The Apple IIGS, the fifth and most powerful of the Apple II family, is a 16-bit personal computer produced by Apple Computer, Inc. While featuring the Macintosh look and feel, resolution and color similar to the Commodore Amiga and Atari ST, it remains compatible with earlier Apple II models; the "GS" in the name stands for "Graphics and Sound," referring to its enhanced multimedia hardware its state of the art audio. The microcomputer is a radical departure from any previous Apple II, with its 65C816 16-bit microprocessor, direct access to megabytes of RAM, mouse, it was the first computer produced by Apple to use a color graphical user interface and Apple Desktop Bus interface for keyboards and other input devices. It is the first personal computer to have a wavetable synthesis chip, utilizing technology from Ensoniq; the IIGS set forth a promising future and evolutionary advancement of the Apple II line, but Apple focused on the Macintosh platform. The IIGS clock speed was intentionally limited below the maximum for the 65C816 so the system would not outperform the Macintosh.
The IIGS outsold all other Apple products, including the Macintosh, during its first year in production. Apple ceased IIGS production in December 1992; the Apple IIGS made significant improvements over previous machines from the line such as the Apple IIe and Apple IIc. It emulates its predecessors by utilizing a custom chip called the Mega II and used the new Western Design Center 65C816 16-bit microprocessor running at 2.8 MHz, faster than the 8-bit NMOS 6502 and CMOS 65C02 processors used in the earlier Apple II models. Use of the 65C816 allows the IIGS to address more RAM; the use of a 2.8 MHz clock was a marketing decision intended to limit the IIGS's performance to a level lower than that of the Macintosh, a decision that had a critical effect on the IIGS's success. The IIGS includes enhanced graphics and sound, which led to its GS name, its graphical capabilities are the best of the Apple II series, with new higher resolution video modes. These include a 640×200-pixel mode with 2-bit color and a 320×200-pixel mode with 4-bit color, both of which can select 4 or 16 colors at a time from a palette of 4,096 colors.
By changing the palette on each scanline, it is possible to display up to 256 colors or more per screen, quite seen within games and graphic design software during this computer's heyday. Through some clever programming, it is possible to make the IIGS display as many as 3,200 colors at once; when first introduced, Apple's user interface known as MouseDesk and the IIGS System Demo were both in black and white only. Users did not see color until an application. Audio is generated by a built-in sound-and-music synthesizer in the form of the Ensoniq 5503 digital oscillator chip, which has its own dedicated RAM and 32 separate channels of sound; these channels are paired to produce 15 voices in stereo audio. Although Apple had hoped that the IIc would outsell the IIe, the latter was more popular because of its slots; the IIGS supports both 5.25-inch and 3.5-inch floppy disks and, like the IIe before it, has several expansion slots. These include seven general-purpose expansion slots compatible with those on the Apple II, II+, IIe, plus a memory expansion slot that can be used to add up to 8 MB of RAM.
The IIGS, like the IIc has dedicated ports for external devices. These include a port to attach more floppy disk drives, two serial ports for devices such as printers and modems, an Apple Desktop Bus port to connect the keyboard and mouse, composite and RGB video ports; these ports are associated with the slots, so for example using a card in slot 1 means that the printer port is disabled. The machine features a user-adjustable control panel and real-time clock, which are maintained by a built-in battery; the IIGS supports booting from an AppleShare server, via the AppleTalk protocol, over LocalTalk cabling. When the Apple IIe Workstation Card was introduced, this capability was given to the IIe; this was over a decade before NetBoot offered the same capability to computers running Mac OS 8 and beyond. In addition to supporting all graphics modes of previous Apple II models, the Apple IIGS introduced several new ones through a custom video graphics chip, all of which use a 12-bit palette for a total of 4,096 possible colors, though not all colors can appear onscreen at the same time.
