Power Macintosh 5200 LC
The Power Macintosh 5200 LC and Power Macintosh 5300 LC are a line of personal computers that are a part of Apple Computer's Power Macintosh, LC, Performa families of Macintosh computers. When sold to the consumer market, the machines were marketed as variations of Performa 5200 and Performa 5300; the Power Macintosh 5200 LC was introduced in April 1995 with a PowerPC 603 CPU at 75 MHz as a PowerPC-based replacement of the Macintosh LC 500 series. Models switched to the PowerPC 603e CPU and used model numbers above 5300, but kept the same motherboard design. Unlike previous education models, which prepended the model number with "LC", the 5200 / 5300 models use the Power Macintosh designation of Apple's main workstation line of the time, with "LC" appended to the end; the 5200 is related to the 6200, which use the same logic boards in desktop cases without integrated monitors. In an editorial, MacWorld Magazine's Editor-In-Chief, Adrian Mello, wrote of the 5200: "The all-in-one design exhibits a lot of the same spirit that Apple vested in the original Macintosh.
A deceptive minimalism belies this machine's value. Apple has again figured out how to package a full-featured computer into the simplest possible shape, its predecessors, which include the Performa 520, 550, 575 and now 580, all offer good functionality and value, but they lack the 5200's design integrity. In comparison, their efforts to mimic the appearance of a conventional three-piece desktop computer just made them look clumsy."Production of the 5200 and 5300 models was discontinued in the first half of 1996, with the PowerPC 603e-based Power Macintosh 5260 and Power Macintosh 5400 being offered as replacements at different price points. The 5260 retained the overall design of the 5200 and was sold at a similar price point with similar features, but shared no parts other than the stand and lower faceplate; the more expensive 5400 was visually similar but with a different motherboard that offered PCI instead of NuBus expansion. The 5200 LC uses a 75 MHz PowerPC 603 CPU; the 5300 LC replaced the CPU with the newer and faster PowerPC 603e, though the rest of the Quadra 630-derived architecture remained unchanged.
The monitor is a 15" shadow mask. Supported resolutions 640x480 @ 60 Hz, 640x480 @ 66.7 Hz, 800x600 @ 60 Hz, 800x600 @ 72 Hz, 832x624 @ 75 Hz. By the Spring of 1996, a number of users were having problems with system color shifts; the problem was not solvable with a software update, so Apple instituted a program titled "Repair Extension Program for the Apple Power Macintosh and Performa 5200, 5300, 6200, 6300." While never formally described as a recall — a distinction Apple emphatically reinforced in its repair documentation — users were required to bring their machine to an authorized Apple reseller for a repair. The program remained in effect for seven years. During its lifespan, Apple updated the 5200 with a "Revision B" design, replacing the power supply, analog board, EMI shield, front bezel and rear housing with updated parts that are not interchangeable with the original model. Introduced April 3, 1995: Power Macintosh 5200/75 LC: Sold only to the education market. Features a 500 MB hard drive.
$1,699 USD. Introduced May 1, 1995: Macintosh Performa 5200CD: The Power Macintosh 5200 LC with a 790 MB or 1 GB hard drive. Macintosh Performa 5210CD: Identical to the Power Macintosh 5200 LC, sold only in Asia and Europe. Introduced July 17, 1995: Macintosh Performa 5215CD: The Performa 5200CD with a different software bundle. Macintosh Performa 5220CD: The Performa 5215CD with a 500 MB hard drive, sold only in Asia and Europe. Introduced August 28, 1995: Power Macintosh 5300/100 LC: 16 MB memory standard. Introduced October 17, 1995: Macintosh Performa 5300CD: Consumer version of the Power Macintosh 5300 LC. Macintosh Performa 5300CD DE: Special "Director's Edition" of the 5300CD with additional software. Macintosh Performa 5320CD: 120 MHz version of the 5300CD, only sold in Europe and Asia. Power Macintosh 5200 LC and Power Macintosh 5300 LC at Apple History
Power Macintosh 7200
The Power Macintosh 7200 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from August 1995 to February 1997. The 90 MHz model was sold in Japan as the Power Macintosh 7215, the 120 MHz model with bundled server software as the Apple Workgroup Server 7250; when sold as the 8200, it used the 8100's mini-tower form factor. The 7200 was introduced alongside the Power Macintosh 7500 and 8500 at the 1995 MacWorld Expo in Boston. Apple referred to these machines collectively as the "Power Surge" line, communicating that this second generation of PowerPC machines offered a significant speed improvement over their predecessors. Introduced as a successor to the Power Macintosh 7100, the 7200 represents the low end of this generation of Power Macintosh, which replaced NuBus with PCI, it shares the 7500's "Outrigger" case. At launch, the 7200 was available with processor speeds of 75 and 90 MHz, with the slower model being replaced by a 120 MHz CPU in February 1996; the 120MHz model was available in a "PC compatible" variant, which came with a PCI card that allowed the computer to run Microsoft Windows and other PC operating systems.
