Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Quebec is Canadas largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division and it shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canadas second-most populous province, after Ontario, most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, the Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. Even in central Quebec at comparatively southerly latitudes winters are severe in inland areas, Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995, in 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the Québécois as a nation within a united Canada.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq and Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the seat for the French colony of New France. The province is sometimes referred to as La belle province, the Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years War. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River, the Treaty of Versailles ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly, in 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada.
This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867, each became one of the first four provinces. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the aboriginal peoples. This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec. In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Located in the part of Canada, and part of Central Canada. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the composition of the ground, the climate. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Canadian Shield are the two main regions, and are radically different
Prime Minister of Canada
Canadian prime ministers are styled as The Right Honourable, a privilege maintained for life. The office and its functions are instead governed by constitutional conventions, the prime minister, along with the other ministers in cabinet, is appointed by the governor general on behalf of the monarch. There are no age or citizenship restrictions on the position of prime minister itself, while there is no legal requirement for the prime minister to be a member of parliament, for practical and political reasons the prime minister is expected to win a seat very promptly. However, in rare circumstances individuals who are not sitting members of the House of Commons have been appointed to the position of prime minister, two former prime ministers—Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott and Sir Mackenzie Bowell—served in the 1890s while members of the Senate. Both, in their roles as Government Leader in the Senate, succeeded prime ministers who had died in office—John A. Macdonald in 1891 and that convention has since evolved toward the appointment of an interim leader from the commons in such a scenario.
Prime ministers who are not Members of Parliament upon their appointment have since been expected to seek election to the commons as soon as possible. For example, William Lyon Mackenzie King, after losing his seat in the 1925 federal election, Turner was the last serving prime minister to not hold a commons seat. The Canadian prime minister serves at Her Majestys pleasure, meaning the post does not have a fixed term, once appointed and sworn in by the governor general, the prime minister remains in office until he or she resigns, is dismissed, or dies. Following parliamentary dissolution, the prime minister must run in the general election if he or she wishes to maintain a seat in the House of Commons. Should the prime ministers party subsequently win a majority of seats in the House of Commons, if, however, an opposition party wins a majority of seats, the prime minister may resign or be dismissed by the governor general. This option was last entertained in 1925, the function of the prime minister has evolved with increasing power.
Caucuses may choose to follow rules, though the decision would be made by recorded vote. Either the sovereign or his or her viceroy may therefore oppose the prime ministers will in extreme, for transportation, the prime minister is granted an armoured car and shared use of two official aircraft—a CC-150 Polaris for international flights and a Challenger 601 for domestic trips. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police furnish constant personal security for the prime minister, all of the aforementioned is supplied by the Queen-in-Council through budgets approved by parliament, as is the prime ministers annual salary of CAD$170,400. Should a serving or former prime minister die, he or she is accorded a state funeral, John Thompson died outside Canada, at Windsor Castle, where Queen Victoria permitted his lying-in-state before his body was returned to Canada for a state funeral in Halifax. In earlier years, it was traditional for the monarch to bestow a knighthood on newly appointed Canadian prime ministers.
Accordingly, several carried the prefix Sir before their name, of the first eight premiers of Canada, the Canadian Heraldic Authority has granted former prime ministers an augmentation of honour on the personal coat of arms of those who pursued them. To date, former prime ministers Joe Clark, Pierre Trudeau, John Turner, Brian Mulroney, the written form of address for the prime minister should use his or her full parliamentary title, The Right Honourable, Prime Minister of Canada
Canada Steamship Lines
Canada Steamship Lines is a Canadian shipping company with headquarters in Montreal, Quebec. The business has been operating for well over a century and a half, CSL had humble beginnings in Canada East in 1845, operating river boats on the Saint Lawrence River in general commerce. Subsequent growth over the years was tied to expansion of the system on the upper St. Lawrence River. She was sold in 1954 and scrapped by 1961, CSL had acquired the new ships SS Hamonic and the ill-fated Noronic. By 1924, CSL purchased its first self-unloaded bulk carrier, Collier, CSLs growth through the industrial booms of both world wars was largely tied to the increasing importance of the steel industry in Ontario, where mills were built, or soon to be built, in Sault Ste. CSL tapped into the last of the coal traffic from Pennsylvania across the Great Lakes to railways in Canada. Following railway dieselization, subsequent coal traffic would be moved by CSL to large fossil-fuel burning electrical power plants, in addition to its cargo shipping, the company expanded its overnight passenger shipping traffic as well.
