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1. Summit – A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex, peak, and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may also refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder

2. Topographic prominence – It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peaks key col is a point on this contour line. By convention, the prominence of Mount Everest, the Earths highest mountain, is taken to equal the elevation of its summit above sea level, if the peaks prominence is P metres, to get from the summit to any higher terrain one must descend at least P metres. Together with the convention for Mount Everest, this implies that the prominence of any island or continental highpoint is equal to its elevation above sea level, for every ridge connecting the peak to higher terrain, find the lowest point on the ridge. The key col is defined as the highest of these cols, the prominence is the difference between the elevation of the peak and the elevation of the key col. The following mental exercise may illustrate the meaning of topographic prominence, imagine you are standing at the top of a peak and imagine that an imaginary sea level rises to your feet. Now slowly lower the sea level and an imaginary island appears beneath your feet. Your island will grow and will merge with other islands that emerge, the parent peak may be either close or far from the subject peak. The summit of Mount Everest is the parent peak of Aconcagua at a distance of 17,755 km, the key col may also be close or far from the subject peak. The key col for Aconcagua is the Bering Strait at a distance of 13,655 km, the key col for the South Summit of Mount Everest is about 100 m distant. Prominence is interesting to many mountaineers because it is a measurement that is strongly correlated with the subjective significance of a summit. Peaks with low prominences are either subsidiary tops of some higher summit or relatively insignificant independent summits, peaks with high prominences tend to be the highest points around and are likely to have extraordinary views. Only summits with a sufficient degree of prominence are regarded as independent mountains, for example, the worlds second-highest mountain is K2. While Mount Everests South Summit is taller than K2, it is not considered an independent mountain because it is a subsummit of the main summit, many lists of mountains take topographic prominence as a criterion for inclusion, or cutoff. John and Anne Nuttalls The Mountains of England and Wales uses a cutoff of 15 m, in the contiguous United States, the famous list of fourteeners uses a cutoff of 300 ft /91 m. Also in the U. S.2000 feet of prominence has become a threshold that signifies that a peak has major stature. This generates lists of peaks ranked by prominence, which are different from lists ranked by elevation. Such lists tend to emphasize isolated high peaks, such as range or island high points, one advantage of a prominence-ranked list is that it needs no cutoff, since a peak with high prominence is automatically an independent peak

4. Grand County, Colorado – Grand County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,843, the county seat is Hot Sulphur Springs. It was named after Grand Lake and the Grand River, an old name for the upper Colorado River, on January 29,1877 Routt County was created and Grand County shrunk down to its current western boundary. When valuable minerals were found in North Park, Grand County claimed the area as part of its county and it took a decision by the Colorado Supreme Court in 1886 to declare North Park part of Larimer County, setting Grand Countys northern boundary. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,870 square miles. The population density was 7 people per square mile, there were 10,894 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95. 15% White,0. 48% Black or African American,0. 43% Native American,0. 68% Asian,0. 10% Pacific Islander,2. 00% from other races, and 1. 15% from two or more races. 4. 36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,23. 8% were of German,12. 6% Irish,10. 0% English and 7. 3% American ancestry. 24. 80% of all households were made up of individuals and 4. 80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.85. In the county, the population was out with 21. 80% under the age of 18,9. 00% from 18 to 24,34. 70% from 25 to 44,26. 80% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 112.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.70 males, the median income for a household in the county was \$47,759, and the median income for a family was \$55,217. Males had an income of \$34,861 versus \$26,445 for females. The per capita income for the county was \$25,198, about 5. 40% of families and 7. 30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7. 90% of those under age 18 and 6. 10% of those age 65 or over

5. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci

6. John Wesley Powell – John Wesley Wes Powell was a U. S. soldier, geologist, explorer of the American West, professor at Illinois Wesleyan University, and director of major scientific and cultural institutions. He is famous for the 1869 Powell Geographic Expedition, a river trip down the Green and Colorado rivers. Powell served as director of the U. S. Geological Survey and proposed, for development of the arid West. Powell was born in Mount Morris, New York, in 1834 and his father, a poor itinerant preacher, had emigrated to the U. S. from Shrewsbury, England, in 1830. His family moved westward to Jackson, Ohio, then Walworth County, Wisconsin, before settling in rural Boone County, as a young man he undertook a series of adventures through the Mississippi River valley. In 1855, he spent four months walking across Wisconsin, during 1856, he rowed the Mississippi from St. Anthony, Minnesota, to the sea. In 1857, he rowed down the Ohio River from Pittsburgh to the Mississippi River, in 1858 he rowed down the Illinois River, then up the Mississippi and the Des Moines River to central Iowa. At age 25, he was elected in 1859 to the Illinois Natural History Society, Powell studied at Illinois College, Illinois Institute, and Oberlin College, over a period of seven years while teaching, but was unable to attain his degree. During his studies Powell acquired a knowledge of Ancient Greek and Latin, Powell had a restless nature and a deep interest in the natural sciences. This desire to learn natural sciences was against the wishes of his father. In 1860 when Powell was on a tour he decided that the Civil War was inevitable, he decided to study military science. Powells loyalties remained with the Union and the cause of abolishing slavery, on May 8,1861, he enlisted at Hennepin, Illinois, as a private in the 20th Illinois Infantry. He was described as age 27, height 5 6-1/2 tall, light complected, gray eyes, auburn hair and he was elected sergeant-major of the regiment, and when the 20th Illinois was mustered into the Federal service a month later, Powell was commissioned a second lieutenant. He enlisted in the Union Army as a cartographer, topographer, during the Civil War, he served first with the 20th Illinois Volunteers. While stationed at Cape Girardeau, Missouri, he recruited a company that became Battery F of the 2nd Illinois Light Artillery with Powell as captain. On November 28,1861, Powell took a leave to marry the former Emma Dean. At the Battle of Shiloh, he lost most of his arm when struck by a minie ball while in the process of giving the order to fire. The raw nerve endings in his arm would continue to cause him pain for the rest of his life

7. International Standard Book Number – The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker

8. Book Cliffs – The Book Cliffs are a series of desert mountains and cliffs in western Colorado and eastern Utah, in the western United States. They are so named because the cliffs of Cretaceous sandstone that cap many of the buttes appear similar to a shelf of books. Stretching nearly 200 miles from east to west, the Book Cliffs begin where the Colorado River descends south through De Beque Canyon into the Grand Valley to Price Canyon, the Book Cliffs appear mostly along the southern and western edge of the Tavaputs Plateau. The cliffs are composed of sedimentary materials. The Book Cliffs are within the Colorado Plateau geologic province, in the Colorado stretch of the Book Cliffs, abandoned coal mines are present, as significant coal resources were present in the region. These mines are now generally capped for safety, but several fatalities of recreational hikers have occurred at these mines since 1989. In some places, wild horses can be found in the Book Cliffs, for example, the Book Cliffs are one of the worlds best places to study sequence stratigraphy. In the 1980s, Exxon scientists used the Cretaceous strata of the Book Cliffs to develop the science of sequence stratigraphy. The Book Cliffs have preserved excellent strata of the basin of the ancient Western Interior Seaway that stretched north from the Gulf of Mexico to the Yukon in the Cretaceous time. Components of deltaic and shallow marine reservoirs are very well preserved in the Book Cliffs, large mammals found in the Book Cliffs include coyotes, mountain lions, bobcats, mule deer, pronghorn, American bison as an extension of the Henry Mountains bison herd and bighorn sheep. In January,2009, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources officials transplanted 31 bison from the Henry Mountains bison herd to the Book Cliffs, the new group joined 14 animals previously released in August,2008 from a private herd on the nearby Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation. Since this herd is located approximately 100 miles north of the Henry Mountains, across mostly harsh, desert terrain, it should perhaps be considered as a separate herd, Cretaceous Paleogeography - Showing Western Interior Seaway The Soils of Western Colorado Mesa, Delta and Montrose Counties

9. Elk Mountains (Colorado) – The Elk Mountains are a high, rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of west-central Colorado in the United States. The range sits west of the Sawatch Range and northeast of the West Elk Mountains, much of the range is located within the White River National Forest and the Gunnison National Forest, as well as the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness and Raggeds Wilderness. The Elk Mountains rise nearly 9,000 ft. above the Roaring Fork Valley to the north, the highest peaks in the range are its fourteeners, Castle Peak, Maroon Peak, Capitol Peak, Snowmass Mountain, Pyramid Peak, and North Maroon Peak. Maroon Peak and North Maroon Peak are collectively known as the Maroon Bells, mount Sopris sits at the northwest end of the range and dominates the skyline of the lower Roaring Fork Valley and the town of Carbondale, Colorado, serving as an unofficial symbol of the area. State Highway 133 traverses McClure Pass, at the end of the range. The range has been the site of mining activity since the days of the Colorado Silver Boom, in the late 19th century, the western and southern flank of the range became the site of intense coal mining activity which continues to the present day. Treasure Mountain, overlooking the town of Marble, is home to the famous Yule Marble Quarry, quarried marble was used to create The Tomb of the Unknowns, the Lincoln Memorial, Denver Post Office and other buildings. The range receives a great deal of snowfall due to its position to the west of the continental divide and this is exploited by the ski areas in the vicinity of Aspen, which are located on the flanks of smaller mountains alongside the Roaring Fork Valley

