The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess
The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess is an action-adventure game developed and published by Nintendo for the Wii and GameCube home video game consoles. It is the thirteenth installment in The Legend of Zelda series. Planned for release on the GameCube in November 2005, Twilight Princess was delayed by Nintendo to allow its developers to refine the game, add more content, port it to the Wii; the Wii version was released alongside the console in North America in November 2006, in Japan and Australia the following month. The GameCube version was released worldwide in December 2006, was the final first-party game released for the console; the story focuses on series protagonist Link, who tries to prevent Hyrule from being engulfed by a corrupted parallel dimension known as the Twilight Realm. To do so, he takes the form of both a Hylian and a wolf, is assisted by a mysterious creature named Midna; the game takes place hundreds of years after Ocarina of Time and Majora's Mask, in an alternate timeline from The Wind Waker.
At the time of its release, Twilight Princess was critically acclaimed, receiving several Game of the Year awards, is considered by many critics and players to be one of the greatest video games of all time. By 2015, the game had sold 8.85 million copies worldwide, was the best selling title in the series until being overtaken by Breath of the Wild in April 2018. In 2011, the Wii version was rereleased under the Nintendo Selects label. A high-definition remaster for the Wii U, The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess HD, was released in March 2016; the Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess is an action-adventure game focused on combat and puzzle-solving. It uses the basic control scheme introduced in Ocarina of Time, including context-sensitive action buttons and L-targeting, a system that allows the player to keep Link's view focused on an enemy or important object while moving and attacking. Link can walk and attack, will automatically jump when running off of or reaching for a ledge. Link uses a sword and shield in combat, complemented with secondary weapons and items, including a bow and arrows, a boomerang, bombs.
While L-targeting, projectile-based weapons can be fired at a target without the need for manual aiming. The context-sensitive button mechanic allows one button to serve a variety of functions, such as talking, opening doors, pushing and throwing objects; the on-screen display shows what action, if any, the button will trigger, determined by the situation. For example, if Link is holding a rock, the context-sensitive button will cause Link to throw the rock if he is moving or targeting an object or enemy, or place the rock on the ground if he is standing still; the GameCube and Wii versions feature several minor differences in their controls. The Wii version of the game makes built-in speaker of the Wii Remote; the speaker emits the sounds of a bowstring when shooting an arrow, Midna's laugh when she gives advice to Link, the series' trademark "chime" when discovering secrets. The player controls Link's sword by swinging the Wii Remote. Other attacks are triggered using similar gestures with the Nunchuk.
Unique to the GameCube version is the ability for the player to control the camera without entering a special "lookaround" mode required by the Wii. The game features nine dungeons—large, contained areas where Link battles enemies, collects items, solves puzzles. Link navigates these dungeons and fights a boss at the end in order to obtain an item or otherwise advance the plot; the dungeons are connected across which Link can travel on foot. When Link enters the Twilight Realm, the void that corrupts parts of Hyrule, he transforms into a wolf, he is able to transform between his Hylian and wolf forms at will. As a wolf, Link loses the ability to use shield, or any secondary items. However, "Wolf Link" gains several key advantages in return—he moves faster than he does as a human and digs holes to create new passages and uncover buried items, has improved senses, including the ability to follow scent trails. On his back, he carries Midna, a small imp-like creature who gives him hints, uses an energy field to attack enemies, helps him jump long distances, allows him to "warp" to any of several preset locations throughout the overworld.
Using Link's wolf senses, the player can see and listen to the wandering spirits of those affected by the Twilight, as well as hunt for enemy ghosts named Poes. The artificial intelligence of enemies in Twilight Princess is more advanced than that of enemies in The Wind Waker. Enemies react to defeated companions and to arrows or slingshot pellets that pass by, can detect Link from a greater distance than was possible in previous games. There is little voice acting in the game, as is the case in most The Legend of Zelda titles to date. Link remains silent in conversation, but gasps when surprised, his emotions and responses are indicated visually by nods and facial expressions. Other characters have similar language-independent verbalizations, including laughter, surprised or fearful exclamations, screams. Midna has the most voice acting—her on-screen dialogue is accompanied by a babble of pseudo-speech, produced by scrambling English phrases sampled by Japanese voice actress Akiko Kōmoto. Twilight Princess takes place several centuri
Edge is a multi-format video game magazine published by Future plc in the United Kingdom, which publishes 13 issues of the magazine per year. The magazine was launched in October 1993 by Steve Jarratt, a long-time video games journalist who has launched several other magazines for Future; the artwork for the cover of the magazine's 100th issue was specially provided by Shigeru Miyamoto. The 200th issue was released in March 2009 with 200 different covers, each commemorating a single game. Only 200 magazines were printed with each cover, sufficient to more than satisfy Edge's circulation of 28,898. In October 2003, the then-editor of Edge, João Diniz-Sanches, left the magazine along with deputy editor David McCarthy and other staff writers. After the walkout, the editorship of Edge passed back to Tony Mott, editor prior to Diniz-Sanches; the only team member to remain was Margaret Robertson. In May 2007, Robertson stepped down as editor and was replaced by Tony Mott, taking over as editor for the third time.