Most notably the popular Hamonic and Noronic of the old Niagara Navigation Company 1902-1912 lineage and their last passenger ships, came out in 1928. They were the cruise ships St. Lawrence and Tadoussac, all built at the Davie Shipbuilding and Repair Co. in Lauzon, St. Lawrence was built in 1927, and Quebec and Tadoussac were identical sister ships of 1928. They ran together with Richelieu, the former Narraganset of Long Island Sound, the three ships were all 350 feet in length, had a breadth of 70 feet, and were 8,000 tones GRT, Richelieu was slightly smaller. They sailed on the St Lawrence and Saguenay Rivers, departing from Montreal and stopping at Quebec City, Murray Bay and Tadoussac, Richelieu was able to go on to Chicoutimi because of her shallower draft. Quebec burned at Tadoussac in 1950 with the loss of seven lives, after the opening of the St. With the Yarmouth Castle fire in 1965 near the Bahamas, stricter coast guard safety regulations in the form of the new international SOLAS program put an end to the three ships long careers.
The Richelieu, St. Lawrence, and Tadoussac were all sold to Joseph de Smedt of Belgium, Tadoussac was renamed Passenger No.2 and Richelieu, Passenger No.3. Passenger No.2 and the old St. Lawrence were eventually scrapped after serving as ships in the early 1970s. The earlier Hamonic had burned due to a dock side fire in 1945 at Point Edward and was scrapped, Huronic had already been converted to carry only freight by 1944, was retired and scrapped in 1950. CSL was found responsible for the disastrous September 1949 fire and destruction of its ship the SS Noronic in Toronto Harbour, the fire swept through the ship killing 118 to 139 passengers, but no members of the crew. Inadequate alarm, passenger evacuation plans, and neglected extinguishing systems are found at fault, the captain was suspended one year for abandoning the ship before ensuring crew and passengers were safe
Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau, PC CC CH QC FRSC was a Canadian politician who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada. He is the 3rd longest-serving Prime Minister in Canadian history, having served for 15 years,164 days, Trudeau rose to prominence as a lawyer and activist in Quebec politics. In the 1960s he entered politics by joining the Liberal Party of Canada. He was appointed as Lester B, Pearsons Parliamentary Secretary and became his Minister of Justice. Trudeau became a sensation, inspiring Trudeaumania, and took charge of the Liberals in 1968. From the late 1960s until the mid-1980s, his personality dominated the scene to an extent never before seen in Canadian political life. Despite his personal motto, Reason before passion, his personality, critics accuse him of arrogance, of economic mismanagement, and of unduly centralizing Canadian decision-making to the detriment of Quebecs culture and the economy of the Prairies. He retired from politics in 1984, and John Turner succeeded him and his eldest son, Justin Trudeau, became the 23rd and current Prime Minister as a result of the 2015 federal election and is the first prime minister of Canada to be related to a former prime minister.
The Trudeau family can be traced to Marcillac-Lanville in France in the 16th century, in 1659 the first Trudeau to arrive in Canada was Étienne Trudeau or Truteau, a carpenter and home builder from La Rochelle. He had a sister named Suzette and a younger brother named Charles Jr. he remained close to both siblings for his entire life. The family had become wealthy by the time Trudeau was in his teens. Trudeau attended the prestigious Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, where he supported Quebec nationalism, Trudeaus father died when Pierre was 15 years old. This death hit him and the very hard emotionally. Trudeau remained very close to his mother for the rest of her life, Trudeau earned his law degree at the Université de Montréal in 1943. During his studies, he was conscripted into the Canadian Army as part of the National Resources Mobilization Act, before this, all Canadians serving overseas were volunteers, and not conscripts. Trudeau reflected on his opposition to conscription and his doubts about the war in his Memoirs, tough.
