A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc that contains data. Computers can read—but not write to or erase—CD-ROMs, i.e. it is a type of read-only memory. During the 1990s, CD-ROMs were popularly used to distribute software and data for computers and fourth generation video game consoles; some CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data is only usable on a computer. The CD-ROM format was developed by Japanese company Denon in 1982, it was an extension of Compact Disc Digital Audio, adapted the format to hold any form of digital data, with a storage capacity of 553 MiB. CD-ROM was introduced by Denon and Sony at a Japanese computer show in 1984; the Yellow Book is the technical standard. One of a set of color-bound books that contain the technical specifications for all CD formats, the Yellow Book, standardized by Sony and Philips in 1983, specifies a format for discs with a maximum capacity of 650 MiB. CD-ROMs are identical in appearance to audio CDs, data are stored and retrieved in a similar manner.
Discs are made from a 1.2 mm thick disc of polycarbonate plastic, with a thin layer of aluminium to make a reflective surface. The most common size of CD-ROM is 120 mm in diameter, though the smaller Mini CD standard with an 80 mm diameter, as well as shaped compact discs in numerous non-standard sizes and molds, are available. Data is stored on the disc as a series of microscopic indentations. A laser is shone onto the reflective surface of the disc to read the pattern of lands; because the depth of the pits is one-quarter to one-sixth of the wavelength of the laser light used to read the disc, the reflected beam's phase is shifted in relation to the incoming beam, causing destructive interference and reducing the reflected beam's intensity. This is converted into binary data. Several formats are used for data stored on compact discs, known as the Rainbow Books; the Yellow Book, published in 1988, defines the specifications for CD-ROMs, standardized in 1989 as the ISO/IEC 10149 / ECMA-130 standard.
The CD-ROM standard builds on top of the original Red Book CD-DA standard for CD audio. Other standards, such as the White Book for Video CDs, further define formats based on the CD-ROM specifications; the Yellow Book itself is not available, but the standards with the corresponding content can be downloaded for free from ISO or ECMA. There are several standards that define how to structure data files on a CD-ROM. ISO 9660 defines the standard file system for a CD-ROM. ISO 13490 is an improvement on this standard which adds support for non-sequential write-once and re-writeable discs such as CD-R and CD-RW, as well as multiple sessions; the ISO 13346 standard was designed to address most of the shortcomings of ISO 9660, a subset of it evolved into the UDF format, adopted for DVDs. The bootable CD specification was issued in January 1995, to make a CD emulate a hard disk or floppy disk, is called El Torito. Data stored on CD-ROMs follows the standard CD data encoding techniques described in the Red Book specification.
This includes cross-interleaved Reed–Solomon coding, eight-to-fourteen modulation, the use of pits and lands for coding the bits into the physical surface of the CD. The structures used to group data on a CD-ROM are derived from the Red Book. Like audio CDs, a CD-ROM sector contains 2,352 bytes of user data, composed of 98 frames, each consisting of 33-bytes. Unlike audio CDs, the data stored in these sectors corresponds to any type of digital data, not audio samples encoded according to the audio CD specification. To structure and protect this data, the CD-ROM standard further defines two sector modes, Mode 1 and Mode 2, which describe two different layouts for the data inside a sector. A track inside a CD-ROM only contains sectors in the same mode, but if multiple tracks are present in a CD-ROM, each track can have its sectors in a different mode from the rest of the tracks, they can coexist with audio CD tracks as well, the case of mixed mode CDs. Both Mode 1 and 2 sectors use the first 16 bytes for header information, but differ in the remaining 2,336 bytes due to the use of error correction bytes.
