In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
William I, German Emperor
William I, or in German Wilhelm I, of the House of Hohenzollern, was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first head of state of a united Germany. Under the leadership of William and his Minister President Otto von Bismarck, Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the establishment of the German Empire. Despite his long support of Bismarck as Minister President, William held strong reservations about some of Bismarck's more reactionary policies, including his anti-Catholicism and tough handling of subordinates. In contrast to the domineering Bismarck, William was described as polite, gentlemanly and, while staunchly conservative, he was more open to certain classical liberal ideas than his grandson Wilhelm II; the future king and emperor was born William Frederick Louis of Prussia in the Kronprinzenpalais in Berlin on 22 March 1797. As the second son of Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Prince Frederick William, himself son of King Frederick William II, William was not expected to ascend to the throne.
His grandfather died the year he was born, at age 53, in 1797, his father Frederick William III became king. He was educated from 1801 to 1809 by Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Delbrück, in charge of the education of William's brother, the Crown Prince Frederick William. At age twelve, his father appointed him an officer in the Prussian army; the year 1806 saw the defeat of Prussia by the end of the Holy Roman Empire. William served in the army from 1814 onward. Like his father he fought against Napoleon I of France during the part of the Napoleonic Wars known in Germany as the Befreiungskriege, was a brave soldier, he won the Iron Cross for his actions at Bar-sur-Aube. The war and the fight against France left a lifelong impression on him, he had a long-standing antipathy towards the French. In 1815, William was promoted to major and commanded a battalion of the 1. Garderegiment, he fought under Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at the Battles of Waterloo. He became a diplomat, engaging in diplomatic missions after 1815.
William was a brother of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia. In 1817 he accompanied his sister to Saint Petersburg. In 1816, William became the commander of the Stettiner Gardelandwehrbataillon and in 1818 was promoted to Generalmajor; the next year, William was appointed inspector of the VII. and VIII. Army Corps; this made him a spokesman of the Prussian Army within the House of Hohenzollern. He argued in favour of a well-trained and well-equipped army. In 1820, William became commander of the 1. Gardedivision and in 1825 was promoted to commanding general of the III. Army Corps. In 1826 William was forced to abandon a relationship with Polish noblewoman Elisa Radziwill, his cousin whom he had been attracted to, when it was deemed an inappropriate match by his father, it is alleged that Elisa had an illegitimate daughter by William, brought up by Joseph and Caroline Kroll, owners of the Kroll Opera House in Berlin, was given the name Agnes Kroll. She married a Carl Friedrich Ludwig Dettman and emigrated to Sydney, Australia, in 1849.
They had a family of two daughters. Agnes died in 1904. In 1829, William married Princess Augusta, the daughter of Grand Duke Karl Friedrich of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, their marriage was outwardly stable, but not a happy one. In 1840 his older brother became King of Prussia. Since he had no children, William was first in line to succeed him to the throne and thus was given the title Prinz von Preußen. Against his convictions but out of loyalty towards his brother, William signed the bill setting up a Prussian parliament in 1847 and took a seat in the upper chamber, the Herrenhaus. During the Revolutions of 1848, William crushed a revolt in Berlin, aimed at Frederick William IV; the use of cannons earned him the nickname Kartätschenprinz. Indeed, he had to flee to England for a while, disguised as a merchant, he helped to put down an uprising in Baden, where he commanded the Prussian army. In October 1849, he became governor-general of Rhineland and Westfalia, with a seat at the Electoral Palace in Koblenz.
During their time at Koblenz and his wife entertained liberal scholars such as the historian Maximilian Wolfgang Duncker, August von Bethmann-Hollweg and Clemens Theodor Perthes. William's opposition to liberal ideas softened. In 1854, the prince was raised to the rank of a field-marshal and made governor of the federal fortress of Mainz. In 1857 Frederick William IV suffered a stroke and became mentally disabled for the rest of his life. In January 1858, William became Prince Regent for his brother only temporarily but after October on a permanent basis. Against the advice of his brother, William swore an oath of office on the Prussian constitution and promised to preserve it "solid and inviolable". William appointed a liberal, Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, as Minister President and thus initiated what became known as the "New Era" in Prussia, although there were conflicts between William and the liberal majority in the Landtag on matters of reforming the armed forces. On 2 January 1861, Frederick William IV died and William ascended the throne as William I of Prussia.