10. Aspen Mountain (Colorado) – Aspen Mountain is a mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 10, 705-foot peak is located in White River National Forest,1.4 miles south-southeast of downtown Aspen in Pitkin County, Colorado, United States. The north face of the mountain is the location of the Aspen Mountain ski area, the mountain flank was the site of intense mining activity in the late 1880s and early 1890s, with many remains of mining activity below and on the surface of the mountain. In the middle 20th century it became the site of recreational downhill skiing, in 1946, the newly formed Aspen Skiing Company, founded by Walter Paepcke, built the first chairlift to the top of the mountain and opened the ski area that bears the name of the mountain. Nowadays, people use a gondola, which holds six people. Aspen Mountain is alternatively called Ajax by the locals

11. Capitol Peak (Colorado) – Capitol Peak is a high and prominent mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. Capitol Peak lies on the ridge connecting the heart of the Elk Mountains with Mount Sopris to the northwest. Capitol Peak is notable for its impressive vertical relief, rising nearly 9,000 feet above the Roaring Fork Valley, Capitol Peak is one of the most difficult of Colorados fourteeners to climb. The only non-technical route, the Northeast Ridge, requires crossing the famously exposed Knife Edge, fatalities have occurred on this route. Other routes require technical climbing, for example, the Northwest Buttress Route. These routes have significant rockfall danger due to a deal of loose rock, however. A Climbing Guide to Colorados Fourteeners, photo Journal of a trip up Snowmass Mountain and Capitol Peak Capitol Peak. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09

12. Castle Peak (Colorado) – Castle Peak is the ninth highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The prominent 14, 279-foot fourteener is the highest summit of the Elk Mountains, the summit of Castle Peak is the highest point of both counties. Castle Peak takes its name from its castellated summit, the best climbing months are June, July, August, September through the Montezuma Glacier, a permanent snowfield between Castle and Conundrum Peaks. There are two routes for ascent. The Northwest Ridge features a moderate snow climb followed by an easy ridge scramble and it should not be attempted late in the summer when the 200 feet of loose dirt and scree meet the climber near the top of the Castle-Conundrum saddle. The Northeast Ridge features an easy climb, but slightly harder scrambling and route-finding once on the ridge. Conundrum Peak is a subsummit of Castle Peak. It has two closely spaced summits, the northern is higher, with elevation of 14, 040+ feet and it is 0.4 miles north of Castle Peak, and has 200 feet of clean topographic prominence. This does not meet the usual 300-foot prominence criterion for a separate peak, however

14. Mount Sopris – Mount Sopris is a twin-summit mountain in the northwestern Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. Mount Sopris is located in western Pitkin County, south of Carbondale and southwest of the confluence of the Crystal, Mount Sopris is notable for having two summits, East Sopris and West Sopris, that are one-half mile apart and have the same elevation of 12,965 feet. It is named for Richard Sopris, a mayor of Denver. In 2011 J. P. McDaniels petitioned to rename East Sopris Mount John Denver after the Colorado singer, a local poll in Aspen and Carbondale said 74 percent of the respondents were against the proposal. Mount Sopris is not a volcano, but it is possible that an ancient volcano sat above it, due to subsequent continued erosion, any evidence is now gone. In either case, the rock makes up Sopris never reached the surface, cooling and crystallizing in situ. Nearby prominent peaks Mount Gunnison and Crested Butte are believed to have formed similarly, Mount Sopris dominates the skyline of Carbondale and the lower Roaring Fork Valley, serving as an unofficial symbol of the area. It is prominently visible from State Highway 82 in the vicinity of Carbondale, in terms of local relief, it is one of the largest peaks in the state of Colorado. For example, West Sopris rises 6,400 ft above the valley to the west in only 2.7 mi, in fact a vertical rise of over 6,000 feet in less than 3 miles is rare and impressive anywhere in the contiguous United States. The Mount Sopris Trail ascends to East Sopris via its east ridge and it starts near Dinkle Lake, on the northeast side of the mountain, and passes between the two Thomas Lakes just before reaching timberline. The ascent involves about 4,300 ft of vertical gain and 12 mi of hiking, it is a trail hike. Mount Sopris on Summitpost, an excellent article with many further links Rock Glacier on Mount Sopris at NASA Earth Observatory