if you were a French Canadian in Montreal in the early 1940s, you did not automatically believe that this was a just war. We tended to think of war as a settling of scores among the superpowers. In an Outremont by-election in 1942 he campaigned for the anticonscription candidate Jean Drapeau, after the war Trudeau continued his studies, first taking a masters degree in political economy at Harvard Universitys Graduate School of Public Administration
The Canadian dollar is the currency of Canada. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or sometimes Can$ or C$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies and it is divided into 100 cents. Canadas dollar is the fifth most held reserve currency in the world, accounting for approximately 2% of all global reserves, behind only the U. S. dollar, the euro, the yen and the pound sterling. In 1841, the Province of Canada adopted a new system based on the Halifax rating, the new Canadian pound was equal to four US dollars, making one pound sterling equal to 1 pound,4 shillings, and 4 pence Canadian. Thus, the new Canadian pound was worth 16 shillings and 5.3 pence sterling, the 1850s was a decade of wrangling over whether to adopt a sterling monetary system or a decimal monetary system based on the US dollar. In 1851, the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly passed an act for the purposes of introducing a sterling unit in conjunction with decimal fractional coinage. The idea was that the coins would correspond to exact amounts in relation to the U. S. dollar fractional coinage.
This gold standard was introduced with the gold sovereign being legal tender at £1 = US$ 4.86 2⁄3, no coinage was provided for under the 1853 act. Sterling coinage was legal tender and all other silver coins were demonetized. The British government in principle allowed for a decimal coinage but nevertheless held out the hope that a unit would be chosen under the name of royal. However, in 1857, the decision was made to introduce a decimal coinage into the Province of Canada in conjunction with the U. S. dollar unit, in 1859, Canadian colonial postage stamps were issued with decimal denominations for the first time. In 1860, the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia followed the colony of Canada in adopting a system based on the U. S. dollar unit. In the following year, Canadian colonial postage stamps were issued with the shown in dollars. The U. S. dollar was created in 1792 on the basis of the weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars. As such, the Spanish dollar was slightly more than the U. S. dollar, and likewise.
In 1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were united in a called the Dominion of Canada. In 1871, Prince Edward Island went decimal within the U. S. dollar unit, the currency of Prince Edward Island was absorbed into the Canadian system shortly afterwards, when Prince Edward island joined the Dominion of Canada in 1873. The Canadian Parliament passed the Uniform Currency Act in April 1871, tying up loose ends as to the currencies of the various provinces, the gold standard was temporarily abandoned during the First World War and definitively abolished on April 10,1933
Montreal, officially Montréal, is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the 2nd-most populous in Canada as a whole. Originally called Ville-Marie, or City of Mary, it is believed to be named after Mount Royal, the city has a distinct four-season continental climate, with warm-to-hot summers and cold, snowy winters. In 2016, Montreal had a population of 1,704,694, Montreals metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927 and a population of 1,958,257 in the urban agglomeration, with all of the municipalities on the Island of Montreal included. Legally a French-speaking city,60. 5% of Montrealers speak French at home,21. 2% speak English and 19. 8% speak neither, Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with 56% of the population able to speak both official languages. Montreal is the second-largest primarily French-speaking city in the world after Paris, historically the commercial capital of Canada, it was surpassed in population and economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s.
It remains an important centre of commerce, finance, technology, education, tourism, film, Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design. In 2009, Montreal was named North Americas leading host city for international events, according to the 2009 preliminary rankings of the International Congress. According to the 2015 Global Liveability Ranking by the Economist Intelligence Unit, in the 2017 edition of their Best Student Cities ranking, Quacquarelli Symonds ranked Montreal as the worlds best city to study abroad. Also, Montreal has 11 universities with 170,000 students enrolled, the Greater Montréal region has the highest number of university students per capita among all metropolitan areas in North America. It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics, the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In 2012, Montreal was ranked as a Beta+ world city, in Kanien’kéha, or Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià, ke Tsi or Ka-wé-no-te.