Between 1995 and 2002, some of the content from the UK edition of Edge was published in the United States as Next Generation. In 2007, Future's US subsidiary, Future US began re-publishing selected recent Edge features on the Next Generation website. In July 2008, the whole site was rebranded under the Edge title, as, the senior of the two brands. In May 2014 it was reported that Future intended to close the websites of Edge and Video Games and their other videogame publications. Edge has been redesigned three times; the first redesign occurred in 1999. The first redesign altered the magazine's dimensions to be wider than the original shape; the latest design changes the magazine's physical dimensions for the second time, introduces a higher quality of paper stock than was used. Each issue includes a "Making-of" article on a particular game including an interview with one of the original developers. Issue 143 introduced the "Time Extend" series of retrospective articles. Like the "making-of" series, each focuses on a single game and, with the benefit of hindsight, gives an in-depth examination of its most interesting or innovative attributes."Codeshop" examines more technical subjects such as 3D modelling programs or physics middleware, while "Studio Profile" and "University Profile" are single-page summaries of particular developers or publishers, game-related courses at higher education institutions.
Although an overall list of contributors is printed in each issue's indicia, the magazine has not used bylines to credit individual writers to specific reviews and articles, instead only referring to the anonymous Edge as a whole. Since 2014, some contributed; the magazine's regular columnists have been credited throughout the magazine's run. The current columnists are Clint Hocking and Tadhg Kelly. In addition, several columnists appear toward the beginning of the magazine to talk about the game industry as a whole, rather than focusing on specific game design topics, they are Trigger Happy author Steven Poole, Leigh Alexander, Brian Howe, whose parody article section "You're Playing It Wrong" began with the new redesign. Previous columnists have included Paul Rose, Toshihiro Nagoshi of Sega's Amusement Vision, author Tim Guest, N'Gai Croal, game developer Jeff Minter. In addition, numerous columns were published anonymously under the pseudonym "RedEye", several Japanese writers contributed to a regular feature called "Something About Japan".
James Hutchinson's comic strip Crashlander was featured in Edge between issues 143 and 193. Edge scores games on a ten-point scale, from a minimum of 1 to a maximum of 10, with five as ostensibly the average rating. For much of the magazine's run, the magazine's review policy stated that the scores broadly correspond to one of the following "sentiments": 1 – disastrous 2 – appalling 3 – flawed 4 – disappointing 5 – average 6 – competent 7 – distinguished 8 – excellent 9 – astounding 10 – revolutionary However, with issue 143 the scoring system was changed to a simple list of "10 = ten, 9 = nine..." and so on, a tongue-in-cheek reference to people who read too much into review scores. It was three years before Edge gave a game a rating of ten out of ten, to date the score has been given to twenty-one games: In contrast, only two titles have received a one-out-of-ten rating, Kabuki Warriors and FlatOut 3: Chaos & Destruction. In a December 2002 retro gaming special, Edge retrospectively awarded ten-out-of-ten ratings to two titles released before the magazine's launch: Elite Exile Edge awarded a 10/10 score in one of the regular retrospective reviews in the magazine's normal run: Super Mario Bros.