15. Pyramid Peak (Colorado) – Pyramid Peak is a fourteen thousand foot mountain in the U. S. state of Colorado. It is the 47th highest mountain peak in Colorado, and 78th highest peak in the United States and it is located in the Elk Mountains in southeastern Pitkin County, approximately 12 miles southwest of Aspen. The summit somewhat resembles a square pyramid and is visible from the Roaring Fork River valley north of Aspen along the canyon of Maroon Creek. Like many of the peaks in the Elks, Pyramid Peak is quite steep, especially compared to more gentle fourteeners such as Mount Elbert. For example, the summit rises 4,000 feet above Crater Lake to the northwest in only 1.2 miles. The standard climbing routes on Pyramid Peak are the northeast and northwest ridges and these routes involve difficult route finding, high exposure, and a great deal of loose rock. Hence they are two of the most difficult and dangerous of all of the routes on the Colorado fourteeners. List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado fourteeners Pyramid Peak

16. Snowmass Mountain – Snowmass Mountain is a fourteen thousand foot mountain in the U. S. state of Colorado and the thirty-fourth highest mountain peak in the state. Snowmass Mountain is named for the large snowfield that lies on its eastern slopes, Hagerman Peak sits between Snowmass Mountain and Snowmass Peak and is also often mistaken for Snowmass Mountain. The route most commonly used to climb Snowmass Mountain is the Snowmass Creek approach, the route to the summit starts at Snowmass Lake, which is itself an 8. 1-mile hike up Snowmass Creek from the parking area. Most people hike to the lake, camp the night and then proceed to the top and this route is recommended in the spring and early summer when the snowfield still covers much of the route, however an ice axe is recommended for travel on the snowfield. Later in the summer there is more travel on talus and more danger from rockfall, an alternative in snow-free conditions is to hike up to the saddle between the peak and Hagerman Peak. From that point there are climbers trails which proceed on the side of the ridge to the summit. A different and much less used route climbs the west side of Snowmass Mountain from Geneva Lake, Snowmass Mountain Snowmass Peak List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado fourteeners Snowmass Mountain on 14ers. com Snowmass Mountain. Photo Journal from a trip up Snowmass Mountain and on to Capitol Peak Aspen Ski & Snow Report

17. Snowmass Peak – Snowmass Peak in the U. S. state of Colorado dominates the view from Snowmass Lake. It is often mistaken for Snowmass Mountain, the thirty-fourth highest mountain peak in the state, Snowmass Peak is not really a peak but the lower end of Hagerman Peaks east ridge. Natural forced perspective causes the illusion that Snowmass Peak is higher than Hagerman Peak though it is actually 221 ft shorter than Hagermans summit. This illusion combined with its striking rise behind Snowmass Lake justifies it being a point on USGS topographical maps. It is located in the Elk Mountains, within the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness of the White River National Forest and it lies along the border between Pitkin and Gunnison counties, west of Aspen and southwest of the town of Snowmass Village. The route used to climb Snowmass Peak is the Trail Rider Pass trail to Hagerman Peak and this trail can be accessed by Snowmass Creek approach off Divide Road Snowmass Village or the Geneva Lake trail. It is possible to reach the summit by horse between Hagerman Peak and Snowmass Mountain, but is more difficult

18. Treasure Mountain (Colorado) – Treasure Mountain, elevation 13,535 ft, is a summit in the Elk Mountains of western Colorado. The mountain is in the Raggeds Wilderness southeast of Marble, the massif has been the site of marble mining and a legend of lost French gold. Treasure Mountain forms a massif with Treasury Mountain, elevation 13,462 feet. Another Treasure Mountain, el.11,834 feet is located in Mineral County, the Ruby Range extends southward from Treasury Mountain forming the east boundary of the Raggeds Wilderness. The Yule Lakes are a series of lakes situated on the slopes which drain into Yule Creek. The watershed is part of Crystal River basin which drains the slopes of Treasure Mountain and is the northeastern boundary of Raggeds Wilderness. Yule Pass, south of Treasury Mountain separates the Raggeds Wilderness of the Sopris Ranger District from the Gunnison Ranger District, Yule Pass is to the east of the headwaters of Yule Creek. The Colorado Yule marble comes from the Leadville Limestone of Mississippian age quarried near the mountain and it was formed by contact metamorphism in the Tertiary period following the intrusion and uplift of nearby granitic Treasure Mountain dome. Yule marble was used in the building of the Lincoln Memorial, the Yule marble quarry is at an elevation of 9,300 ft on the west side of Treasure Mountain along Yule Creek. The original name of the peak was Citadel Mountain, the current name came from an ill-fated French mining expedition described in folklore documented in the 1930s and 1940s. The folklore states that the expedition was organized in the late 1700s by Napoleon Bonaparte, the expedition was reported to have consisted of 300 men and 450 horses. They left New Orleans and traveled through Leavenworth, Kansas en route to the Rocky Mountains, the folklore claims that a large amount of gold was discovered and amassed by the expedition near Wolf Creek Pass. The local Native Americans were reportedly friendly, but relations deteriorated. In the folklore, the French buried gold and escaped the area, one survivor by the name of Le Blanc made it back to Kansas. He was the historian and was reported to have made two maps of the hidden treasure. A later expedition failed to find the treasure, william Yule, many years later, claimed to possess a copy of the original map and explored the area south and west of the mountain. The mountain was named after the legend of the missing treasure, List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado

19. Elkhead Mountains – The Elkhead Mountains are a mountain range in Colorado. The mountain range is considered to be low altitude within Colorado as the mountains are under 11,000 feet, located within Routt and Moffat counties, the mountain range is far from metropolitan areas and has few lakes and streams, so it attracts few visitors. The mountain range is a range and all of the peaks were formed by volcanic action. Almost all of the peaks within the Elkhead Mountains are a part of Routt National Forest, significant peaks are, Bears Ears, Sugar Loaf, Saddle Mountain, Black Mountain, Pilot Knob, and Meaden Peak. Park Range Mountain ranges of Colorado

20. Front Range – It is the first mountain range encountered moving west along the 40th parallel north across the Great Plains of North America. The Front Range runs north-south between Casper, Wyoming and Pueblo, Colorado and rises nearly 10,000 feet above the Great Plains, Longs Peak, Mount Evans, and Pikes Peak are its most prominent peaks, visible from the Interstate 25 corridor. The area is a destination for mountain biking, hiking, climbing. Millions of years ago the present-day Front Range was home to ancient mountain ranges, deserts, beaches and this urban corridor benefits from the weather-moderating effect of the Front Range mountains, which help block prevailing storms. About 1 billion years ago, the earth was producing massive amounts of rock that would one day amalgamate, drift together and combine. In the Colorado region, this molten rock spewed and cooled, over the next 500 million years, little is known about changes in the sedimentation after the granite was produced. However, at about 500 –300 million years ago, the region began to sink, eroded granite produced sand particles that began to form strata, layers of sediment, in the sinking basin. Sedimentation would continue to place until about 300 million years ago. Around 300 million years ago, the sinking suddenly reversed, over the next 150 million years, during uplift the mountains would continue to erode and cover themselves in their own sediment. Wind, gravity, rainwater, snow, and ice-melt supplied rivers that ultimately carved through the granite mountains, the sediment from these mountains lies in the Fountain Formation today. Red Rocks Amphitheater outside of Denver, Colorado, is set into the Fountain Formation. At 280 million years ago, sea levels were low and present-day Colorado was part of the super-continent Pangaea, sand deserts covered most of the area spreading as dunes seen in the rock record, known today as the Lyons Sandstone. These dunes appear to be cross-bedded and show various fossil footprints,30 million years later, the sediment deposition was still taking place with the introduction of the Lykins Formation. This formation can be best attributed to its layers of muddy limestone. 250 million years ago, the Ancestral Rockies were burying themselves while the shoreline was present during the break-up of Pangaea and this formation began right after Earth’s largest extinction 251 million years ago at the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Ninety percent of the marine life was destroyed and a great deal on land as well. After 100 million years of deposition, a new environment brought rise to a new formation, the Morrison Formation contains some of the best fossils of the Late Jurassic. It is especially known for its tracks and sauropod bones among other dinosaur fossils

21. Mummy Range – The Mummy Range is a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado in the United States. The range is a subrange of the Front Range located in southwestern Larimer County northwest of the town of Estes Park. It is located largely within Rocky Mountain National Park, extending north from Trail Ridge Road approximately 15 miles, prominent peaks in the range include Hagues Peak, Ypsilon Mountain, Mummy Mountain, and Mount Chiquita. Some offer reasonably challenging technical routes but all can be ascended by steep hiking, Colorado mountain ranges U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Mummy Range Hiking info and photos of Ypsilon Lake, which sits at the base of Ypsilon Mountain