In July a student from Leipzig attempted to assassinate William, but he was only injured. Like Frederick I of Prussia, William tr
A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions. "Throne" in an abstract sense can refer to the monarchy or the Crown itself, an instance of metonymy, is used in many expressions such as "the power behind the throne". The expression "ascend the throne" takes its meaning from the steps leading up to the dais or platform, on which the throne is placed, being comprised in the word's significance; when used in a political or governmental sense, throne refers to a civilization, tribe, or other politically designated group, organized or governed under an authoritarian system. Throughout much of human history societies have been governed under authoritarian systems, in particular dictatorial or autocratic systems, resulting in a wide variety of thrones that have been used by given heads of state; these have ranged from stools in places such as a Africa to ornate chairs and bench-like designs in Europe and Asia, respectively. But not always, a throne is tied to a philosophical or religious ideology held by the nation or people in question, which serves a dual role in unifying the people under the reigning monarch and connecting the monarch upon the throne to his or her predecessors, who sat upon the throne previously.
Accordingly, many thrones are held to have been constructed or fabricated out of rare or hard to find materials that may be valuable or important to the land in question. Depending on the size of the throne in question it may be large and ornately designed as an emplaced instrument of a nation's power, or it may be a symbolic chair with little or no precious materials incorporated into the design; when used in a religious sense, throne can refer to one of two distinct uses. The first use derives from the practice in churches of having a bishop or higher-ranking religious official sit on a special chair which in church referred to by written sources as a "throne", is intended to allow such high-ranking religious officials a place to sit in their place of worship; the other use for throne refers to a belief among many of the world's monotheistic and polytheistic religions that the deity or deities that they worship are seated on a throne. Such beliefs go back to ancient times, can be seen in surviving artwork and texts which discuss the idea of ancient gods seated on thrones.
In the major Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam, the Throne of God is attested to in religious scriptures and teachings, although the origin and idea of the Throne of God in these religions differs according to the given religious ideology practiced. In the west, a throne is most identified as the seat upon which a person holding the title King, Emperor, or Empress sits in a nation using a monarchy political system, although there are a few exceptions, notably with regards to religious officials such as the Pope and bishops of various sects of the Christian faith. Changing geo-political tides have resulted in the collapse of several dictatorial and autocratic governments, which in turn have left a number of throne chairs empty, however the significance of a throne chair is such that many of these thrones - such as China's Dragon Throne - survive today as historic examples of nation's previous government. Thrones were found throughout the canon of ancient furniture; the depiction of monarchs and deities as seated on chairs is a common topos in the iconography of the Ancient Near East.
The word throne itself is from Greek θρόνος, "seat, chair", in origin a derivation from the PIE root *dher- "to support". Early Greek Διὸς θρόνους was a term for the "support of the heavens", i.e. the axis mundi, which term when Zeus became an anthropomorphic god was imagined as the "seat of Zeus". In Ancient Greek, a "thronos" was a specific but ordinary type of chair with a footstool, a high status object but not with any connotations of power; the Achaeans were known to place additional, empty thrones in the royal palaces and temples so that the gods could be seated when they wished to be. The most famous of these thrones was the throne of Apollo in Amyclae; the Romans had two types of thrones- one for the Emperor and one for the goddess Roma whose statues were seated upon thrones, which became centers of worship. The word "throne" in English translations of the Bible renders Hebrew כסא kissē'; the Pharaoh of the Exodus is described as sitting on a throne, but the term refers to the throne of the kingdom of Israel called the "throne of David" or "throne of Solomon".
The literal throne of Solomon is described in 1 Kings 10:18-20: "Moreover the king made a great throne of ivory, overlaid it with the best gold.. The throne had six steps, the top of the throne was round behind: and there were stays on either side on the place of the seat, two lions stood beside the stays, and twelve lions stood there on the one side and on the other upon the six steps: there was not the like made in any kingdom." In the Book of Esther, the same word refers to the throne of the king of Persia. The god of Israel himself is described as sitting on a throne, referred to outside of the Bible as the Throne of God, in the Psalms, in a vision Isaiah, notably in Isaiah 66:1, YHWH says of himself "The heaven is my throne, the earth is my footstool". In the New Testament, the angel Gabriel refers to this throne in the Gospel of Luke: "He will be great, will be called the Son of the Highest.
