Koichi Sakamoto is a Japanese-born stunt actor, producer for films and television. He is best known for his work as executive producer, as well as fight coordinator and frequent director, for the long running Power Rangers franchise. Sakamoto graduated from Adachi ward Higashiayase junior high and high school, went on to graduate from Matsudo Senshu University. A fan of Jackie Chan and Super Sentai, Sakamoto worked to become a stunt performer for Blue Mask on Hikari Sentai Maskman at live stunt shows, performing at Kōrakuen Stadium and Tokyo Dome, he became a stunt actor. His first major stunt role was in 1994 with Guyver: Dark Hero as "Sakai." Sakamoto married the film's unit production manager, Tamara Noland with whom they had one daughter, prior to their separating. He went on to marry stuntwoman and suit actor Motoko Nagino in 2002. Sakamoto had formed Alpha Stunts Production and was enlisted as 2nd Unit Director for the "battle grid" scenes from Saban Entertainment syndicated live-action children's series VR Troopers.
This led him to replacing Jeff Pruitt as stunt coordinator for the third season of Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, along with his Alpha Stunts team. Sakamoto would go on to become the 2nd Unit Director for the remainder of the Saban-era Power Rangers series filling the role of Producer completing the final storyboard for "Countdown to Destruction", the two-part series finale episode of Power Rangers in Space. Sakamoto became one of the few original crew members from MMPR Productions to remain with the production following its move to New Zealand in 2003 when the franchise was transferred from Saban Entertainment to Disney. Sakamoto was replaced as stunt coordinator by Mark Harris, although continued directing through Ninja Storm and thereafter stayed on as executive producer, no longer choreographing or directing. Disney stopped producing new seasons following Power Rangers RPM selling the franchise to Saban Brands. In 2010. In 2011, Sakamoto returned as an action director for Power Rangers Samurai, which premiered in 2011.
Sakamoto and Alpha Stunts were scapegoated by producer and writer and showrunner Bruce Kalish for the heavy use of pyrotechnics in incarnations of the franchise from 2005 through 2008. Kalish maintains he had little to do with them and blaming Sakamoto, despite Mark Harris being the responsible party to their direction and choreography. In 2006, Sakamoto served as choreographer in Wendy Wu: Homecoming Warrior, he trained The Jonas Brothers for a week and a half in preparation for filming J. O. N. A. S. In 2008, Sakamoto and the Alpha Stunts team provided stunt training for the reality TV series Tankboy TV. Sakamoto went on to do tokusatsu TV shows and films for Toei and Tsuburaya, including Kaizoku Sentai Gokaiger, Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger, Kamen Rider Fourze, Kamen Rider × Kamen Rider Fourze & OOO: Movie War Mega Max, Kamen Rider W Forever: A to Z/The Gaia Memories of Fate, Mega Monster Battle: Ultra Galaxy and Travelers: Jigen Keisatsu. Sakamoto is known for adding elements of Hong Kong-style martial arts and stunts into traditional tokusatsu weapons battles and effects.
Sakamoto has made a guest appearance in Season 2 of Unofficial Sentai Akibaranger. As director: Wicked Game Devon's Ghost: Legend of the Bloody Boy Broken Path Mega Monster Battle: Ultra Galaxy Kamen Rider W Kamen Rider W Forever: A to Z/The Gaia Memories of Fate Kaizoku Sentai Gokaiger Kamen Rider W Returns Kamen Rider Fourze Kamen Rider × Kamen Rider Fourze & OOO: Movie War Mega Max Kamen Rider Fourze the Movie: Space, Here We Come! Kamen Rider × Kamen Rider Wizard & Fourze: Movie War Ultimatum Travelers: Jigen Keisatsu 009-1: The End of the Beginning Innocent Lilies Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger: Gaburincho of Music Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger vs. Go-Busters: The Great Dinosaur Battle! Farewell Our Eternal Friends Girl's Blood Ultraman Ginga S Uchuu Keiji Sharivan NEXT GENERATION Uchuu Keiji Shaider NEXT GENERATION Ultra Fight Victory Gunblade Ultraman X Kamen Rider Ghost Kamen Rider Ex-Aid Hurricane Polymar Power Rangers Dino Force Brave/Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger Brave Space Squad Ultraman Geed Uchuu Sentai Kyuranger: Episode of Stinger As actor Unofficial Sentai Akibaranger as George Spielburton Koichi Sakamoto on IMDb Alpha Stunts - Sakamoto's stunt company
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Saint Lucia is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. The island was called Iyonola, the name given to the island by the native Amerindians and Hewanorra, the name given by the native Caribs. Part of the Lesser Antilles, it is located north/northeast of the island of Saint Vincent, northwest of Barbados and south of Martinique, it reported a population of 165,595 in the 2010 census. Its capital is Castries; the French were the island's first European settlers. They signed a treaty with the native Island Caribs in 1660. England took control of the island from 1663 to 1667. In ensuing years, it was at war with France fourteen times, the rule of the island changed frequently. In 1814, the British took definitive control of the island; because it switched so between British and French control, Saint Lucia was known as the "Helen of the West Indies" after the Greek mythology "Helen of Troy". Representative government came about in 1840.
