assam.
In 1912, it was again made part of Assam Province. By the 1920s, organizations such as the Sylhet Peoples Association and Sylhet-Bengal Reunion League mobilized public opinion demanding the division's incorporation into Bengal. Due to the size of Sylhet's Bengali Muslim majority, the All India Muslim League formed the first elected government in British Assam; the numbers of lascars grew between the two world wars, with some ending up in the docks of London and Liverpool. Sylhet's lascars married English women. During World War II, many fought on the Allied front before settling down in the United Kingdom, where they opened cafes and restaurants. In 1947, following a referendum all of erstwhile district of Sylhet became a part of East Bengal in the Dominion of Pakistan, barring its Karimganj sub-division, incorporated into the Dominion of India; the referendum was held on 6 July 1947. 239,619 people voted to join East Bengal and 184,041 voted to be part of Assam. The referendum was acknowledged by Article 3 of the Indian Independence Act 1947.
Sylhet became the hub of Pakistan's tea industry after 1947. Pakistan became one of the
History of aviation in Bangladesh
The history of aviation in pre-1947 India began with kites, the traditional heavier-than-air man-made object, flown by one or more people while staying on the ground. The first recorded manned flight was arranged by the Dhaka Nawab Family in 1882, which resulted in the death of the flyer. Kite flying was one of the many different forms of entertainment of the elite people of Dhaka, since the Mughal period, it became a festive tradition during the period of Nayeb-e-Nazim Nawajesh Mohammad Khan in the 1740s. Kite flying is still a popular pastime in Bangladesh right after the monsoon. In the older parts of Dhaka it is one of the most popular activities. Kite painting was a specialised art form in the 18th century in Bangladesh; some kites of Bengal has been known to keep flying for three months. They were big kites tied to anchors with stout ropes. Kite flying festival had long been a major festival; the Chaitra Sankranti festival is celebrated every year in the last day of the Bengali calendar. It is a major event for boat racing.
Combating fighter kite flyers trying to slash each other's sharpened kite-string is a major part of the competition. In West Bengal the major kite flying festival happens on the day of Makar Sankranti or end of winter, Vasant Panchami. Jeanette Van Tassel, a young balloonist from the United States, was hired by the incumbent Nawab Khwaja Ahsanullah, she was a member of a family troupe of professional balloonists and arrived with her mother, Jenny Rumary Van Tassel. At 6.20 pm on 16 March 1892, she set off to fly from the southern bank of the River Buriganga to the roof of Ahsan Manzil, lying across the river. But a gusting wind carried her off to the gardens of Shahbag, where her balloon became stuck in a tree, she was killed in her fall to the ground, lies interred in the Christian graveyard at Narinda, Dhaka. Modern aviation in modern Bangladesh area began when the British Government of India built a Royal Indian military airstrip in Tejgaon during World War II to fly warplanes towards the battle fields of Kohima and war theatres in Burma.
Other airstrips were built in Comilla, Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Sylhet, Jessore and Lalmonirhat. In August 1943, a South Asia Command was formed under Admiral Mountbatten, including the RAF Third Tactical Air Force, which launched the second Burma Campaign against the Empire of Japan in the December that year; the Royal Indian Airforce, Indian part of the Royal Air Force played a crucial role by providing tactical reconnaissance and extensive close support to the army when a British Corps started advancing down the Arakan coast in January 1944. In November 1943, 6 Squadron and 8 Squadron were moved to Cox's Bazaar. By the end of February 1944, No 6 Squadron pilots had completed over 1,000 operational sorties, averaging 6 sorties a day per pilot, a record for the entire the Third TAF. Towards the end of March 1944, 4 Squadron joined the operations when it was moved first to Feni airfield, to Comilla in June to replace 6 Squadron. In March 1944, the squadron moved to Feni for operations against the Japanese.
The role of the squadron was to provide close Air support to the XIV Army. It was from Feni that the squadron carried out its first operational sorties by providing fighter escort to Dakota, engaged in supply dropping missions in the northern Burma. From August 1944 to January 1945, No. 4 Squadron was based at Cox's Bazar and carried out CAS, interdiction and tactical recce operations. In May 1944, 9 Squadron was moved to Comilla after a brief spell of tactical reconnaissance duties supporting the battles of Imphal and Kohima. During August 1944, the two squadrons carried out intensive bombing of Japanese positions in the Sangu River valley, specially for three consecutive days in Labawa to support an offensive by 81 Division to expel the Japanese from the area. By the end of December 1944, 10 Squadron had been moved into the operational area at Ramu. With the fall of Rangoon on 3 May 1945, the operations in Burma were reduced to mopping up of small pockets of resistance. By the end of June most of the Royal Air forces squadrons were withdrawn, leaving only 8 Squadron to assist in the mopping up.
The Shahjalal International Airport originated in 1941, during the second world war, as the British government built a landing strip at Kurmitola, several kilometres north of Tejgaon, as an extra landing strip for the Tejgaon Airport. At that time Tejgaon was a military airport, to operate warplanes towards the war fields of Kohima and Burmese war theatres. Shah Amanat International Airport was a combat airfield as well as a supply point and photographic reconnaissance base by the United States Army Air Forces Tenth Air Force during the Burma Campaign 1944-1945. Known American units assigned to Chittagong were: 80th Fighter Group, flew P-38 Lightning fighters over Burma between March 1944 and February 1945. Osmani International Airport in Sylhet was built during British rule as Sylhet Civil Airport to check Japanese aggression from Burma. Biman Bangladesh Airlines earns most of its revenue from this airport; when the war was over, the colonial government decided to build the Tejgaon Airport along with a landing strip at Kurmitola to meet the needs of a Royal Indian Air Force station in Dhaka.
In 1946, the Mirza Ahmad Ispahani and his partners formed an airline – Orient Airways – which soon started using the airport as a civil airport. Shifting its base from Kolkata to Karachi when Pakistan was born, Orient Airwa