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Diego José Pedro Víctor Portales y Palazuelos was a Chilean statesman and entrepreneur. As a minister of president José Joaquín Prieto, Diego Portales played a pivotal role in shaping the state and government politics in the 19th century, delivering with the Constitution of 1833 the framework of the Chilean state for a century. Portales' influential political stance included unitarianism and conservatism which led to consolidate Chile as a constitutional authoritarian republic with democracy restricted to include only upper class men. While unpopular during his lifetime, the murder of Portales in 1837 during a mutiny has been judged a decisive factor during the War of the Confederation by switching Chilean public opinion to support the war against the Peru–Bolivian Confederation. Diego Portales was born in Santiago, the son of María Encarnación Fernández de Palazuelos y Martínez de Aldunate and José Santiago Portales y Larraín, a superintendent of the royal mint, he did his primary studies at the Colegio de Santiago, in 1813, attended law classes at the National Institute.
As the men of his family had all become successful merchants, Portales eventually assumed the position of a merchant, taking part in his prosperous and distinguished family's occupation. On August 15, 1819 he married Josefa Portales y Larraín, he had two daughters with her. His wife died very soon in 1821, he never remarried after that, but took Constanza Nordenflicht as his mistress, with whom he had three children. In July 1821, he went into business, he opened a trading house, Cea and Co. based in Valparaiso with a branch in Lima, Peru. He bid and obtained the management of the government monopoly on tobacco and liquor. In exchange for the monopoly, he offered to service the full amount of the Chilean foreign debt. Nonetheless, in the anarchy, regnant in Chile at the time, there was no means of enforcing a monopoly because the government could not regulate sales of tobacco and liquor, the company went bankrupt. So his contract with the government was voided and the Chilean government was found to owe Portales 87,000 pesos.
Out of this unsuccessful business venture, the only remnant was the name applied to his political followers, who in time came to be known as the estanqueros Soon after, he aligned with the conservatives in the political fights that were wracking Chile at the time. As aforementioned, in 1824, Portales’ business firm acquired control over the government's monopoly of tobacco and liquor. For these reasons, Portales entered into the political sphere, soon he would become the intellectual leader of the conservative side, he helped to reorganize the conservative party, and, in 1827, founded El Hambriento, a journal attacking liberal idealists known as the pipiolos from Portales' party's perspective. Portales was an effective satirist. Portales' articles paved the way for his political career. After the triumph of the conservatives in the Revolution of 1829, President José Tomás Ovalle named him Minister of the Interior and Foreign Affairs on April 6, 1830 remaining until May 1831, he was named again to that position by President Fernando Errázuriz on July 9, 1831 and remained until August 31, 1831 and named once again by President José Joaquín Prieto from November 9, 1835 to January 1837.
Something similar happened with his nomination as minister of war and navy from April 6, 1830 until May 1831. Though Portales was never president he became a dictator and with this powerful position, he quelled anarchy. Portales set up a civil militia; as a result of his campaign for peace and thus progress, business improved. In 1822, before his rise to power Portales wrote to a friend:Politics doesn't interest me, but as a good citizen I feel free to express my opinions and to censure the government. Democracy, so loudly proclaimed by the deluded is an absurdity in our countries, flooded as they are with vices and with their citizens lacking all sense of civic virtue, the prerequisite to establishing a real Republic, but monarchy is not the American ideal either. The Republican system is the one which we must adopt, but do you know how I interpret it for our countries? A strong central government whose representatives will be men of true virtue and patriotism, who thus can direct the citizens along the path of order and progress.
These words are demonstrative of the skepticism in pure democracies that the failed French revolution impressed upon many. Portales believed that to avoid disaster it was most important to create a stable and functioning government, rather than one ruled by lofty but impractical ideals, he believed in a peaceful but strong central government, that in order to run a state or country, citizens must be virtuous and patriotic and must consider the law as higher than any leader. Beyond these beliefs, P
The Khmer Rouge was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979. The name had been used in the 1950s by Norodom Sihanouk as a blanket term for the Cambodian left; the Khmer Rouge army was built up in the jungles of Eastern Cambodia during the late 1960s, supported by the North Vietnamese army, the Viet Cong and the Pathet Lao. Despite a massive American bombing campaign against them, the Khmer Rouge won the Cambodian Civil War when in 1975 they captured the Cambodian capital and overthrew the government of the Khmer Republic. Following their victory, the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen and Khieu Samphan renamed the country as Democratic Kampuchea and set about forcibly evacuating the country's major cities; the regime murdered hundreds of thousands of their perceived political opponents. The Cambodian genocide led to the deaths of 1.5 to 3 million people, around 25% of Cambodia's population.