In Edge's 10th anniversary issue in 2003, GoldenEye 007 was included as one of the magazine's top ten shooters, along with a note that it was "the only other game" that should have received a ten out of ten rating. The game had been awarded a nine out of ten, with the magazine stating that "a ten was considered, but rejected". Resident Evil 4, whi
Mortal Kombat II
Mortal Kombat II is a fighting game produced by Midway for the arcades in 1993. It was ported to multiple home systems, including the PC, Game Boy, Sega Game Gear, Sega Genesis, Sega Saturn, Super Nintendo Entertainment System, various PlayStation consoles in licensed versions developed by Probe Entertainment and Sculptured Software and published by Acclaim Entertainment. Mortal Kombat II was the second game in the Mortal Kombat series, improving the gameplay and expanding the mythos of the original Mortal Kombat, notably introducing more varied finishing moves and several iconic characters, such as Kitana, Kung Lao, Noob Saibot, the series' recurring villain, Shao Kahn; the game's plot continues from the first game, featuring the next Mortal Kombat tournament set in the otherdimensional realm of Outworld, with the Outworld and Earthrealm representatives fighting each other on their way to challenge the evil emperor Shao Kahn. The game was an unprecedented commercial success and was acclaimed by most critics, receiving many annual awards and having been featured in various top lists in the years and decades to come, caused a major video game controversy due to the series' continuous depiction of graphic violence.
Its legacy includes spawning a spin-off game Mortal Kombat: Shaolin Monks and having the greatest influence on the 2011 reboot game Mortal Kombat, as well as inspiring numerous video game clones. The gameplay system of Mortal Kombat II is an improved version of that from the original Mortal Kombat. There are several changes in standard moves: a crouching punch was added and high kicks have greater differentiation, roundhouse kicks are made more powerful, it is easier to perform combos due to reduced recovery times for attacks. Returning characters gained new special moves, including some to be used in mid-air, the game plays twice as fast as the original; as with its predecessor, matches are divided into rounds, the first player to win two rounds by depleting their opponent's life bar is the winner. Mortal Kombat II lacks the "Test Your Might" bonus games and point system from the first game, in favor of a consecutive win tally where wins are represented by icons; the game marked the introduction of multiple Fatalities as well as additional, non-lethal finishing moves to the franchise: Babalities and additional stage-specific Fatalities.
Finishing moves can not be performed neither by nor against secret characters. Following his failure to defeat Liu Kang in the previous Mortal Kombat tournament, the evil Shang Tsung begs his master Shao Kahn, supreme ruler of Outworld and the surrounding kingdoms, to spare his life, he tells Shao Kahn that if they hold the next Mortal Kombat Tournament in Outworld, the Earthrealm warriors must travel away from home to attend. Kahn agrees to this plan, restores Shang Tsung's youth and martial arts prowess, he extends the invitation to the thunder god and Earthrealm's protector, who gathers his warriors and takes them into Outworld. The new tournament is much more dangerous, as Shao Kahn has the home field advantage, an Outworld victory will allow him to subdue Earthrealm. According to the Mortal Kombat series' canon, Liu Kang won this tournament as well, defeating Shao Kahn and his bodyguard Kintaro; the game's story mode can be finished using any other playable character, resulting in different non-canonical endings for each of them.
The game includes 12 playable characters. Debuting characters: Baraka, a mutant warlord of Outworld's Nomad race, responsible for the assault on the Shaolin Monastery on the orders of Shao Kahn. Jackson "Jax" Briggs: U. S. Special Forces officer who enters the tournament to rescue his partner Sonya Blade from Outworld. Kitana, a female ninja who works as a personal assassin in the service of Shao Kahn, she has been suspected of secretly aiding the Earthrealm warriors. Kung Lao, Shaolin monk and close friend of Liu Kang, a descendant of the Great Kung Lao, he seeks to avenge the destruction of the Shaolin temple. Mileena, twin sister to Kitana who serves as an assassin for Kahn, her mission during the tournament is to ensure the loyalty of her sister, but she has plans of her own. Returning characters: Johnny Cage, Hollywood actor who joins Liu Kang in his journey to Outworld. Liu Kang, Shaolin monk, the reigning champion of Mortal Kombat, he travels to Outworld to seek vengeance for the death of his Shaolin monastery brothers.
Raiden, thunder god who returns to Mortal Kombat to stop Kahn's evil plans of taking Earthrealm for his own. Reptile, Shang Tsung's personal bodyguard. Scorpion, a hellspawned spectre who returns to t
The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild
The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild is an action-adventure game developed and published by Nintendo. An entry in the longrunning The Legend of Zelda series, it was released for the Nintendo Switch and Wii U consoles on March 3, 2017. Breath of the Wild is set at the end of the series' timeline. To the original Legend of Zelda, players are given little instruction and can explore the open world freely. Tasks include collecting multipurpose items to aid in objectives or solving puzzles and side quests for rewards. Breath of the Wild's world is unstructured and designed to reward experimentation, the story can be completed in a nonlinear fashion. Development of Breath of the Wild lasted five years. Wanting to reinvent the series, Nintendo introduced elements such as a detailed physics engine, high-definition visuals, voice acting. Monolith Soft assisted in designing landscapes; the game was planned for release in 2015 as a Wii U exclusive, but was delayed twice due to problems with the physics engine.