The card featured a 100 MHz Pentium processor. The Power Macintosh 7300 replaced the 7200 in February 1997. Unlike other Power Macintosh machines of the time, the CPU is soldered to the motherboard instead of on a daughterboard; this presented a challenge for users. At the time of its introduction, Apple promised an inexpensive logic board upgrade to the 7500, but due to high demand for the 7500, this never materialized; when the upgrade was made available, it was to the follow-on model, the Power Macintosh 7600, came in the form of a complete logic board replacement. The base price upgraded the system to a 120 MHz CPU, but did not include L2 cache; the 7200's CPU was considered otherwise impossible to upgrade until, over three years after the 7200 was discontinued, Sonnet produced an G3 upgrade card for the PCI slots. Introduced August 8, 1995: Power Macintosh 7200/75 Power Macintosh 7200/90Introduced January 11, 1996: Power Macintosh 7215/90Introduced February 26, 1996: Workgroup Server 7250/120Introduced April 22, 1996: Power Macintosh 7200/120 Power Macintosh 7200/120 PC Compatible Power Macintosh 8200/100 Power Macintosh 8200/120 Power Macintosh 7200 at Low End Mac Official Power Macintosh 7200/120 page 7200/120 Official Power Macintosh 7200/120 page 7200/120 PC
The game port introduced on the Game Control Adapter, is a device port, found on IBM PC compatible and other computer systems throughout the 1980s and 1990s. It was the traditional connector for joystick input, MIDI devices, until replaced by USB in the 21st century. Located on a dedicated expansion card, the game port was integrated with PC sound cards, still on the PC's motherboard. During the transition to USB, many input devices used the game port and a USB adaptor in the form of a cable expansion; the game port first appeared during the initial launch of the original IBM PC in 1981, in the form of an optional US$55 expansion card known as the Game Control Adapter. The design allowed for four analog axes and four buttons on one port, allowing two joysticks or four paddles to be connected via a special "Y-splitter" cable. At the time there was no sort of industry standard for controller ports, although the closest was the Atari joystick port; this was introduced in 1977, on the Atari VCS, by 1981, was used on both Atari gear and the Commodore VIC-20.
But it could not be considered widespread until around 1983, when it appeared on the Commodore 64 and several other platforms. In contrast with the IBM design, the Atari port was designed for digital inputs eight-direction joysticks, it did include two analog inputs as well, which could support a single analog joystick, but these were not used. The Apple II sported a DB-9 joystick port with enough channels for two joysticks and three buttons, although some pins were reassigned in the Apple IIc to accommodate a mouse; the BBC Micro had a similar port to the IBM design using the same 15-pin connector, but was wired in such a way to support only one fire button per stick. In most respects, the IBM design was more advanced than existing designs. Available only as add-on that took up an entire slot, game ports remained rare in the early days of the IBM PC, most games used the keyboard as an input. IBM did not release a joystick of its own for the PC; the most common device available was the Kraft joystick developed for the Apple II but adapted to the IBM with the addition of another button on the back of the case.
When IBM did release a joystick, for the IBM PCjr, it was a version of the Kraft stick. However, it connected to the computer using two incompatible 7-pin connectors, which were mechanically connected together as part of a larger multi-pin connector on the back of the machine; this eliminated the need for the Y-adaptor. Adaptors for Atari-style "digital" sticks were common during this era; the game port became somewhat more common in the mid-1980s, as improving electronic density began to produce expansion cards with ever-increasing functionality. By 1983, it was common to see cards combining memory, game ports and parallel ports and a realtime clock on a single expansion card; the era of combo expansion cards came to an end by the late 1980s, as many of the separate functions provided on plug-in boards became common features of the motherboard itself. Game ports were not always part of this supported set of ports. However, the game port was given a major boost in usage in 1989, with the introduction of the first Sound Blaster.