22. Never Summer Mountains – The Never Summer Mountains are a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains in north central Colorado in the United States consisting of seventeen named peaks. The range is small and tall, covering only 25 sq mi with a length of 10 mi while rising to over 12,000 ft at over ten distinct peaks. The range straddles the Jackson-Grand county line for most of its length, a panoramic view of the range is available from sections of Trail Ridge Road in Rocky Mountain National Park. One of the northernmost peaks, Nokhu Crags, is visible from the west side of Cameron Pass. The rocks of Never Summer Mountains are younger than most of the mountain ranges. Most of the highest peaks in the range are granodiorite that was uplifted during the Miocene epoch, the ranges highest summit, Mount Richthofen, is the remnant of an andesite volcanic plug. The Nokhu Crags in the north are mostly Pierre Shale dating from Cretaceous times, a large thrust fault underneath the Kawuneeche Valley thrust older Precambrian rocks on top of the younger Cretaceous rocks on the east side of the range. The southern peaks are Miocene-aged granite, and finally Precambrian-aged biotite gneiss, beginning two-million years ago glaciers began carving the jagged peaks of the Never Summer Mountains. Successive waves of glaciation continued to reshape the mountains until the Pinedale Glaciation ended twelve-thousand years ago, the peaks are enormous weathered masses of granitic rock heavily covered with green and orange lichens surrounded on all sides by large fields of talus shed from the original peaks. Many alpine lakes are nestled amongst the peaks, most vegetation is low-growing and stunted. Few trees grow at the altitudes and Krummholz abounds. In 1879 prospectors discovered silver on Mount Shipler, starting a small mining rush, a mining town was platted and given the name Lulu City 40°26′44″N 105°50′53″W. Other small settlements were founded in the area, including Dutchtown, the population swelled as high as 5,000 miners and business owners catering to those miners. However, low grade ore, combined with difficult transportation and lack of a smelter to process the ore conspired against the boom. By late 1883 the mining ended and the miners moved on. The last miners in Dutchtown left by 1884, today remnants of the towns and mines are accessible by hiking trails. In 1890 a project called the Grand Ditch began, the ditch is a 16.2 mi water diversion project. Streams and creeks flow from the highest peaks are diverted into the ditch

23. Nokhu Crags – Nokhu Crags is a rock formation and mountain summit in the Never Summer Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The name is derived from the Arapaho language, Neaha-no-xhu, meaning Eagles Nest, the 12, 490-foot peak is located in State Forest State Park,2.5 miles south of Cameron Pass in Jackson County, Colorado, United States. The summit lies just northwest of the Continental Divide and Rocky Mountain National Park, the rocks of the peak were formed as a sedimentary deposit millions of years ago in an ancient ocean basin. The entire region was subsequently thrust up with the formation of the Medicine Bow Range at the close of the Mesozoic Era, around 24–29 million years ago, rising magma began to create volcanoes that were the predecessors of the Never Summer Mountains. The magma cooled into granitic formations and nearby, now vertical, after millions of years of erosion and glaciation, the vertical fin-like form of the Nohku Crags was exposed. Erosion continues to reshape the Crags, as evidenced by the talus field at its base. Today the mountain is a barren, almost treeless form, virtually devoid of vegetation, during the day, pika and mountain goats may be seen and heard on the steep slopes. In the afternoon light green and orange hues of lichen covering the face of the rocks becomes apparent, in the evening thousands of bats stream from nooks and crannies of the western face. In the winter the Nokhu Crags are covered with deep snow, an avalanche in 2013 killed a skier and buried another skier for hours