The Khmer Rouge regime was autocratic, xenophobic and repressive. The genocide was in part the result of the regime's social engineering policies, its attempts at agricultural reform through collectivisation led to widespread famine while its insistence on absolute self-sufficiency in the supply of medicine, led to the death of many thousands from treatable diseases such as malaria. The Khmer Rouge's racist emphasis on national purity included several genocides of Cambodian minorities. Arbitrary executions and torture were carried out by its cadres against perceived subversive elements, or during genocidal purges of its own ranks between 1975 and 1978; the regime was removed from power in 1979 when Vietnam entered Cambodia and destroyed most of the Khmer Rouge's army. The Khmer Rouge fled to Thailand whose government saw them as a buffer force against the Communist Vietnamese; the US and China and their allies, notably the Thatcher government, backed Pol Pot in exile in Thailand, providing the Khmers with intelligence, food and military training.
The Khmer Rouge continued to fight the Vietnamese and the new People's Republic of Kampuchea government during the Cambodian–Vietnamese War which ended in 1989. The Cambodian governments-in-exile held onto Cambodia's United Nations seat until 1993, when the monarchy was restored and the name of the Cambodian state was changed from Democratic Cambodia to Kingdom of Cambodia. A year thousands of Khmer Rouge guerrillas surrendered themselves in a government amnesty. In 1996, a new political party called the Democratic National Union Movement was formed by Ieng Sary, granted amnesty for his role as the deputy leader of the Khmer Rouge; the organisation was dissolved by the mid-1990s and surrendered in 1999. In 2014, two Khmer Rouge leaders, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan, were jailed for life by a United Nations-backed court, which found them guilty of crimes against humanity for their roles in the Khmer Rouge's genocidal campaign; the Khmer Rouge dissolved sometime in December 1999. The term "Khmers rouges", French for "Red Khmers", was coined by Cambodian head of state Norodom Sihanouk and adopted by English speakers.
It was used to refer to a succession of communist parties in Cambodia which evolved into the Communist Party of Kampuchea and the Party of Democratic Kampuchea. Its military was known successively as the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army and the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea. In power, the movement's ideology was shaped by a power struggle during 1976 in which the so-called Party Centre led by Pol Pot defeated other regional elements of the leadership; the Party Centre's ideology combined elements of Marxism with a xenophobic form of Khmer nationalism. Due in part to secrecy and changes in the government's presentation of itself, academic interpretations of its political position within Marxist thought vary ranging from interpreting it as the "purest" Marxist-Leninist movement to characterising it as an anti-Marxist "peasant revolution", its leaders and theorists, most of whom had been exposed to the Stalinist outlook of the French Communist Party during the 1950s, developed a distinctive and eclectic "post-Leninist" ideology that drew on elements of Stalinism and the postcolonial theory of Frantz Fanon.
In the early 1970s, the Khmer Rouge looked to the model of Enver Hoxha's Albania, which they believed was the most advanced communist state in existence. Many of the regime's characteristics, such as its focus on the rural peasantry rather than the urban proletariat as the bulwark of revolution, its emphasis on Great Leap Forward-type initiatives, its desire to abolish personal interest in human behaviour, its promotion of communal living and eating and its focus on perceived common sense over technical knowledge appear to have been influenced by Maoist ideology. However, the Khmer Rouge displayed these characteristics in a more extreme form. While the CPK described itself as the "number 1 Communist state" once it was in power, some communist regimes such as Vietnam saw it as a Maoist deviation from orthodox Marxism; the Maoist and Khmer Rouge belief that human willpower could overcome material and historical conditions was at odds with mainstream Marxism, which emphasised materialism and the idea of history as inevitable progression.