Unlike an audio CD, a CD-ROM cannot rely on error concealment by interpolation. To achieve improved error correction and detection, Mode 1, used for digital data, adds a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check code for error detection, a third layer of Reed–Solomon error correction using a Reed-Solomon Product-like Code. Mode 1 therefore contains 288 bytes per sector for error detection and correction, leaving 2,048 bytes per sector available for data. Mode 2, more appropriate for image or video data, contains no additional error detection or correction bytes, having therefore 2,336 available data bytes per sector. Note that both modes, like audio CDs, still benefit from the lower layers of error correction at the frame level. Before being stored on a disc with the techniques described above, each CD-ROM sector is scrambled to prevent some problematic patterns from showing up; these scrambled sectors follow the same encoding process described in the Red Book in order to be stored
Windows XP is a personal computer operating system produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on August 24, 2001, broadly released for retail sale on October 25, 2001. Development of Windows XP began in the late 1990s as "Neptune", an operating system built on the Windows NT kernel, intended for mainstream consumer use. An updated version of Windows 2000 was originally planned for the business market; as such, Windows XP was the first consumer edition of Windows not to be based on MS-DOS. Upon its release, Windows XP received positive reviews, with critics noting increased performance and stability, a more intuitive user interface, improved hardware support, expanded multimedia capabilities. However, some industry reviewers were concerned by the new licensing model and product activation system. Extended support for Windows XP ended on April 8, 2014, after which the operating system ceased receiving further support or security updates to most users.
As of March 2019, 1.75% of Windows PCs run Windows XP, the OS is still most popular in some countries with up to 38% of the Windows share. In the late 1990s, initial development of what would become Windows XP was focused on two individual products. However, the projects proved to be too ambitious. In January 2000, shortly prior to the official release of Windows 2000, technology writer Paul Thurrott reported that Microsoft had shelved both Neptune and Odyssey in favor of a new product codenamed "Whistler", after Whistler, British Columbia, as many Microsoft employees skied at the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort; the goal of Whistler was to unify both the consumer and business-oriented Windows lines under a single, Windows NT platform: Thurrott stated that Neptune had become "a black hole when all the features that were cut from were re-tagged as Neptune features. And since Neptune and Odyssey would be based on the same code-base anyway, it made sense to combine them into a single project". At PDC on July 13, 2000, Microsoft announced that Whistler would be released during the second half of 2001, unveiled the first preview build, 2250.
The build notably introduced an early version of Windows XP's visual styles system. Microsoft released the first beta build of Whistler, build 2296, on October 31, 2000. Subsequent builds introduced features that users of the release version of Windows XP would recognise, such as Internet Explorer 6.0, the Microsoft Product Activation system and the Bliss desktop background. On February 5, 2001, Microsoft announced that Whistler would be known as Windows XP, where XP stands for "eXPerience". In June 2001, Microsoft indicated that it was planning to, in conjunction with Intel and other PC makers, spend at least 1 billion US dollars on marketing and promoting Windows XP; the theme of the campaign, "Yes You Can", was designed to emphasize the platform's overall capabilities. Microsoft had planned to use the slogan "Prepare to Fly", but it was replaced due to sensitivity issues in the wake of the September 11 attacks. On August 24, 2001, Windows XP build. During a ceremonial media event at Microsoft Redmond Campus, copies of the RTM build were given to representatives of several major PC manufacturers in briefcases, who flew off on decorated helicopters.
While PC manufacturers would be able to release devices running XP beginning on September 24, 2001, XP was expected to reach general, retail availability on October 25, 2001. On the same day, Microsoft announced the final retail pricing of XP's two main editions, "Home" and "Professional". While retaining some similarities to previous versions, Windows XP's interface was overhauled with a new visual appearance, with an increased use of alpha compositing effects, drop shadows, "visual styles", which changed the appearance of the operating system; the number of effects enabled are determined by the operating system based on the computer's processing power, can be enabled or disabled on a case-by-case basis. XP added ClearType, a new subpixel rendering system designed to improve the appearance of fonts on liquid-crystal displays. A new set of system icons was introduced; the default wallpaper, Bliss, is a photo of a landscape in the Napa Valley outside Napa, with rolling green hills and a blue sky with stratocumulus and cirrus clouds.