As sound cards were used with computer games, Creative Labs took the opportunity to include a game port on the card, producing an all-in-one gaming solution. At the same time, they re-purposed two otherwise redundant pins on the port, 12 and 15, to produce a serial bus with enough performance to drive an external MIDI port adaptor. Previous MIDI systems like the MPU-401 used their own separate expansion cards and a complex external adaptor, whereas the Sound Blaster only required an inexpensive adaptor to produce the same result. By the end of the year the Sound Blaster was the best selling expansion card on the PC, was universal on new machines, the game port was widespread. With the exception of laptops—for which companies released joystick adapters for parallel or serial ports, which needed custom software drivers—through the early 1990s, the game port was universally supported on sound cards, increasing became built-in features as motherboards added sound support of their own; this remained true through the second half of the 1990s, by which time integrated sound support had displaced the 3rd party sound card to a large degree.
By the early 2000s, such support was so widespread that newer sound cards began to dispense with the game port as it was certain the machine they would be used in had such support, including MIDI. The introduction of the first USB standard in 1996, was aimed squarely at the sort of roles provided by the game port, but had little market impact; the introduction of the iMac, based entirely on USB expansion, began a rapid expansion of USB in the market. This led both to new gaming devices using USB, as well as the profusion of adaptors. For instance, the 1997 Microsoft Precision Pro joystick was re-introduced in a version that used a game port connector, but included a USB adaptor in the box; the rapid takeover of USB meant that this was superfluous when the Precision Pro 2 was released the next year in 1998. By 2000, game ports were purely for backward compatibility with now outdated devices. Microsoft Windows discontinued support for the game port with Windows Vista, though USB converters can serve as a workaround.
The game port's DA-15 connector includes inputs for a total of four analog channels and four buttons. These were always implemented as two joysticks with two buttons each, but it is possible to support
The gigabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The prefix giga means 109 in the International System of Units. Therefore, one gigabyte is 1000000000bytes; the unit symbol for the gigabyte is GB. This definition is used in all contexts of science, engineering and many areas of computing, including hard drive, solid state drive, tape capacities, as well as data transmission speeds. However, the term is used in some fields of computer science and information technology to denote 1073741824 bytes for sizes of RAM; the use of gigabyte may thus be ambiguous. Hard disk capacities as described and marketed by drive manufacturers using the standard metric definition of the gigabyte, but when a 500-GB drive's capacity is displayed by, for example, Microsoft Windows, it is reported as 465 GB, using a binary interpretation. To address this ambiguity, the International System of Quantities standardizes the binary prefixes which denote a series of integer powers of 1024. With these prefixes, a memory module, labeled as having the size 1GB has one gibibyte of storage capacity.
The term gigabyte is used to mean either 10003 bytes or 10243 bytes. The latter binary usage originated as compromise technical jargon for byte multiples that needed to be expressed in a power of 2, but lacked a convenient name; as 1024 is 1000 corresponding to SI multiples, it was used for binary multiples as well. In 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission published standards for binary prefixes, requiring that the gigabyte denote 10003 bytes and gibibyte denote 10243 bytes. By the end of 2007, the IEC Standard had been adopted by the IEEE, EU, NIST, in 2009 it was incorporated in the International System of Quantities; the term gigabyte continues to be used with the following two different meanings: 1 GB = 1000000000 bytes Based on powers of 10, this definition uses the prefix giga- as defined in the International System of Units. This is the recommended definition by the International Electrotechnical Commission; this definition is used in networking contexts and most storage media hard drives, flash-based storage, DVDs, is consistent with the other uses of the SI prefix in computing, such as CPU clock speeds or measures of performance.
The file manager of Mac OS X version 10.6 and versions are a notable example of this usage in software, which report files sizes in decimal units. 1 GiB = 1073741824 bytes. The binary definition uses powers of the base 2, as does the architectural principle of binary computers; this usage is promulgated by some operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows in reference to computer memory. This definition is synonymous with the unambiguous unit gibibyte. Since the first disk drive, the IBM 350, disk drive manufacturers expressed hard drive capacities using decimal prefixes. With the advent of gigabyte-range drive capacities, manufacturers based most consumer hard drive capacities in certain size classes expressed in decimal gigabytes, such as "500 GB"; the exact capacity of a given drive model is slightly larger than the class designation. All manufacturers of hard disk drives and flash-memory disk devices continue to define one gigabyte as 1000000000bytes, displayed on the packaging; some operating systems such as OS X express hard drive capacity or file size using decimal multipliers, while others such as Microsoft Windows report size using binary multipliers.