320×200 pixels with a single palette of 16 colors. 320×200 pixels with up to 16 palettes of 16 colors. In this mode, the VGC holds 16 separate palettes of 16 colors in its own memory; each of the 200 scan lines can be assigned any one of these palettes allowing for up to 256 colors on the screen at once. 320×200 pixels with up to 200 palettes of 16 colors. In this mode, the CPU assists the VGC in swapping palettes into and out of the video memory so that each scan line can have its own palette of 16 colors allowing for up to 3,200 colors on the screen at once. 320×200 pixels with 15 colors per palette, plus a fill-mode color. In this mode, color 0 in the palette is replaced by the last non-zero color pixel displayed on the scan line, allowing fast solid-fill graphics. 640×200 pixels with 4 pure colors. 640×200 pixels with up to 16 palettes of 4 pure colors. In this mode, the VGC holds 16 separate palettes of 4 pure colors in its own memory; each of the 200 scan lines can be assigned any one of these palett
Apple II Plus
The Apple II Plus is the second model of the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer, Inc. It was sold from June 1979 to December 1982. 380,000 II Pluses were sold during its four years in production before being replaced by the IIe in 1983. The Apple II Plus shipped with 16 KB, 32 KB or 48 KB of main RAM, expandable to 64 KB by means of the Language Card, an expansion card that could be installed in the computer's slot 0; the Apple's 6502 microprocessor could support a maximum of 64 KB of address space, a machine with 48KB RAM reached this limit because of the additional 12 KB of read-only memory and 4 KB of I/O addresses. For this reason, the extra RAM in the language card was bank-switched over the machine's built-in ROM, allowing code loaded into the additional memory to be used as if it were ROM. Users could thus load Integer BASIC into the language card from disk and switch between the Integer and Applesoft dialects of BASIC with DOS 3.3's INT and FP commands just as if they had the BASIC ROM expansion card.
The Language Card was required to use LOGO, Apple Pascal, FORTRAN 77. Apple Pascal and FORTRAN ran under a non-DOS operating system based on UCSD P-System, which had its own disk format and included a "virtual machine" that allowed it to run on many different types of hardware. First-year Apple II Pluses retained the original Apple II's jumper blocks to select the RAM size, but a drop in memory prices during 1980 resulted in all machines being shipped with 48k and the jumper blocks being removed. Shortly after the introduction of the II Plus in 1979, Microsoft came out with the Z-80 SoftCard, an expansion card for the Apple II line that allowed the use of CP/M and contained its own Z80 CPU and logic to adapt the Z80 CPU to the Apple bus; the SoftCard was popular and Microsoft's single most successful product for two years, although on the downside, it was limited to using the Apple II's GCR disk format and thus CP/M software either had to be obtained on Apple format disks or transferred via serial link from a different machine running CP/M.
The SoftCard shipped with CP/M 2.2 and a special version of MBASIC that supported a subset of Applesoft BASIC's graphics commands. Other third party CP/M cards for the Apple II offered additional memory, CP/M 3.0, CPU speeds up to 8Mhz. The II Plus had the so-called "Autostart ROMs", meaning that it will attempt to boot from disk on power-up. If no system disk is present, Drive 0 will spin endlessly until the user presses Ctrl+Reset to enter Applesoft BASIC. If DOS has not been booted up, the user will only be able to load and save files to cassette from BASIC; the II Plus had a revised version of BASIC known as Applesoft II which incorporated most of the functionality from Integer BASIC, including HGR graphics commands. Most II Pluses came with a "language card"; this was different from the language card sold for the original II, which contained Applesoft BASIC in ROM. Since the II Plus had Applesoft present in the ROMs on the system board, its language card contained RAM rather than ROM and if installed will boost the system to 64k.
While on the original II, Integer BASIC resided in ROM at $E000, this area contains RAM on the II Plus if a language card is present. Integer BASIC is not in ROM on the II Plus and is instead loaded by DOS 3.x during boot up into the RAM at $D000. The RAM containing Integer BASIC is banked out and the Applesoft ROM is present at $D000. If the user types "INT", Integer BASIC is activated by swapping out the Applesoft ROM and switching in the RAM with Integer BASIC. By typing "FP", Integer BASIC is switched out and Applesoft switched back in; the machine language monitor at $F800 may be banked out for RAM. Like the Apple II, the Apple II Plus has no lowercase functionality. All letters from the keyboard are upper-case, there is no caps lock key, there are no lowercase letters in the text-mode font stored in the computer's ROM. To display lowercase letters, some applications run in the slower hi-res graphics mode and use a custom font, rather than running in the fast text mode using the font in ROM.