The Start menu received its first major overhaul in XP, switching to a two-column layout with the ability to list and display used applications opened documents, the traditional cascading "All Programs" menu. The taskbar can now group windows opened by a single application into one taskbar button, with a popup menu listing the individual windows; the notification area hides "inactive" icons by default. A "common tasks" list was added, Windows Explorer's sidebar was updated to use a new task-based design with lists of common actions. Fast user switching allows additional users to log into a Windows XP machine without existing users having to close their programs and loggin
The Newton is a series of personal digital assistants developed and marketed by Apple Computer, Inc. An early device in the PDA category – the Newton originated the term "personal digital assistant" – it was the first to feature handwriting recognition. Apple started developing the platform in 1987 and shipped the first devices in 1993. Production ended on February 27, 1998. Newton devices run on a proprietary operating system, Newton OS. Most Newton devices were based on the ARM 610 RISC processor and all featured handwriting-based input; the Newton was considered technologically innovative at its debut, but a combination of factors, some of which included its high price and early problems with its handwriting recognition feature, limited its sales. Apple cancelled the platform at the direction of Steve Jobs, after his return to Apple, in 1998; the Newton project was a personal digital assistant platform. The PDA category did not exist for most of Newton's genesis, the phrase "personal digital assistant" was coined late in the development cycle by Apple's CEO John Sculley, the driving force behind the project.
Larry Tesler determined that an advanced, low-power processor was needed for sophisticated graphics manipulation. He found Hermann Hauser, with the Acorn RISC Machine processor, put together Advanced RISC Machines. Newton was intended to be a complete reinvention of personal computing. For most of its design lifecycle Newton had a large-format screen, more internal memory, an object-oriented graphics kernel. One of the original motivating use cases for the design was known as the "Architect Scenario", in which Newton's designers imagined a residential architect working with a client to sketch, clean up, interactively modify a simple two-dimensional home plan. There is, however, an extensive history of pen computing that predates the Newton, though not in the form of what would now be called a PDA. For a portion of the Newton's development cycle, the project's intended programming language was Dylan, a language Apple created for this platform, though in fact the language and environment never matured enough for any applications to be written.
Dylan never lived up to its developers' performance expectations. When the move was made to a smaller design, Dylan was relegated to experimental status in the "Bauhaus Project" and canceled outright, its replacement, NewtonScript, had garbage collection and tight integration with the "soup" storage and user-interface toolkit, was designed to run in small RAM/large ROM environments. It was developed by Walter Smith from 1992 to 1993; the project missed its original goals to reinvent personal computing, to rewrite contemporary application programming. The Newton project fell victim to project slippage, scope creep, a growing fear that it would interfere with Macintosh sales, it was reinvented as a PDA platform which would be a complementary Macintosh peripheral instead of a stand-alone computer which might compete with the Macintosh. Although PDAs had been developing since the original Psion Organiser in 1984, the Newton has left one particular lasting impression: the term personal digital assistant was first coined to refer to the Newton.
According to former Apple CEO John Sculley, the corporation invested US$100M to develop Newton. The Newton was considered innovative at its debut, but it suffered from its high price and problems with the handwriting recognition element, its most anticipated feature; the handwriting software was ready by 1993 and its tendency to misread characters was derided in the media. In particular, Garry Trudeau mocked the Newton in a weeklong arc of his comic strip Doonesbury, portraying it as a costly toy that served the same function as a cheap notepad, using its accuracy problems to humorous effect. In one panel, Michael Doonesbury's Newton misreads the words "Catching on?" as "Egg Freckles", a phrase that became repeated as symbolic of the Newton's problems. Although the software improved in Newton OS 2.0, it was not enough to inspire strong sales. The Newton became popular in some industries, notably the medical field. However, the debut of the competing Palm Pilot reduced its market share. Apple struggled to find a new direction for the Newton, when Steve Jobs returned to the company in 1997, he killed the product line.