Summit [videos]
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it.
Climbers on the world's highest summit, Mount Everest, at 8,850 metres (29,035 ft) above sea level.
View from the summit of Switzerland's highest, Monte Rosa
The summit of Mount Damavand, Iran, in winter
Jeff Davis Peak, one of the highest peaks entirely within Nevada, United States
Rocky Mountain National Park [videos]
Rocky Mountain National Park is a United States national park located approximately 76 mi (122 km) northwest of Denver
View from Bear Lake in Rocky Mountain National Park
Andrews Glacier
View from Many Parks Curve on Trail Ridge Road. The "parks" in the Rockies are meadows that formed when glacial lakes drained.
Odessa Lake in the subalpine ecosystem
United States [videos]
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic
Death of Captain Cook by Johann Zoffany (1795)
John Wesley Powell [videos]
John Wesley "Wes" Powell (March 24, 1834 – September 23, 1902) was a U.S. soldier, geologist, explorer of the American
Powell as he appears at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
Powell served as the second Director of the United States Geological Survey, a post he held from 1881–1894. This photograph dates from early in his term of office.
First camp of the John Wesley Powell expedition, in the willows, Green River, Wyoming, 1871.
John Wesley Powell and his wife, Emma, in Detroit in 1862.
Front Range [videos]
The Front Range is a mountain range of the Southern Rocky Mountains of North America located in the central portion of
Front Range Peaks in the Indian Peaks Wilderness
Sandstone slabs along the eastern edge of the front range
Front Range near Estes Park, Colorado.
Cheyenne Mountain [videos]
Cheyenne Mountain is a triple-peaked mountain in El Paso County, Colorado, southwest of downtown Colorado Springs. The
Image: Cheyenne Mountain 1
Image: Broadmoor lake panorama to west
Image: Will Rogers Shrine of the Sun, Cheyenne Mountain Zoo
Eldorado Mountain is a mountain summit on the eastern flank of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America.
Grand County is one of the 64 counties in the U.S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,843.
Scenic vehicle entrance to Grand Lake Lodge (established 1919), included on the National Register of Historic Places
The Fraser Valley in eastern Grand County is a key tourist area.
Image: Grand County Judicial Center
Image: Grand County co seal
Book Cliffs [videos]
The Book Cliffs are a series of desert mountains and cliffs in western Colorado and eastern Utah, in the western United
The Spring Canyon sandstones in the Book Cliffs above the town of Helper, Utah. There are several sedimentary cycles visible in the cliffs (perhaps up to seven or eight)
Book Cliffs and Mt. Garfield (on right, approximate altitude 6,600') in Mesa County, Colorado
A flute cast, one of many sedimentary structures found in the Book Cliffs
The Elk Mountains are a high, rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of west-central Colorado in the United
The Maroon Bells, Elk Mountains.
Maroon Lake, Elk Mountains.
Capitol Peak is a high and prominent mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North
Capitol Peak, from Capitol Lake
Capitol Peak Knife Edge
Mount Sopris [videos]
Mount Sopris is a twin-summit mountain in the northwestern Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America.
Mount Sopris as viewed from State Highway 82.
Looking North West from Mt. Sopris
Pyramid Peak is a fourteen thousand foot mountain in the U.S. state of Colorado. It is the 47th highest mountain peak
Pyramid Peak as seen from Maroon Peak in 2009
View of Pyramid Peak from Aspen Highlands
Mount Chiquita [videos]
Mount Chiquita is a mountain summit in the Mummy Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 13,075-foot (3,985
Image: Mount Chiquita by RO
Sundance Mountain (12,466 feet) on left, Mount Chaplin (12,454 and Mount Chiquita reflect in one of the Sheep Lakes in Horseshoe Park shortly after the ice had melted in the spring. Courtesy of Rocky Mountain National Park.
Bald Mountain is a high and prominent mountain summit in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Image: Bald Mountain, Summit County, Colorado viewed from Dillon Reservoir
A view of Bald Mountain from the top of the Kensho SuperChair at Breckenridge Ski Resort
Maroon Bells [videos]
The Maroon Bells are two peaks in the Elk Mountains, Maroon Peak and North Maroon Peak, separated by about a third of a
Maroon Lake and Maroon Bells, pre-dawn photo, 19 September 2012.
Mt. Garfield is the high point of the Book Cliffs, north of Grand Junction, and overlooking the town of Palisade. Two
Mt. Garfield from East Orchard Mesa, Colorado.
Aspen Mountain is a mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 10,705-foot
Aspen Mountain, seen from the northwest showing the lower ski runs of the Aspen Mountain ski area
Castle Peak is the ninth highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U.S. state of Colorado. The
View from NNE above Montezuma Basin
Chair Mountain [videos]
Chair Mountain is a prominent mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Chair Mountain
Snowmass Mountain [videos]
Snowmass Mountain is a fourteen thousand foot mountain in the U.S. state of Colorado and the thirty-fourth highest
Snowmass Mountain, July 2007
Snowmass Peak [videos]
Snowmass Peak in the U.S. state of Colorado dominates the view from Snowmass Lake. It is often mistaken for Snowmass
Snowmass Peak rises up out of Snowmass Lake