Other programs those where both capitalization and text movement were important, such as word processors, use inverse text mode to represent text that would be uppercase when printed. Alternatively, users can install a custom ROM chip that contained lowercase letters in the font, or purchase one of several third-party 80-column cards that enable a text mode that can display 80-column, upper- and lower-case text; the Videx Videoterm and its many clones were popular. For lowercase input, since it is not possible to detect whether the keyboard's Shift keys are in use, the common "shift-key mod" connects the Shift key to one of the pins on the motherboard's paddle connector. Compatible applications, including nearly all word processors, can detect whether the shift key was being pressed; this modification involves adding wires inside the Apple II. Most applications that support lower-case letters can use the ESC key as a substitute lowercase toggle if the modification is not installed; the Apple II Plus, like its predecessor the Apple II, features a repeat key on its keyboard.
The key is located just to the left of the "RETURN" key. The II Plus is the last Apple Computer to have this key, as Apple computers would incorporate the ability to hold down a key for a period of time to repeat the key; the II Plus has a plastic case with a brass mesh running along
The Apple II is an 8-bit home computer, one of the first successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed by Steve Wozniak. It was introduced in 1977 at the West Coast Computer Faire by Jobs and was the first consumer product sold by Apple Computer, Inc, it is the first model in a series of computers which were produced until Apple IIe production ceased in November 1993. The Apple II marks Apple's first launch of a personal computer aimed at a consumer market – branded towards American households rather than businessmen or computer hobbyists. Byte magazine referred to the Apple II, Commodore PET 2001 and the TRS-80 as the "1977 Trinity." The Apple II had the defining feature of being able to display color graphics, this capability was the reason why the Apple logo was redesigned to have a spectrum of colors. By 1976, Steve Jobs had convinced the product designer Jerry Manock to create the "shell" for the Apple II – a smooth case inspired by kitchen appliances that would conceal the internal mechanics.
The earliest Apple IIs were assembled in Silicon Valley, in Texas. The first computers went on sale on June 10, 1977 with a MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor running at 1.023 MHz, two game paddles, 4 KB of RAM, an audio cassette interface for loading programs and storing data, the Integer BASIC programming language built into the ROMs. The video controller displays 24 lines by 40 columns of monochrome, uppercase-only text on the screen, with NTSC composite video output suitable for display on a TV monitor, or on a regular TV set by way of a separate RF modulator; the original retail price of the computer was $1,298 and $2,638. To reflect the computer's color graphics capability, the Apple logo on the casing has rainbow stripes, which remained a part of Apple's corporate logo until early 1998. Most the Apple II was a catalyst for personal computers across many industries. In the May 1977 issue of Byte, Steve Wozniak published a detailed description of his design; this arrangement eliminated the need for a separate refresh circuit for the DRAM chips, as the video transfer accessed each row of the dynamic memory within the timeout period.
In addition, it did not require separate RAM chips for the video RAM, while the PET and TRS-80 had SRAMs for the video. Rather than use a complex analog-to-digital circuit to read the outputs of the game controller, Wozniak used a simple timer circuit whose period is proportional to the resistance of the game controller, used a software loop to measure the timer. A single 14.31818 MHz master oscillator was divided by various ratios to produce all other required frequencies, including the microprocessor clock signals, the video transfer counters, the color-burst samples. The text and graphics screens have a complex arrangement. For instance, the scanlines were not stored in sequential areas of memory; this complexity was due to Wozniak's realization that the method would allow for the refresh of the dynamic RAM as a side effect. This method had no cost overhead to have software calculate or look up the address of the required scanline and avoided the need for significant extra hardware. In the high-resolution graphics mode, color is determined by pixel position and thus can be implemented in software, saving Wozniak the chips needed to convert bit patterns to colors.