Breath of the Wild was a launch game for the Switch and the final Nintendo game for the Wii U. Two downloadable content packs were released in 2017. Breath of the Wild received acclaim for its open-ended gameplay and attention to detail, with many publications describing it as one of the greatest video games of all time. Critics called it a landmark in open-world design, despite minor criticism for its technical performance at launch, it won numerous awards, including several game of the year awards. By December 2018, Breath of the Wild had sold over 11.6 million copies worldwide, making it the best-selling Zelda game. Breath of the Wild is an action-adventure game set in an open world environment where players are tasked with exploring the kingdom of Hyrule while controlling Link. In terms of structure, Breath of the Wild encourages nonlinear gameplay, illustrated by the game's lack of defined entrances or exits to areas, scant instruction given to the player, encouragement to explore freely.
Breath of the Wild introduces a consistent physics engine to the Zelda series, letting players approach problems in different ways rather than trying to find a single solution. The game integrates a "chemistry engine" that defines the physical properties of most objects and governs how they interact with the player and one another. For example, players may take advantage of the game's dynamic weather by throwing metal objects at enemies during thunderstorms to attract a lightning strike. However, the level of realism offered in the "chemistry engine" means that players will attract an unavoidable fatal lightning strike if wearing any metal during thunderstorms; these design approaches result in a unstructured and interactive world that rewards experimentation and allows for nonlinear completion of the story. As Link, players can perform actions such as running, climbing and gliding with a paraglider, although Link is limited by his stamina. Link can procure items from the environment, including weapons and other resources.
Unlike previous Zelda games and shields will degrade over time. Many items have multiple uses. Players can obtain food from hunting animals, gathering wild fruit, or collecting parts of deceased enemies. By cooking combinations of food or materials, the player can create meals and elixirs that can replenish Link's health and stamina, or provide temporary status bonuses such as increased strength or weather resistance. An important tool in Link's arsenal is the "Sheikah Slate", which can be used to mark waypoints on a map. Over the course of the game, Link can collect powers to add to the Slate, including remote bombs, the ability to manipulate metal objects, form ice blocks on watery surfaces, temporarily stopping objects in time. In combat, players can lock onto targets for more precise attacks, while certain button combinations allow for advanced offensive and defensive moves. Players may defeat enemies without weapons, such as rolling boulders off cliffs into enemy camps. Besides exploration, players can undergo challenges to obtain certain benefits.
Activating towers and shrines adds waypoints. Activating towers adds territories to the map, although location names are not added until the player explores that area. Dotted throughout Hyrule are shrines that contain challenges ranging from puzzles to battles against robotic opponents. Clearing shrines earns Spirit Orbs, which can be traded for additional stamina points. Scattered across Hyrule are small puzzles that reveal Korok Seeds, which can be traded to expand inventory size for weapons and bows. Towns serve as hotspots for quests and shops selling materials and clothing. Hikers and other travelers offer hints, or conversation. Additionally, players can scan Amiibo figures against their console to summon items or call Link's horse Epona from previous Zelda games and Wolf Link from Twilight Princess. Breath of the Wild takes place at the end of the Zelda timeline in the kingdom of Hyrule; when the evil Calamity Ganon threatens Hyrule, he is defeated by Princess Zelda, descendant of the Goddess Hylia, with the help of her knight, Link.
Hyrule matured into an advanced civilization, protected by four Divine Beasts— enormous animalistic machines— and an army of Guardians, autonomous weapons. Upon Ganon's return, four great warriors were given the title of Champion and piloted one of the Divine Beasts to weaken him, protected by Zelda and the Guar
Official Xbox Magazine
Official Xbox Magazine is a monthly video game magazine which started in November 2001 around the launch of the original Xbox. A preview issue was released at E3 2001, with another preview issue in November 2001; the magazine was bundled with a disc that included game demos, preview videos and trailers, other content, such as game or Xbox updates and free gamerpics. The discs provided the software for the Xbox 360 for backward compatibility of original Xbox games for those without broadband and Xbox Live access; as of January 2012, OXM no longer includes a demo disc. In mid-2014, the U. S. version was merged into the UK version on the website, which lasted only a few months until Future plc announced that it was closing its website along with all the other websites that Future has published, including Edge and Computer and Video Games. In February 2015, OXM and all of Future's video game websites were redirected into GamesRadar; the magazine itself continues to be published in US and Australia.