From 1958 to 1962, the island was a member of the West Indies Federation. On 22 February 1979, Saint Lucia became an independent state and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Saint Lucia is a mixed jurisdiction, meaning that it has a legal system based in part on both the civil law and English common law; the Civil Code of St. Lucia of 1867 was based on the Quebec Civil Code of 1866, as supplemented by English common law-style legislation, it is a member of Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Christopher Columbus may have sighted the island during his fourth voyage in 1502, since he made landfall on Martinique, yet he does not mention the island in his log. Juan de la Cosa noted the island on his map of 1500, calling it El Falcon, another island to the south Las Agujas. A Spanish cédula from 1511 mentions the island within the Spanish domain, a globe in the Vatican made in 1520, shows the island as Sancta Lucia. A 1529 Spanish map shows S. Luzia. One of the Windward Islands, Saint Lucia was named after Saint Lucy of Syracuse.
It is the only country in the world named after a historical woman. Legend states French sailors were shipwrecked here on 13 December, the feast day of St. Lucy, thus naming the island in honor of Sainte Lucie. In the late 1550s, the French pirate François le Clerc set up a camp on Pigeon Island, from where he attacked passing Spanish ships. In 1605, an English vessel called the Oliphe Blossome was blown off-course on its way to Guyana, the 67 colonists started a settlement on Saint Lucia, after being welcomed by the Carib chief Anthonie. By 26 September 1605, only 19 survived, after continued attacks by the Carib chief Augraumart, so they fled the island. In 1664, Thomas Warner claimed Saint Lucia for England, he brought 1,000 men to defend it from the French, but after two years, only 89 survived with the rest dying due to disease. In 1666, the French West India Company resumed control of the island, which in 1674 was made an official French crown colony as a dependency of Martinique. Both the British and the French found the island attractive after the sugar industry developed, during the 18th century the island changed ownership or was declared neutral territory a dozen times, although the French settlements remained and the island was a de facto French colony well into the eighteenth century.
In 1722, George I of Great Britain granted both Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent to The 2nd Duke of Montagu. He in turn appointed a merchant sea captain and adventurer, as deputy-governor. Uring went to the islands with a group of seven ships, established settlement at Petit Carenage. Unable to get enough support from British warships, he and the new colonists were run off by the French. During the Seven Years' War, Britain occupied Saint Lucia for a year. Britain handed the island back to the French at the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Like the English and Dutch on other islands, the French began to develop the land for the cultivation of sugar cane as a commodity crop on large plantations in 1765. In January 1791, during the French Revolution, the National Assembly sent four commissaries to St. Lucia to spread the revolution philosophy. By August 1791, slaves began to abandon their estates and Governor de Gimat fled. In December 1792, Lt. Jean-Baptiste Raymond de Lacrosse arrived with revolutionary pamphlets, the impoverished whites and free people of color began to arm themselves as patriots.
On 1 February 1793, France declared war on England and Holland, General Nicolas Xavier de Ricard took over as Governor. The National Convention abolished enslavement on 4 February 1794, but St. Lucia fell to a British invasion led by Vice Admiral John Jervis on 1 April 1794. Morne Fortune became Fort Charlotte. Soon, a patriot army of resistance, L'Armee Francaise dans les Bois, began to fight back, thus started the First Brigand War. A short time the British invaded the island as a part of the broken out war with France. On 21 February 1795 and a group of locals under the nominal control of Victor Hugues defeated a battalion of British troops at Vieux Fort and Rabot. In 1796, Castries was burned as part of the conflict. General John Moore retook Fort Charlotte in 1796 with the 27th Inniskilling Fusiliers after two days of bitter fighting; as an honour, the Fusiliers' regimental colour was displayed on the flagstaff of the captured fortress at Morne Fortune for an hour before be
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
GoGo Sentai Boukenger
GoGo Sentai Boukenger is the 30th series in Toei's Super Sentai series, a metaseries of Japanese tokusatsu programming. It is the first installment to be broadcast in 16:9 aspect ratio, it premiered on February 2006 at 7:30 a.m. on TV Asahi. Its footage was used in the American series, Power Rangers Operation Overdrive, while the original footage was dubbed into Korean for the South Korean series, Power Rangers Treasure Force. Powerful relics known as Precious have started to appear throughout the world. However, the various Negative Syndicates wish to take the Precious for themselves and utilize them for evil means. To make sure that the Precious do not fall into the hands of the Negative Syndicates, the Search Guard Successor Foundation has developed its own special operations team, the Boukengers, to do battle and collect some of the more dangerous Precious; the Search Guard Successor Foundation collects the Precious with help from the Boukengers. The Boukengers are Satoru Akashi The Fiery Adventurer, as Bouken Red he drives GoGo Dump and leads the team with a calm expression and a fire in his heart.