This allowed for subpixel font rendering, since orange and blue pixels appear half a pixel-width farther to the right on the screen than green and purple pixels. The Apple II at first used data cassette storage like most other microcomputers of the time. In 1978, the company introduced an external 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive, the Disk II, attached via a controller card that plugs into one of the computer's expansion slots; the Disk II interface, created by Wozniak, is regarded as an engineering masterpiece for its economy of electronic components. The approach taken in the Disk II controller is typical of Wozniak's designs. With a few small-scale logic chips and a cheap PROM, he created a functional floppy disk interface at a fraction of the component cost of standard circuit configurations. Steve Jobs extensively pushed to give the Apple II a case that looked visually appealing and sellable to people outside of electronics hobbyists, rather than the generic wood and metal boxes typical of early microcomputers.
The result was a futuristic-looking molded white plastic case. Jobs paid close attention to the keyboard design and decided to use dark brown keycaps as it contrasted well with the case; the first production Apple IIs had hand-molded cases. In addition, the initial case design ha
Power Macintosh 9500
The Power Macintosh 9500 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from May 1995 to February 1997. It is powered by a PowerPC 604 processor, a second-generation PowerPC chip, faster than the PowerPC 601 chip used in the Power Macintosh 8100; the 180MP and 200 MHz models, introduced August 1996, use the enhanced PowerPC 604e processor. MacWorld Magazine gave the 9500 a positive review, concluding that it is "not the second-generation Power Mac for the rest of us — it's too pricey.... But it is an excellent foundation for a high-end graphics workstation — for color publishing or media production, its speed and expandability should made it popular in the scientific and technical markets." Their benchmarks showed that the 9500 overcame the Quadra 950's performance deficit when running older Mac software in the Mac 68k emulator, posting speeds twice as fast as the Quadra 900. The 9500 was replaced by the Power Macintosh 9600; the 9500 includes several technological firsts for Apple.
The CPU is connected via a daughterboard, so can be swapped easily. Available were single-processor cards ranging from 120 to 200 MHz, a dual processor card with two 180 MHz CPUs; this is the first Macintosh to use the PCI standard, with six PCI slots available -- one of which must be used for a graphics card. Infoworld's Anita Epler noted that "Because most multimedia developers don't use the onboard video found on previous Mac models, Apple wisely economized by leaving it out. Users can purchase their own PCI graphics card or opt for Apple's 64-bit accelerated PCI video board with 2 MB of VRAM as an optional accessory."The 9500 is the first computer from Apple to support 168-pin DIMM memory modules, the 512KB of on-board 128-bit-wide cache utilizes copy-back instead of write-through, offering faster speeds than prior Macintosh models, as well as the ability to install single modules. The logic board has a total of 12 memory slots; when it was introduced, 64 MB DIMMs were the largest available on the market, making for a maximum memory limit of 768 MB.
Companies like Advantage Memory were selling DIMMs of this size for $3,900 USD each. 128 MB DIMMs were introduced in 1995, offering a theoretical limit of 1.5 GB memory, though System 7.5.2 is unable to use more than 1 GB of memory. Some other firsts for a Macintosh include a regular 10BASE-T ethernet port alongside the AAUI port, as well as support for the new SCSI-2 Fast standard, a 4X CD-ROM; the basic design of the logic board, called "Tsunami", was used by various Macintosh clone makers as a reference design and a modified version was used in the non-Macintosh Apple Network Server series. Utilizing a third-party G4 CPU upgrade and the XPostFacto installation utility it is possible to run up to Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard" on a 9500, making it the oldest model capable of running Mac OS X. Included as standard with all models are 16 MB RAM, 1 GB HDD, AppleCD 600i 4x CD-ROM. Introduced May 1, 1995: Power Macintosh 9500/120 Power Macintosh 9500/132: 132 MHz CPU, 2 GB HDD. Introduced October 2, 1995: Power Macintosh 9515/132: Same as the 9500/132, sold in Europe and Asia.