In Anishinaabemowin, or Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang, though the city was first named by French colonizers Ville Marie, or City of Mary, its current name comes from Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The most popular theory is that the name derives from Mont Réal, Cartiers 1535 diary entry, naming the mountain, according to the Commission de toponymie du Québec and the Geographical Names Board of Canada, Canadian place names have only one official form. Thus, Montreal is officially spelled with an accent over the e in both English and French. In practice, this is limited to governmental uses. English-speaking Montrealers, including English-language media, regularly omit the accent when writing in English, archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD1000, they had started to cultivate maize, within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages.
Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at locations in the valley since at least the 14th century
Electric power industry
The electric power industry is the generation, transmission and sale of electric power to the general public. The electrical industry started with introduction of lighting in 1882. Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, growing economic and safety concerns lead to the regulation of the industry, once an expensive novelty limited to the most densely populated areas and economical electric power has become a requirement for normal operation of all elements of developed economies. Since the 1990s, many regions have opened up the generation and distribution of power to provide a more competitive electricity market. However and distribution are harder problems since returns on investment are not as easy to find, in 1831, Michael Faraday devised a machine that generated electricity from rotary motion, but it took almost 50 years for the technology to reach a commercially viable stage. In 1878, in the US, Thomas Edison developed and sold a commercially viable replacement for gas lighting and heating using locally generated and distributed direct current electricity.
The worlds first public electricity supply was provided in late 1881 and this system was powered from a water wheel on the River Wey, which drove a Siemens alternator that supplied a number of arc lamps within the town. This supply scheme provided electricity to a number of shops, Robert Hammond, in December 1881, demonstrated the new electric light in the Sussex town of Brighton in the UK for a trial period. The ensuing success of this installation enabled Hammond to put this venture on both a commercial and legal footing, as a number of shop owners wanted to use the new electric light, thus the Hammond Electricity Supply Co. was launched. Whilst the Godalming and Holborn Viaduct Schemes closed after a few years the Brighton Scheme continued on, in time he had supplied a number of local consumers with electric light. The method of supply was direct current and it was on in the year in September 1882 that Edison opened the Pearl Street Power Station in New York City and again it was a DC supply.
It was for this reason that the generation was close to or on the premises as Edison had no means of voltage conversion. The voltage chosen for any system is a compromise. For a given amount of power transmitted, increasing the voltage reduces the current, unfortunately it increases the danger from direct contact and increases the required insulation thickness. Furthermore, some types were difficult or impossible to make work with higher voltages. The overall effect was that Edisons system required power stations to be within a mile of the consumers, while this could work in city centres, it would be unable to economically supply suburbs with power. The mid to late 1880s saw the introduction of alternating current systems in Europe, increasing the voltage reduced the current in the transmission and distribution lines and hence the size of conductors and distribution losses. This made it economical to distribute power over long distances
Total S. A. is a French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the seven Supermajor oil companies in the world. Total is a large scale chemicals manufacturer, Total is a major player in solar energy with SunPower and Total Solar. Total has its office in the Tour Total in La Défense district in Courbevoie. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, at Poincarés behest, Col. Ernest Mercier with the support of ninety banks and companies founded Total on 28 March 1924, as the Compagnie française des pétroles, literally the French Petroleum Company. Petroleum was seen as vital in the case of a new war with Germany, the French governments stake in TPC was transferred to CFP, and the Red Line agreement in 1928 rearranged the shareholding of CPF in TPC to 23. 75%. The company from the start was regarded as a private company in view of its listing on the Paris Stock Exchange in 1929. The company during the 1930s was engaged in exploration and production and its first refinery began operating in Normandy in 1933.