He was critical of the device's weak performance, the management of the development team, the stylus, which he disliked as it prevented the use of the fingers. He was also motivated by the fact that the Newton was the pet project of his old adversary John Sculley. However, Jobs saw potential in the technology and concept, if not the execution, led Apple to create its multi-touch devices, the iPhone and iPad. From Apple: MessagePad MessagePad 100 MessagePad 110 MessagePad 120 MessagePad 130 eMate 300 MessagePad 2000 MessagePad 2100From Motorola: Motorola MarcoFrom Sharp: Sharp ExpertPad PI-7000 Sharp ExpertPad PI-7100 From Digital Ocean: Tarpon SeahorseFrom Siemens: Siemens Note PhoneFrom Harris: Harris SuperTech 2000 Most Newton devices were pre-loaded with a variety of software to help in personal data organization and management; this included such applications as Notes and Dates, as well as a variety of productivity tools such as a calculator, conversion calculators, time-zone ma
NeXT, Inc. was an American computer and software company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs. Its name was pronounced as "Next". Based in Redwood City, the company developed and manufactured a series of computer workstations intended for the higher education and business markets. NeXT was founded by Jobs. NeXT introduced the first NeXT Computer in 1988, the smaller NeXTstation in 1990; the NeXT computers experienced limited sales, with estimates of about 50,000 units shipped in total. Their innovative object-oriented NeXTSTEP operating system and development environment were influential; the first major outside investment was from Ross Perot, who invested after seeing a segment about NeXT on The Entrepreneurs. In 1987, he invested $20 million in exchange for 16 percent of NeXT's stock and subsequently joined the board of directors in 1988. NeXT released much of the NeXTSTEP system as a programming environment standard called OpenStep. NeXT withdrew from the hardware business in 1993 to concentrate on marketing OPENSTEP for Mach, its own OpenStep implementation, for several original equipment manufacturers.
NeXT developed WebObjects, one of the first enterprise web application frameworks. WebObjects never became popular because of its initial high price of $50,000, but it remains a prominent early example of a Web server based on dynamic page generation rather than on static content. Apple purchased NeXT in 1997 for $429 million, 1.5 million shares of Apple stock. As part of the agreement, Steve Jobs, Chairman and CEO of NeXT Software, returned to Apple, the company he co-founded in 1976; the founder promised to merge software from NeXT with Apple's hardware platforms resulting in macOS, iOS, watchOS, tvOS. These operating systems are based upon the NeXTSTEP and OPENSTEP foundation. In 1985, Apple co-founder Steve Jobs led Apple's SuperMicro division, responsible for the development of the Macintosh and Lisa personal computers; the Macintosh had been successful on university campuses because of the Apple University Consortium, which allowed students and institutions to buy the computers at a discount.
The consortium had earned more than $50 million on computers by February 1984. While chairman, Jobs visited university departments and faculty members to sell Macintosh. Jobs met Paul Berg, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry, at a luncheon held in Silicon Valley to honor François Mitterrand President of France. Berg was frustrated by the expense of teaching students about recombinant DNA from textbooks instead of in wet laboratories, used for the testing and analysis of chemicals and other materials or biological matter. Wet labs were prohibitively expensive for lower-level courses and were too complex to be simulated on personal computers of the time. Berg suggested to Jobs to use his influence at Apple to create a "3M computer" workstation for higher education, featuring at least one megabyte of random-access memory, a megapixel display and megaFLOPs performance, hence the name "3M". Jobs was intrigued by Berg's concept of a workstation and contemplated starting a higher education computer company in the fall of 1985, amidst increasing turmoil at Apple.
Jobs' division did not release upgraded versions of the Macintosh and much of the Macintosh Office system. As a result, sales plummeted, Apple was forced to write off millions of dollars in unsold inventory. Apple's chief executive officer John Sculley ousted Jobs from his day-to-day role at Apple, replacing him with Jean-Louis Gassée in 1985; that year, Jobs began a power struggle to regain control of the company. The board of directors sided with Sculley while Jobs took a business visit to Western Europe and the Soviet Union on behalf of Apple. After several months of being sidelined, Jobs resigned from Apple on September 13, 1985, he told the board he was leaving to set up a new computer company, that he would be taking several Apple employees from the SuperMicro division with him. He told the board that his new company would not compete with Apple and might consider licensing its designs back to them to market under the Macintosh brand. Jobs named his new company Next, Inc. A number of former Apple employees followed him to Next, including Joanna Hoffman, Bud Tribble, George Crow, Rich Page, Susan Barnes, Susan Kare, Dan'l Lewin.