Introduced April 22, 1996: Power Macintosh 9500/150: 150 MHz CPU, 16 or 32 MB RAM, 2 GB HDD. Introduced August 5, 1996: Power Macintosh 9500/180MP: Two 180 MHz PowerPC 604e CPUs, 16 or 32 MB RAM, 2 GB HDD, AppleCD 1200i 8x CD-ROM. Power Macintosh 9500/200:, 16 or 32 MB RAM, 2 GB HDD, AppleCD 1200i 8x CD-ROM. Low End Mac's Power Macintosh 9500 page
NuBus is a 32-bit parallel computer bus developed at MIT and standardized in 1987 as a part of the NuMachine workstation project. The first complete implementation of the NuBus was done by Western Digital for their NuMachine, for the Lisp Machines Inc. LMI Lambda; the NuBus was incorporated in Lisp products by Texas Instruments, used as the main expansion bus by Apple Computer and NeXT. It is no longer used outside the embedded market. Early microcomputer buses like S-100 were just connections to the pins of the microprocessor and to the power rails; this meant that a change in the computer's architecture led to a new bus as well. Looking to avoid such problems in the future, NuBus was designed to be independent of the processor, its general architecture and any details of its I/O handling. Among its many advanced features for the era, NuBus used a 32-bit backplane when 8- or 16-bit busses were common; this was seen as making the bus "future-proof", as it was believed that 32-bit systems would arrive in the near future while 64-bit buses and beyond would remain impractical and excessive.
In addition, NuBus was agnostic about the processor itself. Most buses up to this point conformed to the signalling and data standards of the machine they were plugged into. NuBus made no such assumptions, which meant that any NuBus card could be plugged into any NuBus machine, as long as there was an appropriate device driver. In order to select the proper device driver, NuBus included an ID scheme that allowed the cards to identify themselves to the host computer during startup; this meant that the user didn't have to configure the system, the bane of bus systems up to that point. For instance, with ISA the driver had to be configured not only for the card, but for any memory it required, the interrupts it used, so on. NuBus required no such configuration, making it one of the first examples of plug-and-play architecture. On the downside, while this flexibility made NuBus much simpler for the user and device driver authors, it made things more difficult for the designers of the cards themselves.
Whereas most "simple" bus systems were supported with a handful of input/output chips designed to be used with that CPU in mind, with NuBus every card and computer had to convert everything to a platform-agnostic "NuBus world". This meant adding a NuBus controller chip between the bus and any I/O chips on the card, increasing costs. While this is a trivial exercise today, one that all newer buses require, in the 1980s NuBus was considered complex and expensive; the NuBus became a standard in 1987 as IEEE 1196. This version used a standard 96-pin three-row connector, running the system on a 10 MHz clock for a maximum burst throughput of 40 MB/s and average speeds of 10 to 20 MB/s. A addition, NuBus 90, increased the clock rate to 20 MHz for better throughput, burst increasing to about 70 MB/s, average to about 30 MB/s; the NuBus was first developed commercially in the Western Digital NuMachine, first used in a production product by their licensee, Lisp Machines, Inc. in the LMI-Lambda, a Lisp Machine.
The project and the development group was sold by Western Digital to Texas Instruments in 1984. The technology was incorporated into their TI Explorer a Lisp Machine. In 1986, Texas Instruments used the NuBus in the S1500 multiprocessor UNIX system. Both Texas Instruments and Symbolics developed Lisp Machine NuBus boards based on their Lisp supporting microprocessors; these NuBus boards were co-processor Lisp Machines for the Apple Macintosh line. NuBus was selected by Apple Computer for use in their Macintosh II project, where its plug-n-play nature fit well with the Mac philosophy of ease-of-use, it was used in most of the Macintosh II series that made up the professional-level Mac lineup from the late 1980s. It was used into the mid-1990s. Early Quadras only supported the 20 MHz rate when two cards were talking to each other, since the motherboard controller was not upgraded; this was addressed in the NuBus implementation on the 660AV and 840AV models. This improved NuBus controller was used in the first generation Power Macintosh 6100, 7100 and 8100 models.
