Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. Various grains are used for different varieties, including barley, corn and wheat. Whisky is aged in wooden casks made of charred white oak. Whisky is a regulated spirit worldwide with many classes and types; the typical unifying characteristics of the different classes and types are the fermentation of grains and aging in wooden barrels. The word whisky is an anglicisation of the Classical Gaelic word uisce meaning "water". Distilled alcohol was known in Latin as aqua vitae; this was translated into Old Irish as uisce beatha, which became uisce beatha in Irish and uisge beatha in Scottish Gaelic. Early forms of the word in English included uskebeaghe, usquebaugh and usquebae. Much is made of the word's two spellings: whiskey. There are two schools of thought on the issue. One is that the spelling difference is a matter of regional language convention for the spelling of a word, indicating that the spelling varies depending on the intended audience or the background or personal preferences of the writer, the other is that the spelling should depend on the style or origin of the spirit being described.
There is general agreement that when quoting the proper name printed on a label, the spelling on the label should not be altered. The spelling whiskey is common in Ireland and the United States, while whisky is used in all other whisky producing countries. In the US, the usage has not always been consistent. From the late eighteenth century to the mid twentieth century, American writers used both spellings interchangeably until the introduction of newspaper style guides. Since the 1960s, American writers have used whiskey as the accepted spelling for aged grain spirits made in the US and whisky for aged grain spirits made outside the US. However, some prominent American brands, such as George Dickel, Maker's Mark, Old Forester, use the whisky spelling on their labels, the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, the legal regulations for spirit in the US use the whisky spelling throughout. Whisky made in Scotland is known as Scotch whisky, or as "Scotch", it is possible that distillation was practised by the Babylonians in Mesopotamia in the 2nd millennium BC, with perfumes and aromatics being distilled, but this is subject to uncertain and disputed interpretations of evidence.
The earliest certain chemical distillations were by Greeks in Alexandria in the 1st century AD, but these were not distillations of alcohol. The medieval Arabs adopted the distillation technique of the Alexandrian Greeks, written records in Arabic begin in the 9th century, but again these were not distillations of alcohol. Distilling technology passed from the medieval Arabs to the medieval Latins, with the earliest records in Latin in the early 12th century; the earliest records of the distillation of alcohol are in Italy in the 13th century, where alcohol was distilled from wine. An early description of the technique was given by Ramon Llull, its use spread through medieval monasteries for medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of colic and smallpox. The art of distillation spread to Ireland and Scotland no than the 15th century, as did the common European practice of distilling "aqua vitae", spirit alcohol for medicinal purposes; the practice of medicinal distillation passed from a monastic setting to the secular via professional medical practitioners of the time, The Guild of Barber Surgeons.
The earliest mention of whisky in Ireland comes from the seventeenth-century Annals of Clonmacnoise, which attributes the death of a chieftain in 1405 to "taking a surfeit of aqua vitae" at Christmas. In Scotland, the first evidence of whisky production comes from an entry in the Exchequer Rolls for 1494 where malt is sent "To Friar John Cor, by order of the king, to make aquavitae", enough to make about 500 bottles. James IV of Scotland had a great liking for Scotch whisky, in 1506 the town of Dundee purchased a large amount of whisky from the Guild of Barber Surgeons, which held the monopoly on production at the time. Between 1536 and 1541, King Henry VIII of England dissolved the monasteries, sending their monks out into the general public. Whisky production moved out of a monastic setting and into personal homes and farms as newly independent monks needed to find a way to earn money for themselves; the distillation process was still in its infancy. Renaissance-era whisky was very potent and not diluted.
Over time whisky evolved into a much smoother drink. With a license to distill Irish whiskey from 1608, the Old Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland is the oldest licensed whiskey distillery in the world. In 1707, the Acts of Union merged England and Scotland, thereafter taxes on it rose dramatically. After the English Malt Tax of 1725, most of Scotland's distillation was either shut down or forced underground. Scotch whisky was hidden under altars, in coffins, in any available space to avoid the governmental excisemen or revenuers. Scottish distillers, operating out of homemade stills, took to distilling whisky at night when the darkness hid the smoke from the stills. For this reason, the drink became known as moonshine. At one point, it was estimated that over half of Scotland'
Knappogue Castle Irish Whiskey
Knappogue Castle Irish Whiskey is a brand of premium single malt Irish whiskey produced by Castle Brands Inc. It is one of the few independent bottlings of Irish whiskey available on the market; the brand is named for historic Knappogue Castle in County Clare, Ireland built by Clan MacNamara in 1467. Knappogue Castle is known for bottling one of the oldest and rarest known Irish whiskies, Knappogue Castle 1951, a pot still whiskey produced at the now-defunct B. Daly Distillery. In 1966, Mark Edwin Andrews and his wife Lavone´ purchased Knappogue Castle in County Clare; as they renovated the structure, Mark Andrews amassed a collection of rare single malt Irish whiskey, which he bottled and named Knappogue Castle 1951 after the historic building. He focused on the whiskeys once produced at the B. Daly Distillery in County Offaly, which ceased whiskey production in 1954; the castle was purchased by Shannon Development in 1996, is now a venue for weddings and banquets. In 1998, his son, Mark Edwin Andrews III, launched Great Spirits LLC, which made Knappogue Castle 1951 available to the public.