After consulting with major educational buyers from around the country, including a follow-up meeting with Paul Berg, a tentative specification for the workstation was drawn up. It was designed to be powerful enough to run wet lab simulations and cheap enough for college students to use in their dormitory rooms. Before the specifications were finished, Apple sued Next for "nefarious schemes" to take advantage of the cofounders' insider information. Jobs remarked, "It is hard to think that a $2 billion company with 4,300-plus people couldn't compete with six people in blue jeans." The suit was dismissed before trial. In 1986, Jobs recruited the famous graphic designer Paul Rand to create a brand identity costing $100,000. Jobs recalled, "I asked him if he would come up with a few options, he said,'No, I will solve your problem for you and you will pay me. You don’t have to use the solution. If you want options go talk to other people.'" Rand created a 20-page brochure detailing the brand, including the precise angle used for the logo and a new company name spelling, NeXT.
NeXT changed its business plan in mid-1986. The company decided to develop both computer hardware and software, instead of just a low-end workstation
The Altair 8800 is a microcomputer designed in 1974 by MITS and based on the Intel 8080 CPU. Interest grew after it was featured on the cover of the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics, was sold by mail order through advertisements there, in Radio-Electronics, in other hobbyist magazines; the designers hoped to sell a few hundred build-it-yourself kits to hobbyists, were surprised when they sold thousands in the first month. The Altair appealed to individuals and businesses that just wanted a computer and purchased the assembled version; the Altair is recognized as the spark that ignited the microcomputer revolution as the first commercially successful personal computer. The computer bus designed for the Altair was to become a de facto standard in the form of the S-100 bus, the first programming language for the machine was Microsoft's founding product, Altair BASIC. While serving at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory at Kirtland Air Force Base, Ed Roberts and Forrest M. Mims III decided to use their electronics background to produce small kits for model rocket hobbyists.
In 1969, Roberts and Mims, along with Stan Cagle and Robert Zaller, founded Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems in Roberts' garage in Albuquerque, New Mexico, started selling radio transmitters and instruments for model rockets. The model rocket kits were a modest success and MITS wanted to try a kit that would appeal to more hobbyists; the November 1970 issue of Popular Electronics featured the Opticom, a kit from MITS that would send voice over an LED light beam. As Mims and Cagle were losing interest in the kit business, Roberts bought his partners out began developing a calculator kit. Electronic Arrays had just announced a set of six large scale integrated circuit chips that would make a four-function calculator; the MITS 816 calculator kit used the chip set and was featured on the November 1971 cover of Popular Electronics. This calculator kit sold for $175. Forrest Mims wrote the assembly manual for many others over the next several years, he accepted a copy of the kit as payment.
The calculator was followed by several improved models. The MITS 1440 calculator was featured in the July 1973 issues of Radio-Electronics, it had a 14-digit display and square root function. The kit sold for $200 and the assembled version was $250. MITS developed a programmer unit that would connect to the 816 or 1440 calculator and allow programs of up to 256 steps. In addition to calculators, MITS made a line of test equipment kits; these included an IC tester, a waveform generator, a digital voltmeter, several other instruments. To keep up with the demand, MITS moved into a larger building at 6328 Linn NE in Albuquerque in 1973, they installed an assembly line at the new location. In 1972, Texas Instruments developed its own calculator chip and started selling complete calculators at less than half the price of other commercial models. MITS and many other companies were devastated by this, Roberts struggled to reduce his quarter-million-dollar debt. In January 1972, Popular Electronics merged with Electronics World.
The change in editorial staff upset many of their authors, they started writing for a competing magazine, Radio-Electronics. In 1972 and 1973, some of the best construction projects appeared in Radio-Electronics. In 1974, Art Salsberg became editor of Popular Electronics, it was Salsberg's goal to reclaim the lead in electronics projects. He was impressed with Don Lancaster's TV Typewriter article and wanted computer projects for Popular Electronics. Don Lancaster did an ASCII keyboard for Popular Electronics in April 1974, they were evaluating a computer trainer project by Jerry Ogdin when the Mark-8 8008-based computer by Jonathan Titus appeared on the July 1974 cover of Radio-Electronics. The computer trainer was put on hold and the editors looked for a real computer system. One of the editors, Les Solomon, knew MITS was working on an Intel 8080 based computer project and thought Roberts could provide the project for the always popular January issue; the TV Typewriter and the Mark-8 computer projects were just a detailed set of plans and a set of bare printed circuit boards.