Power Mac models adopted Intel's PCI bus. Apple's NuBus implementation used pin and socket connectors on the back of the card rather than edge connectors with Phillips screws inside the case that most cards use, making it much easier to install cards. Apple's computers supplied an always-on +5 V "trickle" power supply for tasks such as watching the phone line while the computer was turned off; this was part of an unapproved NuBus standard. NuBus was selected by NeXT Computer for their line of machines, but used a different physical PCB layout. NuBus appears to have seen little use outside these roles, when Apple switched to PCI in the mid 1990s, NuBus disappeared. Amiga Zorro II Industry Standard Architecture Extended Industry Standard Architecture Micro Channel architecture VESA Local Bus Peripheral Component Interconnect Accelerated Graphics Port PCI Express List of device bandwidths NuBus specs Developing for the Macintosh NuBus Pictures of several NuBus cards at applefritter
Power Macintosh 7100
The Power Macintosh 7100 is a personal computer, designed and sold by Apple Computer Inc. from March 1994 to January 1996. It is the mid-range machine of the first generation of Power Macintosh line, between the Power Macintosh 6100 and the 8100; the 7100 re-used the Macintosh IIvx case with few changes. There were two versions of the 7100; the 7100 was succeeded in August 1995 by two new models, the Power Macintosh 7200 and the Power Macintosh 7500, though sales of the 7100 continued into early 1996. The 7100AV variants include a 2 MB VRAM card with S-Video in/out; the non-AV 7100s have a video card containing 1 MB VRAM, expandable to 2MB, no S-Video in/out capability. Apple did not release a "DOS Compatible" card for the 7100 as they had for some contemporary Macintosh Quadra models, opting instead to offer the 7100 bundled with the SoftWindows emulator at a price of $385. With an optional 256KB L2 cache card installed, MacWorld Magazine determined that the performance is comparable to 25 MHz Intel 80486SX.
Introduced March 14, 1994: Power Macintosh 7100/66: No L2 cache. $2,650 USD. Power Macintosh 7100/66AV: $3,450. Introduced January 3, 1995: Power Macintosh 7100/80: 256KB L2 cache. Power Macintosh 7100/80AV The Power Macintosh 7100's internal code name was "Carl Sagan", one of the three "fraud" code names referring to the PowerPC processor pretending to be a 68000. Though the project name was internal, it was revealed to the public in a 1993 issue of MacWeek. Sagan, worried that the public might interpret this as an endorsement which sullied his name contacted Apple and threatened to sue unless they could prove the codename did not link to his intellectual property and identity. After they refused, he wrote a letter to the editor that appeared in a 1994 issue of MacWeek, seeking to inform their readers of the situation. Following the letter, a rogue programmer at Apple renamed the project to "BHA". Sagan sued Apple for libel over the new name, but since the codename was internal he lost his case.
Sagan continued pursuing lawsuits. When he sued Apple again, this time for the original use of his name, he lost this suit as well. Sagan and Apple not wishing to engage in a series of lawsuits over the issue, came to an out-of-court agreement in November 1995, leading to Apple making a statement of apology; the engineers on the project made a third and final name change from "BHA" to "LAW", short for "Lawyers are Wimps". Apple-history.com:: Power Macintosh 7100
Power Mac G4
The Power Mac G4 is a series of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1999 to 2004 as part of the Power Macintosh line. Built around the PowerPC G4 series of microprocessors, the Power Mac G4 was marketed by Apple as the first "personal supercomputers", reaching speeds of 4 to 20 gigaFLOPS; this was the first existing Macintosh product to be shortened as "Mac", is the last Mac able to boot into classic Mac OS. The enclosure style introduced with the Power Macintosh G3 was retained through its entire five year production run of the Power Mac G4, albeit with significant changes to match Apple's evolving industrial design and to accommodate increasing cooling needs; the G4 and the enclosure were retired with the introduction of the Power Mac G5. The original Power Mac G4 was introduced at the Seybold conference in San Francisco on August 31, 1999. There were two variants titled Power Mac G4 with 400 MHz, 450 MHz and 500 MHz configurations available, Power Mac G4, with 350 MHz and 400 MHz configurations.