Khmer ultranationalism was a defining characteristic of the regime, which combined an idealisation of the Angkor Empire with an exis
Martin Ludwig Bormann was a prominent official in Nazi Germany as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery. He gained immense power by using his position as Adolf Hitler's private secretary to control the flow of information and access to Hitler. After Hitler's suicide on 30 April 1945, he was Party Minister of the National Socialist German Workers' Party. Bormann joined a paramilitary Freikorps organisation in 1922 while working as manager of a large estate, he served nearly a year in prison as an accomplice to his friend Rudolf Höss in the murder of Walther Kadow. Bormann joined the Nazi Party in 1927 and the Schutzstaffel in 1937, he worked in the party's insurance service, transferred in July 1933 to the office of Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess, where he served as chief of staff. Bormann used his position to create an extensive bureaucracy and involve himself as much as possible in the decision making, he gained acceptance into Hitler's inner circle, accompanied him everywhere, providing briefings and summaries of events and requests.
He began acting as Hitler's personal secretary on 12 August 1935. Bormann assumed Hess' former duties, with the title of Head of the Parteikanzlei, after Hess' solo flight to Britain on 10 May 1941 to seek peace negotiations with the British government, he had final approval over civil service appointments and approved legislation, by 1943 had de facto control over all domestic matters. Bormann was one of the leading proponents of the ongoing persecution of the Christian churches and favoured harsh treatment of Jews and Slavs in the areas conquered by Germany during World War II. Bormann returned with Hitler to the Führerbunker in Berlin on 16 January 1945 as the Red Army approached the city. After Hitler committed suicide and others attempted to flee Berlin on 2 May to avoid capture by the Soviets. Bormann committed suicide on a bridge near Lehrter station, his body was buried nearby on 8 May 1945, but was not found and confirmed as Bormann's until 1972. Bormann was tried in absentia by the International Military Tribunal in the Nuremberg trials of 1945 and 1946.
He was sentenced to death by hanging. Born in Wegeleben in the Kingdom of Prussia in the German Empire, Bormann was the son of Theodor Bormann, a post office employee, his second wife, Antonie Bernhardine Mennong; the family was Lutheran. He had two half-siblings from his father's earlier marriage to Louise Grobler, who died in 1898. Antonie Bormann gave birth to three sons. Martin and Albert survived to adulthood. Theodor died when Bormann was three, his mother soon remarried. Bormann's studies at an agricultural trade high school were interrupted when he joined the 55th Field Artillery Regiment as a gunner in June 1918, in the last days of World War I, he never saw action, but served garrison duty until February 1919. After working a short time in a cattle feed mill, Bormann became estate manager of a large farm in Mecklenburg. Shortly after starting work at the estate, Bormann joined an antisemitic landowners association. While hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic meant that money was worthless, foodstuffs stored on farms and estates became more valuable.
Many estates, including Bormann's, had Freikorps units stationed on site to guard the crops from pillaging. Bormann joined the Freikorps organisation headed by Gerhard Roßbach in 1922, acting as section leader and treasurer. On 17 March 1924 Bormann was sentenced to a year in Elisabethstrasse Prison as an accomplice to his friend Rudolf Höss in the murder of Walther Kadow; the perpetrators believed Kadow had tipped off the French occupation authorities in the Ruhr District that fellow Freikorps member Albert Leo Schlageter was carrying out sabotage operations against French industries. Schlageter was arrested and was executed on 23 May 1923. On the night of 31 May, Höss, Bormann and several others took Kadow into a meadow out of town, where he was beaten and his throat cut. After one of the perpetrators confessed, police laid charges in July. Bormann was released from prison in February 1925, he joined the Frontbann, a short-lived Nazi Party paramilitary organisation created to replace the Sturmabteilung, banned in the aftermath of the failed Munich Putsch.
Bormann returned to his job at Mecklenburg and remained there until May 1926, when he moved in with his mother in Oberweimar. In 1927, Bormann joined the National Socialist German Workers Party, his membership number was 60,508. He joined the Schutzstaffel on 1 January 1937 with number 278,267. By special order of Heinrich Himmler in 1938, Bormann was granted SS number 555 to reflect his Alter Kämpfer status. Bormann took a job with Der Nationalsozialist, a weekly paper edited by NSDAP member Hans Severus Ziegler, deputy Gauleiter for Thuringia. After joining the NSDAP in 1927, Bormann began duties as regional press officer, but his lack of public-speaking skills made him ill-suited to this position, he soon put his organisational skills to use as business manager for the Gau. He moved to Munich in October 1928; the NSDAP provided coverage through insurance companies for members who were hurt or killed in the frequent violent skirmishes with members of other political parties. As insurance companies were unwilling to pay out claims for such activities, in 1930 Bormann set up the Hilfskasse der NSDAP, a be