This discrepancy causes confusion, as a disk with an advertised capacity of, for example, 400 GB might be reported by the operating system as 372 GB, meaning 372 GiB. The JEDEC memory standards use IEEE 100 nomenclature; the difference between units based on decimal and binary prefixes increases as a semi-logarithmic function—for example, the decimal kilobyte value is nearly 98% of the kibibyte, a megabyte is under 96% of a mebibyte, a gigabyte is just over 93% of a gibibyte value. This means that a 300 GB hard disk might be indicated variously as 300 GB, 279 GB or 279 GiB, depending on the operating system; as storage sizes increase and larger units are used, these differences become more pronounced. Some legal challenges have been waged over this confusion such as a lawsuit against drive manufacturer Western Digital. Western Digital settled the challenge and added explicit disclaimers to products that the usable capacity may differ from the advertised capacity. Seagate was sued on similar grounds and settled.
Because of its physical design, the capacity of modern computer random access memory devices, such as DIMM modules, is always a multiple of a power of 1024. It is thus convenient to use prefixes denoting powers of 1024, known as binary prefixes, in describing them. For example, a memory capacity of 1073741824bytes is conveniently expressed as 1 GiB rather than as 1.074 GB. The former specification is, however quoted as "1 GB" when applied to random access memory. Software allocates memory in varying degrees of granularity as needed to fulfill data structure requirements and binary multiples are not required. Other computer capacities and rates, like storage hardware size, data transfer rates, clock speeds, operations per second, etc. do not depend on an inherent base, are presented in decimal units. For example, the manufacturer of a "300 GB" hard drive is claiming a capacity of 300000000000bytes, not 300x10243 bytes. One hour of SDTV video at 2.2 Mbit/s is 1 GB. Seven minutes of HDTV video at 19.39 Mbit/s is 1
Power Macintosh 4400
The Power Macintosh 4400 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from November 1996 to February 1998. It differs from prior desktop Macintosh models in that it was built with industry-standard components such as an IDE hard drive and an ATX-like power supply; the 4400 was introduced to the market at a time when several Macintosh clones were available on the market at prices lower than Apple's. The "Tanzania" logic board in the 4400 was an Apple design but had only been used in clones up to this point. MacWEEK's review described the case as "Strange in the Apple brood, it is contained in a stock desktop PC case fitted with Apple's distinctive curved nose piece. The back is industrial-looking, while bent sheet metal fills the case's insides, sharp edges and all; the IDE drive sits on end, while two PCI slots reside in a riser card. For the first time, Apple has abandoned automatic switching in the power supply, a small cost savings at the expense of international users' convenience."This was the only Power Macintosh to be designed with the goal of using low-cost manufacturing techniques.
The initial 4400/160 model was only sold to the European market. Some of Apple's online literature referred to the machine as the "Performa 4400", owing to its entry-level position in the market, but no machine sold was labelled as such. An updated 200 MHz 603e model was released in the United States in February 1997 as the Power Macintosh 4400/200, it was available as a "PC Compatible" system with a 166 MHz DOS card containing 16 MB of RAM and a Cyrix 6x86 processor. The Power Macintosh 4400 was sold as the Power Macintosh 7220 in Australia and Asia, where the number 4 is considered unlucky, to prevent confusion with the Power Macintosh 7200. Introduced November 7, 1996: Power Macintosh 4400/160: Sold in Europe. Introduced February 17, 1997: The 200 MHz versions support a maximum RAM capacity of 160 MB, have an updated PCI adapter card has two PCI slots and one Comm II slot, instead of three PCI slots. Power Macintosh 4400/200: Sold worldwide, except the Far East. Power Macintosh 7220/200: Sold in Far East countries, e.g. Japan and Australia.
Introduced April 4, 1997: Power Macintosh 4400/200 PC Compatible: Same as the 4400/200 with the addition of the PC Compatibility card, which enables running MS-DOS and Windows 95. Power Macintosh 7220/200 PC Compatible: Same as the 4400/200 PC Compatible, sold in Far East countries. Lowendmac.com - Power Macintosh 4400 Apple-history.com - Power Macintosh 4400 information
Power Macintosh 7300
The Power Macintosh 7300 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from February 1997 to November 1997. It was introduced with 166, 180 and 200 MHz CPUs in February 1997 alongside the Power Macintosh 8600 and 9600; the 7300 replaced both the Power Macintosh 7200 and 7600, replacing the only remaining first-generation PowerPC system in Apple's lineup. MacUser Magazine's review says the 7300 "offers the most satisfying improvement" of the new machines introduced in early 1997 due to a significant performance jump from its predecessors, as well as offering 50% faster CD-ROM and hard disk space; the 7300 was replaced by the Power Macintosh G3 desktop model in November 1997. Workgroup Server 7350 continued to be sold until March 1998 when the Macintosh Server G3 was introduced; the 7300 uses the "Outrigger" case first introduced with the Power Macintosh 7500, but features an enhanced PowerPC 604e CPU. However, it no longer came with the video in capability the 7600 had, which accounts for the fact that this is the only time that Apple used a lower model number for an upgraded model.