The hobbyist faced the daunting task of acquiring all of the integrated circuits and other components. The editors of Popular Electronics wanted a complete kit in a professional-looking enclosure. Ed Roberts and his head engineer, Bill Yates, finished the first prototype in October 1974 and shipped it to Popular Electronics in New York via the Railway Express Agency. However, it never arrived due to a strike by the shipping company. Solomon had a number of pictures of the machine and the article was based on them. Roberts got to work on building a replacement; the computer on the magazine cover is an empty box with just LEDs on the front panel. The finished Altair computer had a different circuit board layout than the prototype shown in the magazine; the January 1975 issues appeared on newsstands a week before Christmas of 1974 and the kit was available for sale. The typical MITS product had a generic name like the "Model 1440 Calculator" or the "Model 1600 Digital Voltmeter". Ed Roberts was busy finishing the design and left the naming of the computer to the editors of Popular Electronics.
One explanation of the Altair name, which editor Les Solomon told the audience at the first Altair Computer Convention, is that the name was inspired by Les's 12-year-old daughter, Lauren. "She said why don't you c
The Discman was Sony's first portable CD player, the D-5 /D-50, the first on the market in 1984, adopted for Sony's entire portable compact disc player line. The name was changed to CD Walkman worldwide in 2000 along with a redesigned "Walkman". Prior to the development of the CD, cassette tapes were the dominant form of audio storage in regards to the then-fledgling portable audio industry. In 1979, Sony had introduced the Walkman in Japan; as Sony began to realize the potential of the CD, executives pushed for a means to give the CD player market momentum, moving it from audio enthusiasts to the mainstream. Building on the design of the CDP-101, a CD player, Sony worked towards both improving the design of the player, reducing the power and number of parts needed while decreasing the overall size of the player, as well as reducing the cost of the player to a 50 000 - 60 000 yen range in what was called the "CD CD Project", which stood for Compact Disc Cost Down Project. With the ability to produce a CD player one-tenth the size of its first unit by August 1983, there became potential for a portable player.
The original goal was to create a player, the equivalent size of four CD cases stacked on top of each other. A piece of wood 13.4 cm across and about 4 cm thick was shown to the staff to illustrate the physical dimensions for which they were aiming. The finalised design did not incorporate a power source and so had a 9V coaxial jack on the rear; this allowed for the use of a wall adapter, the EBP-9LC, a carrying sleeve which held 6 primary C cells or rechargeable cells with the ability to charge in-situ. Alternatively, the AC D50 was available which attached to the rear of the D50 / D5 and allowed it to be powered from AC at 110/120/220/240 V 50/60 Hz 9 W with a DC output of up to 500 mA; the AC D50 allowed line level audio out, presented as two RCA jacks. The D-50 was released in November 1984; the unit offered the same functionality as the full-size CDP-101 player, but came without a remote and the repeat functionality of the full-size unit. The D-50 retailed for only 49,800 yen half the cost price of the CDP-101.
The unit sparked public interest in CDs, boosting their popularity, within a year and a half the D-50 became profitable. Because of its portable nature and similarity to the Walkman, the nickname'Discman' was given to the D-50; this name has been used to refer to any Sony portable CD player. However, Sony has since changed the name starting in the late 1990s; the release of the D-50 sparked public interest in CDs as an audio format and in the audio industry in general. A portable CD market was created and the price of competing CD players from other manufacturers dropped; the CD industry experienced sudden growth with the number of CD titles available increasing. "Intelligent Discman" was a line of Discman players that played CD-i format discs, owned by Philips. Sony Data Discman Sony Walkman Notes Sources"Sony History". Sony Electronics Inc. 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2016. "Sony Walkman Personal Stereo Turns 20 Years Old". Sony Electronics Inc. April 5, 1999. Archived from the original on July 20, 2009.