On the Disc Each issue contained a demo disc with both Xbox 360 and Xbox Live Arcade games. However, beginning in January 2012, OXM stopped including demo discs, saying "You've told us you don't want the DVD anymore, we listened....". Each demo contained unlockable content like hidden demos. There was a sim-like game called'OXM Universe'. Gamers played the games on disc and viewed the videos on the disc to gain points, but only 800 points were needed for the unlockable content; the points had another use in which gamers used their points to research and build equipment for the in-game game'OXM Universe'.'OXMU' was discontinued in OXM's 100th issue. We Heart Xbox In this section, new games which were not yet shown to the mainstream public or user-modified hardware such as consoles or faceplates were shown here. Message Center Besides showing readers' mail, the OXM crew revealed their'Top 5' things on their mind at the moment. The'Top 5' tradition was broken in Issue #85 of July 2008, when the staff instead answered to the question "What's your worst habit - and do you want to break it?"
Xbox Next In this section, upcoming games were previewed. Features In this section, games may get prolonged previews, or OXM may have an exclusive 6-10 page review for a certain game. There may be special featured content like Issue #77's'HDTV Buyer's Guide'. Xbox Now This was the section where every Xbox, Xbox 360, Xbox Live Arcade game, downloadable content is reviewed. Xbox 365This section contained Xbox business articles, gaming news,'Hard Stuff','2,000 Pennies or Less', the codes of the month,'Forza Showroom', a section for competing against the OXM crew in games like Lost Planet, Halo 3, Gears of War, more,'Media Ho!','Live Space' (a section which showed gamers' Xbox Live gamertags,'Ask Dr. Gamer', and'The of Xbox' (a section that talked about business and other things of the Xbox gaming world; the column'The Business of Xbox' was written by Geoff Keighley through the May 2007 issue, but until 2015, the column was written, on a less frequent basis, by Chris Morris. As of Issue #71, the end page rotated columnists, with guests including game creators Tim Schafer, Denis Dyack, Randy Pitchford.
UK and US Edition Editor: Stephen Ashby Deputy Editor: Daniella Lucas Staff Writer: Adam Bryant Production Editor: Russell Lewin Senior Art Editor: Warren Brown Until issue #52, the Official Xbox Magazine used a 100-point system, scoring games out of 10.0 with.1 increments. The games that received at least a 9.0 were given an Editor's Choice award. Beginning with issue #53, the US OXM switched to a 20-point scoring system, scoring games out of 10.0 with increments of 0.5. The UK edition though switched to a 10-point scoring system, scoring games out of 10; this ratings scale was detailed on the introduction page to every issue's review section. A score of 10.0 was not considered perfect, but is called "Classic" and is considered to be "one of those rare and best of games." OXM's review scale did include a score of 11.0 as "Perfect," however the description for that score was "The unicorn. Will never happen. Never." Twenty games received a 10/10 score from OXM, but only BioShock, The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim and Grand Theft Auto V had been given this score by both the US and UK editions.
The nine 10/10 games from the US edition included: Fight Night Round 3, Gears of War, Fallout 3, Halo 3, Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare, Mass Effect, Gears of War 3 and Batman: Arkham City. Whereas the nine 10/10 games from the UK edition included: Grand Theft Auto IV, Project Gotham Racing 4, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2, The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, Mass Effect 2, Halo: Reach, Portal 2, Deus Ex: Human Revolution and Mass Effect 3. OXM had begun reviewing Xbox Live Downloadable Content, on a three-point scale: Buy, Fanboys Only, Deny; the exception was The Elder Scrolls IV: Shivering Isles expansion pack in issue 70, due to the game's size, being "much more than a simple map pack" was reviewed on the normal 20-point scale, receiving an 8.5. Some disks came with additional material for Xbox games. Early issues' demo disk included a costume expansion to Dead or Alive 3 and Easter eggs unlockable
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Nintendo Power is a video game news and strategy podcast from Nintendo of America, which had originated in August 1988 as Nintendo's official print magazine. The magazine's publication was done monthly by Nintendo of America independently, in December 2007 contracted to Future US, the American subsidiary of British publisher Future, its 24 year production run is one of the longest of all video game magazines in the United States and Canada. On August 21, 2012, Nintendo announced that it would not be renewing its licensing agreement with Future Publishing, that Nintendo Power would cease publication in December; the final issue, volume 285, was released on December 11, 2012. On December 20, 2017, Nintendo Power returned as a podcast. Predating Nintendo Power is the Nintendo Fun Club News, a newsletter sent to club members for free. In mid-1988 it was discontinued after seven issues in favor of Nintendo Power; the new magazine was founded by Nintendo of America marketing manager Gail Tilden in 1988.
The first issue, dated July/August 1988, spotlights the NES game Super Mario Bros. 2. Of this issue, 3.6 million copies were published, with every member of the Nintendo Fun Club receiving a free copy. From the beginning, Nintendo Power focuses on providing game strategy and previews of upcoming games. In mid-1998, Nintendo Power first allowed outside advertising in the magazine reserved for Nintendo-based products only. In its early years, ads only appeared in the first and last few pages of the magazine, leaving no ads to break up the magazine's editorial content; as of July 2005, Nintendo Power has a new design to appeal to a limited gaming audience, including a new logo and article format. Along with the cosmetic overhaul came a greater focus on Nintendo fans, staff reviews, rumor-milling, fan service including an expanded and enhanced reader mail segment and a revamped "Community" section. Nintendo introduced a new incentive promotional offer that involved the registration of three Nintendo products through Nintendo.com to receive a free three issue trial subscription to Nintendo Power.
The magazine changed its focus from game strategies and cheat codes to news and articles on upcoming games. On September 19, 2007, Nintendo announced that the large magazine publisher Future US would begin publishing Nintendo Power; the company's first official issue was released in October, as issue #222. It was revealed that circulation would be increased to 13 issues a year, with the extra magazine being a holiday season bonus issue. Nintendo Power stopped making the Bonus issue in 2011. On August 21, 2012, Nintendo announced that it had opted not to renew the licensing agreement with Future Publishing and that Nintendo Power would cease publication after 24 years; the final issue would be December 2012. Senior Editor, Chris Hoffman stated that his staff would "try to make the last issues memorable". Nintendo did not participate in discussions to continue the magazine online. Nintendo Power returned on December 20, 2017 as a podcast, using the original logo design; the magazine was edited at first by himself an avid gamer.
While the Fun Club News focused on games made in-house by Nintendo, Nintendo Power was created to allow for reviews of games produced by those licensed by Nintendo, such as Konami and the like. Nintendo Power's mascot in the late 1980s and early 1990s was Nester, a comic character created by Phillips. After Phillips left the company, Nester became the magazine's sole mascot. Early issues of the magazine featured a two-page Howard and Nester comic, replaced with the two-page Nester's Adventures reduced to one page, dropped altogether. Subsequently, Mario replaced Nester as the mascot of the magazine. During the early 2000s, the magazine made another mascot out of its Senior Writer, Alan Averill. Camera-shy, Averill himself never appeared in any photos. Fans clamored to see what Averill looked like, but the magazine continued to substitute with photos of the toy, claimed that Alan was, in fact, a Blue Slime. Averill retired from Nintendo Power, joining Nintendo of America's localization department.
To this day, most fans have never seen a real image of Averill. The inclusion of a photo of Mr. T in the Player's Pulse section became a running gag in the early half of 2005. Late in the magazine's life, running gags centered on Chuck Norris references and jokes at the expense of writer Chris Shepperd. During the early 1990s, the magazine used what was a unique and expensive promotion: giving away a free copy of the new NES game Dragon Quest to every new subscriber; this promotion was in part a move on Nintendo's part to make money off Dragon Warrior which had not sold nearly as well as Nintendo had anticipated, it was left with a large number of unsold cartridges on its hands. The promotion both helped the company get rid of the unsold merchandise, won the magazine thousands of new subscribers. Following the release of the Super NES, the magazine featured lengthy, continuous comic stories based on Super Mario World and The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past. After these stories ended, they were replaced by similar multi-issue stories based on Star Fox, Super Metroid, on, Nintendo 64 games such as Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire and Blast Corps.
Comics based on the animated series of Pokémon and Kirby: Right Back At Ya! made several appearances. Toward the end, short excerpts based on Custom Robo and Metal Gear Solid are f