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Power-up

In video games, a power-up is an object that adds temporary benefits or extra abilities to the player character as a game mechanic. This is in contrast to an item, which may or may not have a permanent benefit that can be used at any time chosen by the player. Although collected directly through touch, power-ups can sometimes only be gained by collecting several related items, such as the floating letters of the word'EXTEND' in Bubble Bobble. Well known examples of power-ups that have entered popular culture include the power pellets from Pac-Man and the Super Mushroom from Super Mario Bros. which ranked first in UGO Networks' Top 11 Video Game Powerups. Items that confer power-ups are pre-placed in the game world, spawned randomly, dropped by beaten enemies or picked up from opened or smashed containers, they can be differentiated from items in other games, such as role-playing video games, by the fact that they take effect feature designs that do not fit into the game world, are found in specific genres of games.

Power-ups are found in action-oriented games such as maze games and guns, shoot'em ups, first-person shooters, platform games. "Power-up" and "1-up" are examples of a common form of wasei-eigo, in which the word "up" is prefixed by some desirable quality. The general meaning of X-up in Japanese is "this will increase your X", this construction is used in areas such as advertising; this is similar to another phrase, X get!, as seen in Super Mario Sunshine's Japanese version's "Shine Get!" phrase. Pac-Man from 1980 is credited as the first video game to feature a power-up mechanic; every maze in the game contains four Power Pellets which temporarily give Pac-Man the ability to eat ghosts, turning the tables on his pursuers. The effect of the power-up was illustrated by one of the first cut scenes to appear in a video game, in the form of brief comical interludes about Pac-Man and Blinky chasing each other around; the power pellet entered popular culture with a joke on video game controversies regarding the influence of video games on children.

In 1984, Sabre Wulf introduced power ups in the form of flowers which, when blossoming, provided effects such as speed up and invincibility. In 1985 Super Mario Bros. introduced the Super Mushroom, which has entered popular culture, being described as "the quintessential power-up". The original game idea was to have an always big Mario as a technical advance, but the power-up was introduced to make him "super" as a bonus effect; the development team thought it would be interesting to have Mario grow and shrink by eating a magic mushroom, just like in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.. Other power-ups introduced in this game were the Super Stars and Fire Flowers, which gave Mario invincibility and the ability to shoot fireballs at enemies, respectively. Konami's 1985 game Gradius had the first use of a selection bar where the player could select which power-up effect to trigger, instead of having a fixed instant effect. In 1986 and the years after, the concept of permanent power-ups appeared in the action role-playing genre in the form of perks.

Power-ups can be classified according to the type of benefit they give the player. Gives a new weapon, or transforms the player character into a more aggressive form that increases its attack power or makes some enemies vulnerable; this includes "nukes", which are weapons that destroy every enemy on the screen at once. The effect of the power-up can be time-limited, have a limited number of uses, last until the player is hit, last until the player is killed, or last until game over. Examples: Mega Man series: Weapons are earned from the Robot Masters/Mavericks upon defeating them; the weapons are kept when the game is completed. Donkey Kong: The hammer that Mario can use to destroy barrels and fireballs. Pac-Man: Power pellets can be picked up by Pac-Man, allowing him to attack ghosts; this makes Pac-Man temporarily invulnerable. Super Mario Bros: The player can smash overhead bricks by jumping into them after picking up a Super Mushroom, can throw fireballs at enemies after picking up a Fire Flower.

Mario loses the Super Mario effect after being hit. Jak and Daxter: In the first game, collecting Red Eco increases Jak's attack power, while Yellow Eco gives the ability to shoot fireballs from his hands. In the next two games, Dark Eco can be used to transform into Dark Jak, giving a more powerful melee attack, access to additional unlockable abilities; these consist of items like shields surrounding the character that deflects projectiles or absorbs a certain amount of damage, or invincibility/invulnerability. In the case of invincibility, this is nearly always granted as a temporary bonus. Invincibility comes in two main forms: either the player character becomes intangible to harmful things, or can damage enemies by contact. In either case the character is still vulnerable to some threats, such as bottomless pits. In many games, invulnerability is temporarily granted after the player gets hit or loses a life, so that the character will not be hurt/killed twice in quick succession; the effect is indicated by making the player character flash or blink or by musical cues.

Examples: Mario: The Starman, which grants temporary invulne

Anti-intrusion bar

An anti-intrusion bar or beam is a passive safety device, installed in most cars and other ground vehicles, which must protect passengers from side impacts. Side impacts are dangerous for two reasons: a) the location of impact is close to the passenger, who can be reached by the impacting vehicle; the role of an anti-intrusion bar is to absorb the kinetic energy of the colliding vehicles, converted into internal work of the members involved in the crash. The performance of a side beam is measured by several indicators; the most important are: the Specific Energy Absorption, which measures the amount of energy absorbed per unit mass. Furthermore: the amount of intrusion, for a given energy, must be as small as possible; the anti-intrusion beams span the length of the door at about a vertical midsection of the door. As the figure shows, the typical profiles can be closed, they are conventionally made by hydroforming processes. When the cross section is closed, the tubes can be used as-received. In the scientific and technical literature, some unconventional designs have been proposed.

The anti-intrusion bars are made of high strength steels. However, some studies indicate that stainless steel 304 might be a better choice, because of its larger plastic field and a larger amount of absorbed energy before fracture. In the scientific and technical literature, some unconventional material combinations have been proposed, too, e.g. based on metal foam filled tubes or composite materials

Vincent Salyers

Vincent Salyers is an American professor of nursing. He is best known for his contributions to intersections between technology, curriculum design, clinical practice and inter-professional education. Salyers earned his BS in psychology and his MS in nursing at San Francisco State University, he earned his doctorate from the University of San Francisco. Prior to joining the faculty at Gonzaga University, where he is the Dean of School of Nursing and Human Physiology, Salyers was the inaugural dean of the Faculty of Nursing at MacEwan University. Salyers held previous positions on the faculty and administration of a number of universities in the United States and Canada including as associate dean of the Faculty of Health, Community & Education at Mount Royal University in Calgary. In 2014, Salyers was inducted as a Fellow of the Academy of Nursing Education of the National League for Nursing, in 2019 he was inducted as a Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing. Google Scholar