Treasure Mountain, elevation 13,535 ft (4,125 m), is a summit in the Elk Mountains of western Colorado. The mountain is
The Elkhead Mountains are a mountain range in Colorado. The mountain range is considered to be low altitude within
Elk Mountain (Routt County, Colorado) [videos]
Elk Mountain is a summit in Routt County, Colorado. The mountain lies to the northwest of Steamboat Springs and is
Image: Elk Mountain (Routt County, Colorado)
Hahns Peak [videos]
Hahns Peak is a summit in Routt County, Colorado, in the United States. With an elevation of 10,774 feet (3,284 m),
Image: Hahns Peak
Flat Tops is a mountain range located in Colorado within the Routt and White River National Forests. The area is home
The Flat Tops as seen from State Highway 131 in Routt County
Kenosha Mountains [videos]
The Kenosha Mountains or Kenosha Mountain are a subrange (or long mountain) of the Front Range located in Park and
Kenosha Mountains viewed from Platte Peak looking southeast.
Buffalo Peak [videos]
Buffalo Peak is a mountain summit in the Kenosha Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Image: Buffalo Peak, Jefferson County, viewed from Pikes Peak
Green Mountain (Kenosha Mountains) [videos]
Green Mountain is a prominent mountain summit in the Kenosha Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America.
Image: Green Mountain (Kenosha Mountains) and Thunder Butte viewed from Pikes Peak 2
Mummy Range [videos]
The Mummy Range (elevation approximately 13,000 ft) is a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado in
Mummy Range seen from Lake Estes
Fairchild Mountain [videos]
Fairchild Mountain is a high mountain summit in the Mummy Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Image: Fairchild Mountain viewed from Trail Ridge Road
Hagues Peak [videos]
Hagues Peak is the highest summit of the Mummy Range in the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 13,573-foot (4,137 m)
Image: Hagues Peak viewed from Trail Ridge Road
Ypsilon Mountain [videos]
Ypsilon Mountain, elevation 13,520 ft (4,121 m), is in the Mummy Range of Rocky Mountain National Park in northern
Image: RMNP Ypsilon Lake Trail
Never Summer Mountains [videos]
The Never Summer Mountains are a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains in north central Colorado in the United States
Nokhu Crags, at the northern end of the Never Summer Mountains
Iron Mountain (Never Summer Mountains) [videos]
Iron Mountain is a mountain summit in the Never Summer Mountains of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Image: Iron Mountain (Never Summer Mountains) July 2016 2
Mount Richthofen [videos]
Mount Richthofen is the highest summit of the Never Summer Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Mount Richthofen viewed from Rocky Mountain National Park
Static Peak is a mountain peak in the Colorado State Forest State Park in the Never Summer Mountain Range. It is
Static Peak viewed from Rocky Mountain National Park
Rampart Range [videos]
The Rampart Range is a mountain range located in Douglas, El Paso, and Teller counties, Colorado, USA. It is part of
Image: Spruce Mtn Open Space 02 PANO Rampart Range
Blodgett Peak [videos]
Blodgett Peak is a mountain summit in El Paso County, Colorado. Blodgett Peak is located in Pike National Forest. and
Blodgett Peak seen from the Blodgett Peak Open Space
Devils Head is a mountain summit in the Rampart Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 9,749-foot (2,971 m)
Argentine Peak [videos]
Argentine Peak is a high mountain summit in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 13,743-foot
Argentine Peak, July 2006
Bard Peak [videos]
Bard Peak is a high and prominent mountain summit in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Bard Peak as seen from Mount Parnassus.
Bear Peak (Boulder County, Colorado) [videos]
Bear Peak is a mountain summit in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 8,459-foot (2,578 m)
Bear Peak viewed from the NCAR Trail
Berrian Mountain [videos]
Berrian Mountain is a mountain summit in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 9,151-foot (2,789
Berrian Mountain seen from Meyer Ranch Park.
Engelmann Peak [videos]
Engelmann Peak is a high mountain summit in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 13,368-foot
Engelmann Peak viewed from Berthoud Pass
Topographic prominence [videos]
In topography, prominence characterizes the height of a mountain or hill's summit by the vertical distance between it
Topographic prominence of three peaks near Great Pond Mountain, Maine, USA. Red triangles mark the peaks, the lowest contour line encircling each peak are shown in black and the green dots mark the key cols. The prominences are Atkins Hill: 430 − 310 = 120 ft, Cave Hill: 570 − 530 = 40 ft, Mead Mountain: 671 − 530 = 141 ft. The parent peak of each peak is Great Pond Mountain.
Figure 1. Vertical arrows show the topographic prominence of three peaks on an island. The dashed horizontal lines show the lowest contours that do not encircle higher peaks. Curved arrows point from a peak to its parent.
Figure 2. Showing two closed contour lines meeting at Peak A's key col.
Figure 3. Diagram of a mountain range showing peaks and cols, from which mountain parentage and prominences can be determined.
International Standard Book Number [videos]
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. — An ISBN is assigned to
A 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar code
The parts of a 10-digit ISBN and the corresponding EAN‑13 and barcode. Note the different check digits in each. The part of the EAN‑13 labeled "EAN" is the Bookland country code.