Retrieved April 11, 2016. Jarman, Tim. "Walkman Central". - Reference site containing details and pictures of various Discman and Walkman models. "EEVblog #863 - Sony D50 Discman Teardown - World's First Portable CD Player". EEV Blog. March 28, 2016
Trinitron is Sony's brand name for its line of aperture-grille-based CRTs used in television sets and computer monitors. One of the first new television systems to enter the market since the 1950s, the Trinitron was announced in 1968 to wide acclaim for its bright images, about 25% brighter than common shadow mask televisions of the same era. Constant improvement in the basic technology and attention to overall quality allowed Sony to charge a premium for Trinitron devices into the 1990s. Patent protection on the basic Trinitron design ran out in 1996, it faced a number of competitors at much lower prices. Sony responded by introducing their flat-screen FD Trinitron designs, which maintained their premier position in the market into the early 2000s. However, these designs were surpassed quickly by plasma and LCD designs. Sony removed the last Trinitron televisions from their product catalogs in 2006, ceased production in early 2008. Video monitors are the only remaining Trinitron products being produced by Sony, at a low production rate, although the basic technology can still be found in downmarket televisions from third parties.
The name Trinitron was derived from trinity, meaning the union of three, tron from electron tube, after the way that the Trinitron combined the three separate electron guns of other CRT designs into one. Color television had been studied, but it was only in the late 1940s that the problem was considered. At the time, a number of systems were being proposed that used separate red and blue signals, broadcast in succession. Most systems broadcast entire frames in sequence, with a colored filter that rotated in front of an otherwise conventional black and white television tube; because they broadcast separate signals for the different colors, all of these systems were incompatible with existing black and white sets. Another problem was that the mechanical filter made them flicker unless high refresh rates were used. In spite of these problems, the United States Federal Communication Commission selected a sequential-frame 144 frame/s standard from CBS as their color broadcast in 1950. RCA worked along different lines using the luminance-chrominance system.
This system did not directly transmit the RGB signals. Luminance matched the black and white signal of existing broadcasts, allowing it to be displayed on existing televisions; this was a major advantage over the mechanical systems being proposed by other groups. Color information was separately encoded and folded into the signal as a high-frequency modification to produce a composite video signal – on a black and white television this extra information would be seen as a slight randomization of the image intensity, but the limited resolution of existing sets made this invisible in practice. On color sets the signal would be extracted, decoded back into RGB, displayed. Although RCA's system had enormous benefits, it had not been developed because it was difficult to produce the display tubes. Black and white TVs used a continuous signal and the tube could be coated with an deposit of phosphor. With the compatible color encoding scheme developed by Georges Valensi in 1938, the color was changing continually along the line, far too fast for any sort of mechanical filter to follow.
Instead, the phosphor had to be broken down into a discrete pattern of colored spots. Focusing the right signal on each of these tiny spots was beyond the capability of electron guns of the era, RCA's early experiments used three-tube projectors, or mirror-based systems known as "Triniscope". RCA solved the problem of displaying the color images with their introduction of the shadow mask; the shadow mask consists of a thin sheet of steel with tiny holes photo etched into it, placed just behind the front surface of the picture tube. Three guns, arranged in a triangle, were all aimed at the holes. Stray electrons at the edge of the beam were cut off by the mask, creating a focused spot, small enough to hit a single colored phosphor on the screen. Since each of the guns was aimed at the hole from a different angle, the spots of phosphor on the tube could be separated to prevent overlap; the disadvantage of this approach was that for any given amount of gun power, the shadow mask filtered out the majority of the energy.
To ensure there was no overlap of the beam on the screen, the dots had to be separated and covered 25% of its surface. This led to dim images, requiring much greater electron beam power in order to provide a useful picture. Moreover, the system was dependent on the relative angles of the beams between the three guns, which required constant adjustment by the user to ensure the guns hit the correct colors. In spite of this, the technical superiority of the RCA system was overwhelming compared to the CBS system, was selected as the new NTSC standard in 1953; the first broadcast using the new standard occurred on New Year's Day in 1954, when NBC broadcast the Tournament of Roses Parade. In spite of this early start, only a few years after scheduled television broadcasting had begun, consumer uptake of color televisions was slow to start; the dim images, constant adjustments and high costs had kept them in a niche of their own. Low consumer acceptance led to a lack of color programming, further reducing the demand for the sets in a supply and demand problem.
In the United States in 1960, only 1 color set was sold for every 50 sets sold in total. Sony had entered the television market in 1960 with the black and white TV8-301, the first non-projection type all-transistor television. A combination of factors, i