He battles against Ryuoon of the Jyaryu Tribe. Masumi Inou The Fast Adventurer, as Bouken Black he drives GoGo Formula, a racecar-like vehicle, is only part of the Boukengers to pay his debt back to Akashi for saving his life, he has a personal vendetta against Yaiba of Darkness of Dark Shadow. Souta Mogami The High-Up Adventurer, as Bouken Blue he drives GoGo Gyro, an airplane-like vehicle, serves as the team's information specialist, he finds himself fighting Shizuka of the Wind of Dark Shadow. Natsuki Mamiya The Strong Adventurer, as Bouken Yellow she drives GoGo Dozer, a giant bulldozer, is the most childish of the group, her main reason to adventure was to discover more about her own past. It is revealed that she is the last survivor of the Lemurian civilization. Sakura Nishihori The Deep Adventurer, as Bouken Pink she drives GoGo Marine, a giant submarine, is the most serious member of the team when it comes to work, she appears to be cold and emotionless, but cares for her teammates. Eiji Takaoka The Dazzling Adventurer, as Bouken Silver he drives GoGo Fire and serves as the spiritually strongest of the team because his father, the Ashu Watcher Karato wed with the Ashu Kei, making Eiji half-Ashu.
He battles against Gai due to their bitter history. In Boukenger vs. Super Sentai, he embodies Hope, they are led by Mister Voice, who serves as a liaison to the main S. G. S. Headquarters, they are assisted by Makino Morino, the technical specialist of S. G. S. and creator of the GoGo Vehicles, the mecha of the Boukengers. Kyoko One of Satoru's ex-partners who went on an expedition with him years ago. While searching for a Precious, Satoru accidentally set off a trap which created a ring of fire that neither she nor Masaki could escape and Satoru could not reach them. Satoru swore to get help and rescue them, but the trap triggered an explosion, killing Kyoko and Masaki before Satoru could leave to find help. Portrayed by Miki Handa. Shiro Masaki One of Satoru's ex-partners who went on an expedition with him years ago. While searching for a Precious, Satoru accidentally set off a trap which created a ring of fire that neither he nor Kyoko could escape and Satoru could not reach them. Satoru swore to get help and rescue them, but the trap triggered an explosion, killing Kyoko and Masaki before Satoru could leave to find help.
On, Ley tricked Satoru into believing that Gai was Masaki, still alive, so he could shoot him with the Soldier's Crossbow. Satoru saw through the illusion and went on. Portrayed by Yusuke Murakami. Phantom Thief Selene She had been seeking the treasures from The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter, crossing the Jyaryu Tribe while getting her fourth treasure, the Dragon's Neck Orb, she had all but one when she ran into Souta, who returned to protect her against Wicked Dragon Lindom when she attempted to get the Potion of Immortality. It was shown in the end. Portrayed by Nana Yanagisawa, who portrayed Megumi Aso in Kamen Rider Kiva. Magi An elder from the Water Metropolis who didn't want to see any more of his people perish in the search for the Aqua Crystal. Turned Ragi's section of the Crystal Document into water, but Satoru remembered it from earlier and helped Ragi find the Crystal. Magi soon give Ragi his blessing. Ragi and Magi were reunited. Portrayed by Mike Maki, who portrayed Mondo Tatsumi in Kyuukyuu Sentai GoGoFive.
Ragi Magi's apprentice. Once a "Water human", he was intend to finish what his father started to restore the Water Metropolis, he sacrificed his humanity in order to survive without water by discarding the "Proof of Water" crystal on his tiara and was transformed into a Wicked Dragon by Ryuoon, who used him to find the Aqua Crystal. He could not regain his composure. Ragi was able to free the Aqua Cystal from a volcano and his transformation paid off. After Naga was terminated by Ultimate DaiBouken, Ragi put the Aqua Crystal in its rightful place and returned to the City of Water, couldn't step into the sea waters until Satoru gave him the new crystal forged from the shattered remains of his father's Proof of Water as a thanks for the "greatest adventure". R
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula