Howard Victor Chaykin is an American comic book artist and writer. Chaykin’s influences include his one-time employer and mentor, Gil Kane, the mid-20th century illustrators Robert Fawcett and Al Parker. Howard Chaykin was born in Newark, New Jersey, to Rosalind Pave and Norman Drucker, who soon separated. Chaykin was raised by his grandparents in Staten Island, New York City, until his mother married Leon Chaykin in 1953 and the family moved to East Flatbush and to 370 Saratoga Avenue, Brooklyn. At 14, Chaykin moved with his now divorced mother to the Kew Gardens section of Queens, he said in 2000 he was raised on welfare after his parents separated and that his absent biological father was declared dead, although Chaykin, as an adult, located him alive. Chaykin's "nutty and cruel" adoptive father, whom Chaykin until the 1990s believed was his natural father, encouraged Chaykin's interest in drawing and bought him sketchbooks, he was introduced to comics by his cousin. He graduated from Jamaica High School at 16, in 1967, in mid-1968 worked at Zenith Press.
He attended Columbia College in Chicago that fall, but left school and returned to New York the following year. Chaykin said that after high school, "I hitchhiked around the country" before becoming, at 19, a "gofer" for the New York City-based comic book artist Gil Kane, whom he would name as his greatest influence. Chaykin's earliest work with comic books was under the tutelage of Gil Kane, whom he would call his mentor. I'd heard on the grapevine that Gil's assistant had dropped dead of a heart attack at 23. I gave Gil a call, he said,'Yeah, I can use you.' So I went to work for him.... He was doing Blackmark, I did a bad job pasting up the dialog and putting in.... It was a great apprenticeship. I learned a lot from watching Gil work. In 1970, he began publishing his art in comics and science-fiction fanzines, sometimes under the pseudonym Eric Pave. Leaving Kane, he began working as an assistant to comics artist Wally Wood in the studio he shared with Syd Shores and Jack Abel in Valley Stream, Long Island.
He worked there for a "couple of months", in 1971 published his first professional comics work, for the adult-theme Western feature Shattuck in the military newspaper the Overseas Weekly, one of Wood's clients. He "ghosted some stuff" for Gray Morrow: "I penciled a Man-Thing story he did, I penciled a thing for National Lampoon called "Michael Rockefeller and the Jungles of New Guinea." He apprenticed under Neal Adams, working with the artist at Adams' home in The Bronx. This led to his first work at DC Comics, one of the two largest comics companies: Neal showed me to Murray Boltinoff and Julius Schwartz. Murray gave me a one-page filler. I got some work from Dorothy Woolfolk, who edited the love comics, it was all just dreadful stuff, but you stumble along, you learn. A problem for me was that by the time I became a professional, I lost any interest whatsoever in superhero comics. I'm not a horror guy, I didn't know what the hell to do! What I wanted to draw is guys with guns, guys with swords, women with big tits, and, the extent of my interest in comics at the time.
The "one-page filler", titled "Strange Neighbor", was inventoried and published in the Boltinoff-edited Secrets of Sinister House #17. His other earliest known DC work was penciling and inking the three-page story "Not Old Enough!" in Young Romance #185, penciling the eight-page supernatural story "Eye of the Beholder" in Forbidden Tales of Dark Mansion #7 and the one-page "Enter the Portals of Weird War" in Weird War Tales #9. At one point Chaykin lived in the same Queens apartment building as artists Allen Milgrom, Walter Simonson and Bernie Wrightson. Simonson recalls, "We'd get together at 3 a.m. They'd come up and we'd have popcorn and sit around and talk about whatever a 26, 27 and 20-year-old guys talk about. Our art, TV, you name it. I pretty much knew at the time,'These are the good ole days.'" Chaykin's first major work was for DC Comics drawing the 23-page "The Price of Pain Ease" — writer Denny O'Neil's adaptation of author Fritz Leiber's characters Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser — in Sword of Sorcery #1.
Although the title was well received, it lasted only five issues before cancellation. Chaykin drew the character Ironwolf in the science fiction anthology title Weird Worlds for DC, did the pencils and ink for a 12-page Batman story written by Archie Goodwin and published in Detective Comics #441 in 1974. Moving to Marvel Comics, he began work as co-artist with Neal Adams on the first Killraven story, seen in Amazing Adventures #18 in 1973. After this, Chaykin was given various adventure strips to draw for Marvel, including his own creation, Dominic Fortune, now in the pages of Marvel Preview. In 1978, he wrote and drew his Cody Starbuck creation for the anthology title Star Reach, one of the first independent titles of the 1970s; these strips saw him explore more adult themes as best he could within the restrictions imposed on him by editors and the Comics Code Authority. The same year, he produced for Schanes a six-plate portfolio showcasing his character. In 1976, Chaykin landed the job of drawing the Marvel Comics adaptation of the first Star Wars film, written by Roy Thomas.
Chaykin left after 10 issues to work in more adult and experimental comics, to do paperback book covers. In late 1978, Walt Simonson, Val Mayerik, Jim Starlin formed Upsta
Professional wrestling is a form of performance art and entertainment that combines athletics with theatrical performance. It takes the form of events, held by touring companies; the unique form of sport portrayed is fundamentally based on classical and "catch" wrestling, with modern additions of striking attacks, strength-based holds and throws and acrobatic maneuvers. Much of these derive from the influence of various international martial arts. An additional aspect of combat with improvised weaponry is sometimes included to varying degrees; the matches have predetermined outcomes to heighten entertainment value and all combative maneuvers are executed with the full cooperation of those involved and performed in specific manners intended to lessen the chance of actual injury. These facts were once kept secret but are now a accepted open secret. To promote and sustain the willing suspension of disbelief by maintaining an aura of verisimilitude, the performing company avoids discussing the true nature of the performance in official media.
Fan communications by individual wrestlers and promotions through outside media directly acknowledge the dramatic and "fixed" nature of the spectacle. Originating as a popular form of entertainment in 19th-century Europe and as a sideshow exhibition in North American traveling carnivals and vaudeville halls, professional wrestling grew into a standalone genre of entertainment with many diverse variations in cultures around the globe, is now a billion dollar entertainment industry. Since the 1980s, local forms have declined in Europe, wrestling from North America has experienced several different periods of prominent cultural popularity during its century and a half of existence and has been exported back to Europe to fill the cultural gap left by the aforementioned decline of local versions; the advent of television gave professional wrestling a new outlet, wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Show wrestling has become prominent in Central/North America and Europe.
In Brazil, there was a popular wrestling television program from the 1960s to the early 1980s called Telecatch. High-profile figures in the sport have become celebrities or cultural icons in their native or adopted home countries. Although professional wrestling started out as small acts in sideshows, traveling circuses and carnivals, today it is a billion-dollar industry. Revenue is drawn from ticket sales, network television broadcasts, pay-per-view broadcasts, branded merchandise and home video. Pro wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Annual shows such as WrestleMania, Bound for Glory, Wrestle Kingdom and Starrcade are among the highest-selling pay-per-view programming each year. In modern day, internet programming has been utilized by a number of companies to air web shows, internet pay per views or on-demand content, helping to generate internet-related revenue earnings from the evolving World Wide Web. Home video sales dominate the Billboard charts Recreational Sports DVD sales, with wrestling holding anywhere from 3 to 9 of the top 10 spots every week.
Due to its persistent cultural presence and to its novelty within the performing arts, wrestling constitutes a recurring topic in both academia and the media. Several documentaries have been produced looking at professional wrestling, most notably, Beyond the Mat directed by Barry W. Blaustein, Wrestling with Shadows featuring wrestler Bret Hart and directed by Paul Jay. There have been many fictional depictions of wrestling; the largest professional wrestling company worldwide is the United States-based WWE, which bought out many smaller regional companies in the late 20th century, as well as its primary US competitors World Championship Wrestling and Extreme Championship Wrestling in early 2001. Other prominent professional wrestling companies worldwide include the US-based Impact Wrestling known as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, Ring of Honor; when talking about professional wrestling, there are two levels: the "in-show" happenings that are presented through the shows, happenings which are outside the scope of performance but have implications on the performance, such as performer contracts, legitimate injuries, etc.
Because actual events are co-opted by writers for incorporation into storylines for the performers, the lines are blurred and become confused. Special care must be taken; the actions of the character should be considered fictional events, wholly separate from the life of the performer. This is similar to other entertainers; some wrestlers would incorporate elements of their real-life personalities into their characters if they and their in-ring persona have different names. Historians are unsure at what point wrestling changed from competitive catch wrestling into worked entertainment; those who participated felt that maintenance of a constant and complete illusion for all who were not involved was necessary to keep audience interest. For decades, wrestlers lived their public lives; the pra
Paul Centopani is an American retired professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, Paul Roma. He is best known for his appearances with the World Wrestling Federation and World Championship Wrestling between 1984 and 1995. Centopani was trained to wrestle by Tony Altomare, he made his professional wrestling debut on December 17, 1984 with the World Wrestling Federation at a WWF All American Wrestling taping in Poughkeepsie, New York, teaming with Salvatore Bellomo in a loss to the Tag Team Champions Adrian Adonis and Dick Murdoch. Roma began wrestling for the WWF, his first victory would come at a house show on February 5, 1985 against Steve Lombardi in Brooklyn, New York, his first televised victory would be on May 25 at the Philadelphia Spectrum, where he defeated another preliminary wrestler, Johnny Rodz. For the next two years Roma would appear as a preliminary wrestler, but began to accumulate victories while wrestling on the bottom rung of the promotion, defeating such talents as AJ Petrucci, Joe Mirto, Steve Lombardi, Tiger Chung Lee, Frenchy Martin and "The Duke of Dorchester" Pete Dougherty.
In the summer of 1986 he formed a short-lived tag-team with S. D. "Special Delivery" Jones and won a series of house show encounters with The Moondogs. Despite continuing to lose in tag-team matches on television, Roma entered 1987 on an overall hot streak, defeating preliminary wrestlers Randy Colley, Steve Lombardi, Frenchy Martin to go 10-0-1 on house show matches between January and March 1987. Roma wrestled as a face during this time, despite being successful over other preliminary wrestlers, he would still hold defeats to more-established superstars at the time such as Bret "Hitman" Hart, "Macho Man" Randy Savage, Ace Cowboy Bob Orton at both TV shows and untelevised events. Roma was teamed with fellow preliminary wrestler Jim Powers in what at first seemed to be a one-time pairing on March 21, 1987 at a WWF Superstars taping in Las Vegas, Nevada. Losing to Demolition, Roma & Powers lost televised matches to The New Dream Team and "The Natural" Butch Reed, The Iron Sheik, Nikolai Volkoff.
A bit of success came at a WWF Superstars taping on April 24 when the two teamed with Tito Santana in a winning effort against Bob Orton, Don Muraco and Tiger Chung Lee. Shortly after Roma and Powers began teaming on the house show circuit, losing to Demolition and defeating fellow preliminary team The Shadows. Meanwhile, on television, Roma & Powers again lost to Demolition in May on WWF Superstars, followed by a loss to the Dream Team on Wrestling Challenge. According to both Roma and Powers, they were put together because of their physiques and because were similar in build and overall athleticism; the team's first significant victory came in a huge upset victory over Bob Orton and Don Muraco at Madison Square Garden on May 18. The match aired on Prime Time Wrestling that month. Roma & Powers followed this with televised victories over The Shadows in June, their momentum was squashed when the duo teamed with Mario Mancini and Don Driggers in a squash match loss on June 20 to the newly formed Heenan Family.
For the next two months Roma and Powers would wrestle The Islanders on house shows, where they were winless. The team's first big break came on August 8, 1987 when they faced WWF Tag-Team Champions The Hart Foundation in a non-title match. Roma and Powers scored a tremendous upset victory in a reversed victory. Mr. T was planned to be their manager, but these plans never materialized; the win was the beginning of a push for the team, which soon began winning multiple encounters with Muraco and Orton on the house show circuit as the summer closed. Another huge upset victory came on August 20 when they upended Kamala and Sika via countout on WWF Superstars. On August 30 they again defeated The Hart Foundation, this time via disqualification in a match on Prime Time. Meanwhile, on the house show circuit the team won several encounters with The New Dream Team; that fall the Roma and Powers pairing received an official moniker, The Young Stallions. The team received their name by accident when play-by-play commentator Vince McMahon referred to them once as "a couple of young stallions", thus naming the team.
The Stallions would soon acquire the music intended for the Hart Foundation, "Crank it Up", entered a short feud with the WWF Tag-Team Champions. The Stallions received their first Saturday Night's Main Event matchup, where they narrowly fell to The Hart Foundation in a great match that aired on October 3; this did little to stall the momentum that the team now had, Roma and Powers scored the biggest victory of their careers when they became one of only two surviving teams alongside The Killer Bees in the elimination tag team match at the first annual Survivor Series pay-per-view on November 26, 1987, eliminating the New Dream Team during the course of the match. On December 26th, 1987 the Stallions were scheduled to face The Hart Foundation in Buffalo, NY. Neidhart did not appear at the event, the match was switched to a singles match between Powers and Bret "Hitman" Hart; that night Powers scored a substantial upset. Following the match, Hart volunteered to take on Paul Roma. Another match followed, Roma pinned Hart.
The Stallions success took a small hit at the 1988 Royal Rumble, where Roma and Powers lost a best of three falls m
The Warlord (wrestler)
Terry Scott Szopinski is an American professional wrestler. He is best known by his ring name The Warlord and for his tenures in National Wrestling Alliance and the World Wrestling Federation as one half of The Powers of Pain alongside The Barbarian, his first national exposure was in the NWA territory Jim Crockett Promotions, where Powers of Pain held the World Six-Man Tag Team Championship until they departed the company in 1988 and joined WWF, where they competed in the tag team division until the team was split in 1990. Warlord competed as a singles wrestler until departing in 1992, had a small stint in World Championship Wrestling in 1996, where he reunited with The Barbarian as The Super Assassins. In 1986 while working out at a gym in Minnesota, Szopinski met its owner Joe Laurinaitis, better known as the professional wrestler Road Warrior Animal. After coming up with possible ring names with Sharkey and Animal, Szopinski adopted the "Warlord" as his ring name and sent some photos of his work to Dusty Rhodes.
Soon afterwards, Rhodes hired him and he began wrestling for the National Wrestling Alliance's Jim Crockett Promotions that year. After a brief stint in JCP, the territory's owner Jim Crockett, Jr. sent him to the Kansas City-based Central States Wrestling territory for more training. While there, he teamed with Karl Kovac and won the territory's tag team championship on June 8, 1987 in a tournament. However, he and Kovac were soon stripped of the title when Kovac was fired and Szopinski travelled to Japan for more training. In late 1987, Szopinski returned to Jim Crockett Promotions under his Warlord name and began teaming with Ivan Koloff with Paul Jones as their manager. In 1988, he formed a permanent tag team with the Barbarian known as "The Powers of Pain", the heel counterparts to the Road Warriors, while retaining Jones as their manager. While continuing to team with Koloff, The Powers of Pain feuded with The Road Warriors, defeated them and Dusty Rhodes for the World Six-Man Tag Team Championship.
To continue the feud, JCP management wanted them to do some scaffold matches against the Warriors, but this was met with opposition from Szopinski and Vailahi over fears of injury. As a result, they both left JCP and joined the World Wrestling Federation, vacating the six-man tag team title in the process. Upon their arrival in the WWF, the Powers were faces managed by Tito Santana, feuded with World Tag Team Champions Demolition, who had defeated Strike Force for the title and injured Martel; the Powers were introduced as mercenaries to help Martel and Santana gain revenge on Demolition for both the title loss and the injury to Martel. They were soon after managed by the Baron. At Survivor Series, the Powers' team defeated Demolition's team in a tag team elimination match, with the Powers being the sole survivors of their team. Near the end of the match, Demolition's manager Mr. Fuji double-crossed them and after they beat him up and left, the Powers came to his aid, gaining Fuji as their manager in the process, in return for which his interference helped the Powers eliminate the last remaining opponents, the Conquistadors.
Afterwards, the Powers and Fuji celebrated until Demolition drove them from the ring. As a result, the Powers became villains. In 1989, Szopinski entered the Royal Rumble as the twenty-first entrant, but lasted only two seconds before being eliminated by Hulk Hogan, a record which stood for twenty years before being broken by Santino Marella at the 2009 Royal Rumble. At WrestleMania V, The Powers of Pain teamed with Fuji in a losing effort to Demolition in a match for the World Tag Team Championship. In March 1990, The Powers of Pain split, with Fuji selling Barbarian's contract to Bobby "The Brain" Heenan while selling Warlord's contract to Slick. After the team's split, Warlord received an attire change, where he abandoned his Road Warrior-like reverse mohawk and face paint in favor of a shaved head and a silver metallic Cyborg-style Phantom of the Opera-like half-mask and black armor, he brought a metal staff topped with a W with him to his matches, used it as a weapon on occasion. He began a feud with the British Bulldog leading to a match at WrestleMania VII.
He was granted a chance at the world title against Hulk Hogan on February 8, 1991, in which he was defeated. He began a long-running series of matches with the Texas Tornado, which had either man winning; however he did manage to score a singles victory over a high profile wrestler in Jake Roberts on August 23, 1991. On April 17, 1992, Szopinski lost to Virgil in his final match for the WWF. After leaving the WWF for the independent circuit, Szopinski traveled to the CWA and lost to CWA Champion Rambo in the CWA Catch Cup 1992 on August 22, 1992 in Germany, he wrestled two additional times in the fall, losing to Rambo in a rematch and falling to new champion Buffalo Peterson. In April 1993 Szopinski traveled to another German promotion, World Wrestling Superstars and had considerable success as he dominated Butch Reed in multiple encounters. Throughout the year he appeared in multiple other promotions, including Herb Abrahm's UWF, the WWC, ECW, WAR. In 1994 Szopinski narrowed his focused to the IWF and WAR, participating in lengthy tours with both companies.
On August 26th, 1994 he teamed with Bob Backlund and Scott Putski to defeat Gedo, Hiromichi Fuyuki & Jado and win the WAR Six Man Tag Team Championship in an event held in Yokohama, Japan. They would lose the titles days in a rematch on September 1st. On September 23, 1994 the Powers of Pain reunited for the first time in over two years to compete for the vacant UWF Tag-Team Championship at UWF
Davey Boy Smith
David Smith was a British professional wrestler. Born in Golborne, Smith is best known for his appearances in the United States with the World Wrestling Federation under the ring names Davey Boy Smith and The British Bulldog, he was trained by Ted Betley in Winwick, England before relocating to Calgary, Canada to further his training under Stu Hart. While training with Hart, Smith met Stu and Helen Hart's youngest daughter Diana, whom he married on 7 October 1984. One of their two children, Harry, is a professional wrestler. Smith won titles within the WWF from the 1980s to the 2000s, he headlined multiple pay-per-view events in the WWF and WCW, in which he challenged for the WWF and WCW world heavyweight championships, defeated Bret Hart for the WWF Intercontinental Championship in the main event of SummerSlam 1992. He was the inaugural WWF European Champion and holds the records for longest single reign and total days as champion. Prior to finding singles success, Smith achieved stardom as one half of The British Bulldogs tag team, alongside his cousin Dynamite Kid.
Smith was born in Golborne, where he grew up with his father Sid, mother Joyce, his brother and sisters, Joanne and Tracy. Joyce was the sister of Bill Billington, the father of Tom Billington known as the Dynamite Kid, Smith's frequent tag-team partner. Smith started competing on ITV's World of Sport when he was only 15, wrestling under the name Young David with his older cousin the Dynamite Kid Tom Billington. Mentored by Billington's friend Alan Dennison, in 1979 Smith appeared to have won the British Welterweight championship from Jim Breaks only for the win to be disallowed due to Dennison distracting Breaks. Smith held Breaks to a 1-1 draw, as a result of which Dennison himself challenged and defeated Breaks for the belt. Smith was spotted by Bruce Hart, scouting talent in the UK, both he and Billignton traveled to Canada to wrestle for Stu Hart. Hart and Roy Wood trained Smith further in his "Dungeon" and Smith became a key wrestler in Hart's promotion, Stampede Wrestling. During his time in Stampede, Smith began a feud with the Dynamite Kid, on 9 July 1982, he won his first title when he defeated the Dynamite Kid for the Stampede British Commonwealth Mid-Heavyweight title.
In 1983, Smith debuted in New Japan Pro Wrestling where he became involved in a three-way feud with Dynamite Kid and The Cobra over the NWA Junior Heavyweight Title. On 7 February 1984, a three-way, one-night tournament was held, Dynamite Kid won the tournament by defeating Smith via count-out, the Cobra by pinfall. After the tournament and Dynamite Kid formed a tag team in both New Japan and in Stampede Wrestling known as the British Bulldogs. In 1984, the Bulldogs made a shocking move by jumping to New Japan's rival, All Japan Pro Wrestling just before the start of All Japan's annual Tag Team tournament; the Bulldogs made a nice showing in the tournament, which drew the interest of the World Wrestling Federation. The Bulldogs, along with Smith's brothers-in-law Bret Hart and Jim Neidhart were brought in to the World Wrestling Federation after Vince McMahon bought out Stampede Wrestling. At first, the Bulldogs were able to tour both WWF and All Japan, but McMahon gained exclusive rights to the Bulldogs.
While in the WWF, the Bulldogs began a long running feud with Hart and Neidhart, who were now known as The Hart Foundation. The Bulldogs feuded with the Dream Team. At WrestleMania 2, with Lou Albano and Ozzy Osbourne in their corner, the Bulldogs defeated the Dream Team for the Tag Team Championship; the Bulldogs held the titles for nearly nine months, feuding with the Dream Team and Nikolai Volkoff and The Iron Sheik. On the 26 January 1987 episode of Superstars, the Bulldogs lost the titles to the Hart Foundation due to a severe back injury to the Dynamite Kid. After losing the titles, the Bulldogs gained a mascot, an actual bulldog who went by the name Matilda, feuded with the likes of The Islanders and the Rougeau Brothers; the Bulldogs left the WWF in 1988, in part due to backstage problems between the Bulldogs the Dynamite Kid, the Rougeau Brothers over a prank pulled by Curt Hennig. The Bulldogs, noted ribbers in their own right, were blamed: this led to a series of confrontations that culminated in Jacques Rougeau knocking out four of Dynamite Kid's teeth with a fist filled with a roll of quarters.
Though there are various accounts of this situation, many suggest that Billington drew first blood by bullying Rougeau in Miami. No disciplinary action was taken against Jacques. Billington shortly afterwards quit the WWF over a dispute with WWF management over the issuance of complimentary plane tickets, over which he resigned from the company, Smith followed suit. After leaving the World Wrestling Federation, the Bulldogs returned to Stampede Wrestling, to All Japan Pro Wrestling. Stampede officials were hopeful that the return of the Bulldogs would revive a struggling promotion, but they were unsuccessful. In May 1989, the decision was made to split up the Bulldogs, which caused some problems with All Japan owner Shohei Baba, still promoting the Bulldogs as a tag team. On 4 July 1989 Smith, along with fellow wrestlers Chris Benoit, Ross Hart, Jason the Terrible, was involved in a serious automobile accident. Smith, not wearing a seatbelt at the time, n
World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. d/b/a WWE, is an American integrated media and entertainment company, known for professional wrestling. WWE has branched out into other fields, including movies, real estate, various other business ventures; the WWE name refers to the professional wrestling promotion itself, founded by Jess McMahon and Toots Mondt in 1952 as the Capitol Wrestling Corporation. As of 2019, it is the largest wrestling promotion in the world, holding over 500 events a year, with the roster divided up into various globally traveling brands, is available to about 36 million viewers in more than 150 countries; the company's global headquarters is located in Stamford, with offices in major cities across the world. As in other professional wrestling promotions, WWE shows are not legitimate contests, but purely entertainment-based, featuring storyline-driven and choreographed matches, though matches include moves that can put performers at risk of injury if not performed correctly.
This was first publicly acknowledged by WWE's owner Vince McMahon in 1989 to avoid taxes from athletic commissions. Since the 1980s, WWE publicly has branded their product as sports entertainment, acknowledging the product's roots in competitive sport and dramatic theater; the company's majority owner is its chairman and CEO, Vince McMahon, who retains a 42% ownership of the company's outstanding stock and 83% of the voting power. The current entity, incorporated on February 21, 1980, was known as Titan Sports, Inc., founded that same year in South Yarmouth, Massachusetts. It acquired Capitol Wrestling Corporation Ltd. the holding company for the World Wrestling Federation, in 1982. Titan was renamed World Wrestling Federation, Inc. in 1998 World Wrestling Federation Entertainment, Inc. in 1999, the current World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. in 2002. Since 2011, the company has branded itself as WWE though the company's legal name was not changed. WWE's origins can be traced back as far as 1952 when Roderick James "Jess" McMahon and Toots Mondt created the Capitol Wrestling Corporation Ltd. which joined the National Wrestling Alliance in 1953.
McMahon, a successful boxing promoter, began working with Tex Rickard in 1926. With the help of Rickard, he began promoting boxing and wrestling at the third Madison Square Garden, it was not the first time McMahon had promoted wrestling cards, as he had done so during the 1910s. In November 1954, McMahon died and Ray Fabiani, one of Mondt's associates, brought in McMahon's son Vincent James; the younger McMahon and Mondt were successful and soon controlled 70% of the NWA's booking due to their dominance in the populated Northeastern United States. In 1963, McMahon and Mondt had a dispute with the NWA over "Nature Boy" Buddy Rogers being booked to hold the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. Both men left the company in protest and formed the WWWF in the process, awarding Rogers the newly created WWWF World Heavyweight Championship in April of that year, he lost the championship to Bruno Sammartino a month on May 17, 1963, after suffering a heart attack a week before the match. Capitol operated the WWWF in a conservative manner compared to other pro wrestling territories: it ran its major arenas monthly rather than weekly or bi-weekly featuring a babyface champion wrestling various heels in programs that consisted of one to three matches.
After gaining a television program deal and hiring Lou Albano as a manager for Sammartino's heel opponents, the WWWF was doing sellout business by 1970. Mondt left Capitol in the late 1960s and although the WWWF had withdrawn from the NWA, Vince McMahon, Sr. re-joined in 1971. Capitol renamed the World Wide Wrestling Federation to the World Wrestling Federation in 1979. Vincent J. McMahon's son, Vincent K. McMahon, his wife Linda, established Titan Sports, Inc. in 1980 in South Yarmouth, Massachusetts. The company was incorporated on February 1980, in the Cape Cod Coliseum offices; the younger McMahon bought Capitol from his father in 1982 seizing control of the company. Seeking to make the WWF the premier wrestling promotion in the country, the world, he began an expansion process that fundamentally changed the wrestling business. At the annual meeting of the NWA in 1983, the McMahons and former Capitol employee Jim Barnett all withdrew from the organization. McMahon worked to get WWF programming on syndicated television all across the United States.
This angered other promoters and disrupted the well-established boundaries of the different wrestling promotions ending the territory system, in use since the founding of the NWA in the 1940s. In addition, the company used income generated by advertising, television deals, tape sales to secure talent from rival promoters. In an interview with Sports Illustrated, McMahon noted: In the old days, there were wrestling fiefdoms all over the country, each with its own little lord in charge; each little lord respected the rights of his neighboring little lord. No takeovers or raids were allowed. There were maybe 30 of these tiny kingdoms in the U. S. and if I hadn't bought out my dad, there would still be 30 of them and struggling. I, of course, had no allegiance to those little lords. McMahon gained significant traction when he hired American Wrestling Association talent Hulk Hogan, who had achieved popularity outside of wrestling, notably for his appearance in the film Rocky III. McMahon signed Roddy Piper as Hogan's rival, shortly afterward Jesse Ventura as an announcer.
Other wrestlers joined the roster, such as Jimmy Snuka, Don Muraco