Colloquially, this generation of Power Mac is referred to as "Graphite", owing to the colors of the case being similar to the iMac G3 Graphite. Apple planned to ship the 500 MHz configuration in October 1999, but they were forced to postpone this because of poor yield of the CPUs. In response, Apple reduced the clock speed of the processor in each configuration by 50 MHz, which caused some controversy because they did not lower the original prices; the early 400 MHz PCI-based version used a motherboard identical to the one used in Power Macintosh G3 computers including the use of Zero Insertion Force processors sockets, in a "graphite" colored case and with the new Motorola PowerPC 7400 CPU. The higher-speed models, code name "Sawtooth", used a modified motherboard design with AGP 2x graphics; the PCI variant was discontinued at the end of 1999. The machines featured DVD-ROM drives as standard; the 400 MHz and 450 MHz versions had 100 MB Zip drives as standard equipment, as an option on the 350 MHz Sawtooth.
This series had a 100 MHz system bus and four PC100 SDRAM slots for up to 2 GB of RAM. The AGP Power Macs were the first to include an AirPort slot and DVI video port; the computers could house a total of three hard drives, two 128 GB ATA hard drives and up to a single 20GB SCSI hard drive, with the installation of a SCSI card. The 500 MHz version was reintroduced on February 16, 2000, accompanied by 400 MHz and 450 MHz models. DVD-RAM and Zip drives featured on these 450 MHz and 500 MHz versions and were an option on the 400 MHz; the Power Mac G4 model was introduced at Macworld Expo New York on July 19, 2000. It was the first personal computer to include gigabit Ethernet as standard. Most people saw this revision as a stopgap release; the dual 500 MHz models featured DVD-RAM optical drive. Zip drives were optional on all models; these models introduced Apple's proprietary Apple Display Connector video port. A new line with a revamped motherboard but the familiar "Graphite" case debuted on January 9, 2001.
Known as the Power Mac G4, it is in effect a Quicksilver design inside the Graphite enclosure. Motorola had added a seventh pipeline stage in the new PowerPC G4 design to achieve faster clock frequencies. New features included a fourth PCI slot, a 133 MHz system bus, an improved 4X AGP slot, a new "digital audio" Tripath Class T amplifier sound system; the models were offered in 466 MHz, 533 MHz, dual 533 MHz, 667 MHz and 733 MHz configurations, the latter two using a newer PowerPC 7450 processor. The number of RAM slots was reduced to three, accommodating up to 1.5 Gigabytes of PC133 SDRAM. The 733 MHz model was the first Macintosh to include a built-in DVD-R or Apple-branded SuperDrive, the rest of the line became the first Macs to ship with CD-RW drives; this was the first series of Macs to include an Nvidia graphics card, the GeForce 2MX. At Macworld Expo New York on July 18, 2001, a new line debuted featuring a cosmetically redesigned case known as Quicksilver, various upgrades to the specifications.
It was available in 733 867 MHz and dual 800 MHz configurations. The 733 MHz model was notable for not having a level three cache; the SuperDrive was offered on the mid-range 867 MHz model, UltraATA/100 hard drives were offered on all models. The internal speaker received an upgrade. Quicksilver received criticism in MacWorld's review for removing the "eject" button and the manual eject pinhole, as well as the pass-through monitor power plug, for the base specification of 128 MB RAM as being insufficient for running Mac OS X. Updated Quicksilver machines named Power Mac G4, were introduced on January 28, 2002 with 800 MHz, 933 MHz and dual 1 GHz configurations; this was the first Mac. Again, the low end 800 MHz model did not include any level three cache; the graphics in this series were provided by an Nvidia GeForce4 MX400 card. Some of these models have ATA controllers with 48 bit LBA for hard drives larger than 128 GB. Another generation of Apple Power Mac G4s named "Mirrored Drive Doors", was introduced on August 13, 2002, featuring both a new Xserve-derived DDR motherboard architecture and a new case design.