A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Pony Canyon Inc. known by the shorthand form Ponican, is a Japanese company, established on October 1, 1966, which publishes music, DVD and VHS videos and video games. It is affiliated with the Japanese media group Fujisankei Communications Group. Pony Canyon is a major leader in the music industry in Japan, with its artists at the top of the Japanese charts. Pony Canyon is responsible for releasing taped concerts from its artists as well as many anime productions and several film productions. Pony Canyon is headquartered in Tokyo with offices in South Korea, it employs 360 people. Pony Canyon owns the recording label Flight Master. On October 1, 1966, Nippon Broadcasting System, Inc. opened a new record label division, called as Nippon Broadcasting System Service, Inc. in order to produce and market music from Japanese artists. The division formally changed its name in 1970 to Pony Inc. in order to match the brand names it had been using previously. These were "PONYPak" for 8-track cassettes from 1967, "PONY" for cassettes from 1968.
In August 1, 1970, another Japanese record label, Canyon Records Inc. was founded. Like Pony Inc. Canyon Records was part of the Fujisankei Communications Group. Canyon Records was financially backed at 60% by Pony Inc. and at 40% by Pony's parent company Nippon Broadcasting System.. In 1982, Pony ventured into interactive content by producing personal computer game software under the name "Ponyca". In 1984, the company entered license agreements with major overseas companies, MGM/UA Home Video, Vestron Video International, Walt Disney Home Video and BBC Video, in 1985, they established offices in New York and London. In 1986, Pony signed licensing agreements with A&M Records and in 1989 with Virgin Records to handle both companies. On October 21, 1987, Pony Inc. and Canyon Records merged their operations to form Pony Canyon Inc. In 1990, Pony Canyon branched out, opened five subsidiaries outside Japan, one of them is a subsidiary in Singapore called Skin, managed by Jimmy Wee and signed local English language performers such as Gwailo, Art Fazil, Chris Vadham, The Lizards' Convention, Humpback Oak and Radio Active.
In addition to Singapore, Pony Canyon has had a subsidiary in Taiwan, a joint venture in Hong Kong and South Korea, named as Golden Pony and SAMPONY, respectively. Four of five subsidiaries were closed in 1997 due to Asian financial crisis, leaving the Malaysian subsidiary as the only subsidiary to remain in operation. However, the Hong Kong and Korean operations were reestablished as a wholly owned subsidiary, although the Korean operation had a 16% stake of local partner. In 2003, the Hong Kong and Taiwan branch of Pony Canyon, both affected by the financial crisis, were acquired by Forward Music; as a video game producer, Pony Canyon brought the Ultima series from Origin Systems and the Advanced Dungeons and Dragons series from Strategic Simulations to Nintendo's Family Computer. Between 1986 and 1990, they produced remakes of the first four Ultima titles for the MSX2 and NES platforms; these remakes differed with rewritten game code and all-new graphics. Pony Canyon's video game library was released in North America by FCI.
Pony Canyon has not released any video games since Virtual View: Nemoto Harumi for the PlayStation 2 in July 2003. The company has been involved in film production. For example, they were a co-production company for the 1996 Indian erotic film Kama Sutra: A Tale of Love. Following a merger with Nippon Broadcasting System, Fuji Television Network, Inc. became the major shareholder of Pony Canyon in 2006. The following year, Fuji Television made Pony Canyon its wholly owned subsidiary. Fuji Television was subsequently renamed Fuji Media Holdings in 2008. Despite associations with Fuji Television, not all of Pony Canyon's TV show and movie library has been broadcast on Fuji Television; some of Pony Canyon's non–Fuji TV catalog includes Doraemon movies. In September 2014, Pony Canyon opened a North American anime distribution label, Ponycan USA, which aims to license their titles for streaming and home video in US and Canada, their home video releases will be distributed by Right Stuf Inc.. Below is a selected list of musical artists signed under the Pony Canyon label.
Yasuharu Takanashi Below is a selected list of video games either developed or published by the Pony Canyon label. Below is a list of anime series licensed for streaming and home video release in North America by Pony Canyon's Ponycan USA label. Ah! My Goddess: The Movie Clean Freak! Aoyama kun Cute High Earth Defense Club Love! Cute High Earth Defense Club Love! Love! Days Denkigai no Honya-san Etotama Garakowa: Restore the World Kuromukuro Lance N' Masques The Lost Village Rokka: Braves of the Six Flowers Sanrio Boys Sound! Euphonium Welcome to the Ballroom Yuki Yuna is a Hero List of record labels Master of Entertainment Official website
Yasuhiro Kido is a Japanese welterweight kickboxer competing in K-1 MAX. He is 2008 K-1 World MAX Japan tournament champion. Yasuhiro Kido was born in Kanagawa, Japan on December 25, 1982; when he was a junior high school student, he belonged to a track and field athletics team, was training in sprinting. After graduation, he joined Taniyama gym. After graduation of Ishida high school, Kido entered at faculty of Physical Education at Kokushikan University. At that time, he joined its kickboxing team. In 2001, he won the title of University Kickboxing Federation at welterweight. In 2002, he won the title of UKF again at middleweight. In 2003, he participated All Japan Shin-Karatedo Championship at middleweight, he won the 3rd place. When he graduated university, he got license to be a teacher for junior high school. On September 14, 2003, he debuted as a professional kickboxer for Martial Arts Japan Kickboxing Federation. On February 25, 2012, Kido knocked out Baek Man-Sun in round 2 at Big Bang 8 in Tokyo.