After World War II, CFP engaged in oil exploration in Venezuela, Exploration in Algeria, a French colony, began in 1946, with Algeria becoming a leading source of oil in the 1950s. In 1954, CFP introduced its downstream product – Total brand of gasoline in the African continent and Europe. In 1980, Total Petroleum Ltd. a company controlled 50% by CFP and this purchase gave Total refining capacity, and a network of 350 service stations in 20 states. The company renamed itself Total CFP in 1985, to build on the popularity of its gasoline brand, in 1991, the name was changed to Total, when it became a public company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Meanwhile, Total continued to expand its presence in North America under several brand names. In 1989, Colorado, based Total Petroleum, Total CFPs North American unit, purchased 125 Road Runner retail locations from Texarkana, by 1993, Total Petroleum was operating 2,600 retail stores under the Vickers, Road Runner, and Total brands. That year, the company began remodeling and rebranding all of its North American gasoline, only four years later, Total sold its North American refining and retail operations to Ultramar Diamond Shamrock for $400 million in stock and $414 million in assumed debt.
After Totals takeover of Petrofina of Belgium in 1999, it known as Total Fina. Afterwards it acquired Elf Aquitaine, first named TotalFinaElf after the merger in 2000, it was renamed back to Total on 6 May 2003. During that rebranding, the current globe logo was unveiled, in 2003, Total signed for a 30% stake in the gas exploration venture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – South Rub al-Khali joint venture along with Royal Dutch Shell and Saudi Aramco. The stake was bought out by its partners
Toronto Stock Exchange
Toronto Stock Exchange is one of the worlds largest stock exchanges. It is the ninth largest exchange in the world by market capitalization, based in Toronto, it is owned by and operated as a subsidiary of the TMX Group for the trading of senior equities. A broad range of businesses from Canada and abroad are represented on the exchange, in addition to conventional securities, the exchange lists various exchange-traded funds, split share corporations, income trusts and investment funds. More mining and oil and gas companies are listed on Toronto Stock Exchange than any other stock exchange, the Toronto Stock Exchange likely descended from the Association of Brokers, a group formed by Toronto businessmen on July 26,1852. No records of the transactions have survived. On October 25,1861, twenty-four men gathered at the Masonic Hall to create the Toronto Stock Exchange, the exchange was incorporated by an act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1878. The TSX grew continuously in size and in shares traded, save for a period in 1914 when the exchange was shut down for fear of financial panic due to World War I.
In 1934, the Toronto Stock Exchange merged with its key competitor, the merged markets kept the Toronto Stock Exchange name. The TSX opened its new trading floor and headquarters in an Art Deco building on Bay Street in 1937, in 1977, the TSX introduced CATS, an automated trading system, and began to use it for the quotation of less liquid equities. In 1983, the TSX vacated its Art Deco headquarters on Bay Street, the old TSX building became the Design Exchange, a museum and education centre. On April 23,1997, the TSXs trading floor closed, making it the second-largest stock exchange in North America to choose a floorless, in 1999, the Toronto Stock Exchange announced the appointment of Barbara G. Stymiest to the position of President & Chief Executive Officer. Through a realignment plan, Toronto Stock Exchange became Canadas sole exchange for the trading of senior equities, the Canadian Dealing Network, Winnipeg Stock Exchange, and equities portion of the Montreal Exchange merged with CDNX.
In 2000, the Toronto Stock Exchange became a for-profit company, in 2001, the Toronto Stock Exchange acquired the Canadian Venture Exchange, which was renamed the TSX Venture Exchange in 2002, this resulted in the creation of a parent to the TSX, the TSX Group. This ended 123 years of the usage of TSE as a Canadian stock exchange, on May 11,2007, the S&P/TSX Composite, the main index of the Toronto Stock Exchange, traded above the 14,000 point level for the first time ever. On December 17,2008, the TSX for the first time in history was closed for a trading day due to a technical glitch.9 trillion. Xavier Rolet, who is CEO of the LSE Group, would head the new enlarged company, based on data from December 30,2010 the new stock exchange would have been the second largest in the world with a market cap 48% greater than the Nasdaq. 8 of the 15 board members of the entity will be appointed by LSE. The provisional name for the group would be LTMX Group plc