Apart from that, the 7300 is more related to the 7600 than to the 7200, with features such as a processor daughtercard and interleaved RAM. The 7300/180 model was available in a "PC compatible" configuration that included a 166 MHz Pentium processor with its own RAM on a PCI card which provides a PC game port. Like the Power Macintosh 7600, the 7300 series utilizes 168 pin DRAM DIMMS, allowing for a total of 8 to be added for 1024MiB in total, it utilized VRAM SIMMS and allowed 4 units to be added for a total of 4MiB, providing output at a resolution of up to 1152x870 at 24-bit and 1280x1024 at 16-bit. Additionally, it includes 3 PCI slots allowing the addition of third party cards, including graphics cards. A 2GB SCSI hard drive was included as standard, on an internal 10MiB/s SCSI bus, with an external 5MiB/s SCSI port on the back panel. Introduced February 13, 1997: Power Macintosh 7300/166: Sold in Europe and Asia. Introduced February 17, 1997: Power Macintosh 7300/180 Power Macintosh 7300/200Introduced April 4, 1997: Power Macintosh 7300/180 PC CompatibleIntroduced April 21, 1997: Workgroup Server 7350/180 Power Macintosh 7300 at apple-history.com Power Macintosh 7300/166, 7300/180 and 7300/200 at EveryMac.com
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB; the unit prefix mega is a multiplier of 1000000 in the International System of Units. Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information; this definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities. However, in the computer and information technology fields, several other definitions are used that arose for historical reasons of convenience. A common usage has been to designate one megabyte as 1048576bytes, a measurement that conveniently expresses the binary multiples inherent in digital computer memory architectures. However, most standards bodies have deprecated this usage in favor of a set of binary prefixes, in which this quantity is designated by the unit mebibyte. Less common is a convention that used the megabyte to mean 1000×1024 bytes; the megabyte is used to measure either 10002 bytes or 10242 bytes. The interpretation of using base 1024 originated as a compromise technical jargon for the byte multiples that needed to be expressed by the powers of 2 but lacked a convenient name.
As 1024 approximates 1000 corresponding to the SI prefix kilo-, it was a convenient term to denote the binary multiple. In 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission proposed standards for binary prefixes requiring the use of megabyte to denote 10002 bytes and mebibyte to denote 10242 bytes. By the end of 2009, the IEC Standard had been adopted by the IEEE, EU, ISO and NIST; the term megabyte continues to be used with different meanings: Base 10 1 MB = 1000000 bytes is the definition recommended by the International System of Units and the International Electrotechnical Commission IEC. This definition is used in networking contexts and most storage media hard drives, flash-based storage, DVDs, is consistent with the other uses of the SI prefix in computing, such as CPU clock speeds or measures of performance; the Mac OS X 10.6 file manager is a notable example of this usage in software. Since Snow Leopard, file sizes are reported in decimal units. In this convention, one thousand megabytes is equal to one gigabyte, where 1 GB is one billion bytes.
Base 2 1 MB = 1048576 bytes is the definition used by Microsoft Windows in reference to computer memory, such as RAM. This definition is synonymous with the unambiguous binary prefix mebibyte. In this convention, one thousand and twenty-four megabytes is equal to one gigabyte, where 1 GB is 10243 bytes. Mixed 1 MB = 1024000 bytes is the definition used to describe the formatted capacity of the 1.44 MB 3.5-inch HD floppy disk, which has a capacity of 1474560bytes. Semiconductor memory doubles in size for each address lane added to an integrated circuit package, which favors counts that are powers of two; the capacity of a disk drive is the product of the sector size, number of sectors per track, number of tracks per side, the number of disk platters in the drive. Changes in any of these factors would not double the size. Sector sizes were set as powers of two for convenience in processing, it was a natural extension to give the capacity of a disk drive in multiples of the sector size, giving a mix of decimal and binary multiples when expressing total disk capacity.
Depending on compression methods and file format, a megabyte of data can be: a 1 megapixel bitmap image with 256 colors stored without any compression. A 4 megapixel JPEG image with normal compression. 1 minute of 128 kbit/s MP3 compressed music. 6 seconds of uncompressed CD audio. A typical English book volume in plain text format; the human genome consists of DNA representing 800 MB of data. The parts that differentiate one person from another can be compressed to 4 MB. Timeline of binary prefixes Gigabyte § Consumer confusion Historical Notes About The Cost Of Hard Drive Storage Space the megabyte International Electrotechnical Commission definitions IEC prefixes and symbols for binary multiples