On March 17, 2012 he knocked out Kenta for the Krush 70 kg Title at 1:28 in the second round via spinning back fist. He faced Ludovic Millet at Krush.23 on October 8, 2012 in a non-title fight, beating the Frenchman via unanimous decision. He was knocked out with a head kick by Murthel Groenhart in the quarter-final of the K-1 World MAX 2012 World Championship Tournament Final in Athens, Greece on December 15, 2012, he made the first defence of his Krush title by knocking out Takuro Moriya in round two at Krush.26 on January 28, 2013. Kido defeated Asami Zaurus by way of unanimous decision at Big Bang 12 in Tokyo on February 24, 2013, he knocked down Minnai Massoud twice en route to winning a unanimous decision in the co-main event of Big Bang 13 on June 2, 2013. Kido defended his Krush -70 belt for the second time on August 11, 2013 at Krush.30 when he beat Yutaru Yamauchi by unanimous decision. He lost to Andy Souwer by unanimous decision at the K-1 World MAX 2013 World Championship Tournament Final 16 in Majorca, Spain on September 14, 2013.
He beat Kuntap Weerasakreck by split decision at Big Bang 15 in Tokyo, Japan on December 1, 2013. Kido is set to fight Minoru "Philip" Kimura in a Super Fight at the K-1 World GP in Saitama, Japan on November 23, 2017. Amateur 2001 University Kickboxing Federation Welterweight champion 2002 University Kickboxing Federation Welterweight champion The 14th All Japan Shin Karate Championship K-2 Tournament Middleweight 3rd place Professional 2017 K-1 World GP 2017 Super Middleweight Championship Tournament Runner-Up 2014 WBKF -70 kg World Title 2012–present Krush -70 kg champion 2006 Martial Arts Japan Kickboxing Federation Middleweight Champion 2008 K-1 World MAX Japan Tournament Winner 2007 MVP 2007 The Fight of the Year List of male kickboxers List of K-1 Events Official K-1 website Yasuhiro Kido K-1 profile
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
Megumi Odaka, is a former Japanese idol and singer. After winning the "TOHO Cinderella" beauty contest in 1987, where she took place with 1984 winner Yasuko Sawaguchi, she made her film debut as the blind girl Akeno in the movie Taketori Monogatari aka Princess from the Moon; the following year she won a Japanese Academy Award for "Rookie of the year" for her performance in this movie, amongst others. In 1988, she starred in the TV series Hana no Asuka-gumi! as Asuka Kuraku along with Natsuki Ozawa and Hikari Ishida, based on a manga series about a 14-year-old delinquent girl. After playing roles in a number of TV series, she landed the role of Miki Saegusa in Godzilla vs. Biollante in 1989. TOHO was impressed with her acting skills and she ended up playing Miki Saegusa in the following installment and the rest of the Heisei Series, she was one of the few actors to play the same role in more than one original Japanese release of a Godzilla film. Megumi had a short singing career from 1988 to 1991, which spawned six singles and the two albums, Milky Cotton and Powder Snow.
She acted in several stage productions such as "Anne no aijou" aka "Anne's Love" or "Anne's Affection" in 1991, "Kiki's Delivery Service" in 1995, "Peter Pan" in 1996 and "Yana no ue no Violinjiki" in 1994, 1996, 1998. Princess from the Moon Hana no Asuka-gumi! Seishun kazoku Hey! Agari icchou Godzilla vs. Biollante Ikenai joshikou monogatari Gekai arimori saeko Genji monogatari ue no Makishita no kan Gogeza monogatari Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah Anata dake mienai Yonimo kimyouna monogatari - Haru no tokubetsu-hen Ude ni oboe ari 2 Oushin doctor jiken no Karte Kaseifu wa mita! Godzilla vs. Mothra Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla II Hit the Goal! Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla Godzilla vs. Destoroyah Furuhata Ninzaburō Samurai tantei jiken Hakui no futari Hamidashi Keiji Jounetsu kei Soushun no Eki / Doushite desu ka Blue Wind / Tsuna no Jiki Milky Cotton Autabi Anata o Suki ni naru / Koi ga Samui November Jounetsu no Sasayaki / Harukaze Memory Shumatsu no Cinderella tachi / Stance Powder Snow Ima, Kaze no Naka de / Umi o Futari jime Odaka Megumi Best Whisper / Sasayaki TRY Megumi Odaka on IMDb Megumi Odaka at the Japanese Movie Database