In 1999, the company introduced vintage-dated single malts, under the same brand name. In 2003, the Great Spirits was merged into Castle Brands Inc, in 2010, Castle Brands introduced Knappogue Castle 12 Year Old Single Malt. Knappogue continues to source its whiskey from other distilleries including the Cooley Distillery. Knappogue Castle has several different products. Knappogue Castle 12 Year Old Single Malt: Marketed as a “super premium” Irish single-malt, Knappogue Castle is distilled three times, adds no color to its final product, it is aged in bourbon barrels for 12 years before bottling. 80 proof. Knappogue Castle 14 Year Old Twin Wood: A blend of Irish single malt aged 14 years in bourbon casks, Irish single malt aged in Oloroso sherry casks. 92 proof. Knappogue Castle 16 Year Old Twin Wood: Aged for 14 years in bourbon casks aged for 21 months in Oloroso sherry casks. 80 proof Knappogue Castle 1951: Often described as “the oldest and rarest single malt Irish whiskey in the world,” the whiskey was distilled in 1951 and aged in sherry casks for 36 years, before being bottled in 1987.
Limited Releases: Knappogue Castle Master Distillers Knappogue Castle 17 Year Old Knappogue Castle 1949: "A Very Special Reserve of Unblended Pot Still Pure Malt, 30 Years of Age, Put down in 1949, Bottled in Bond in 1981. Produced for the Hon. Mark Edwin Andrews." This release is much more rare. Knappogue Castle Whiskey is well received. Drinkspirits.com called Knappogue Castle 12 Year Old “a perfect example of a great Irish whiskey that manages to capture a great deal of flavor and complexity from the malted barley and present them in a light and affable manner.” In 2014, Knappogue received a rating of 92 at the Ultimate Beverage Challenge. Irish Whiskey Irish whiskey brands Brand Website Castle Brands Inc Website Shannon Heritage Website
Single pot still whiskey
Single pot still whiskey is a style of Irish whiskey made by a single distillery from a mixed mash of malted and unmalted barley distilled in a pot still. Somewhat similar to single malt whiskey, the style was defined by its inclusion of unmalted raw barley in the mash in addition to malt. However, small amounts of raw oats or wheat may have been used at times; this unmalted component is said to give single pot whiskey a "spicier bristle" and "thicker texture" than the otherwise similar single malt whiskeys. If the whiskey is not distilled on the site of a single distillery it may be termed pot still whiskey but not single pot still whiskey. Once the most popular type of whiskey in the world, this style of whiskey was referred to as pure pot still whiskey, Irish-style pot still whiskey, or – in Ireland – as pot still whiskey; the term "single pot still" was only introduced in recent years to overcome the United States Tax and Trade Bureau's objections to the use of the term "pure" in the labeling of food and drink.
The term should not be confused with the theoretical concept of whiskey produced in a pot still. Whiskey has been distilled in Ireland since at least the 1400s and most as early as the 6th century. Single pot still whiskey emerged as a means of avoiding a tax introduced in 1785 on the use of malted barley. Although this tax was repealed, the popularity of the style endured until the emergence of blends in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the 1800s, single pot still whiskey was the most popular style of whiskey in the world and formed the bulk of Ireland's whiskey exports. However, with the rise of cheaper, milder blended whiskeys in the 20th century, single pot still whiskey declined in popularity, many all-pot-still brands changed their production to become blends. By 1980, only two specialist bottlings remained in existence, Green Spot and Redbreast, with one in danger of being discontinued. However, in recent years, a resurgence in whiskey distilling in Ireland has led to the launch of several new single pot still whiskeys.
In addition to the general regulations governing the production of Irish whiskey, Irish government regulations stipulate that Irish pot still whiskey must be: Distilled from a mash of a combination of malted barley, unmalted barley, other unmalted cereals In a pot still so that the distillate has the aroma and taste of the materials used Made with a minimum of 30% malted barley and 30% unmalted barleyIn addition, the regulations state: Up to 5% of other cereals, such as oats or rye, may be used Traditionally triple distillation is used, although double distillation is acceptable As of 2018, there are a handful of single pot still whiskeys on the market. However, due to the construction of several new distilleries in Ireland in recent years, several more single pot whiskeys are expected to be released in the coming years; those available as of mid-2018 include: Dingle Single Pot Still Green Spot and Yellow Spot Method & Madness Single Pot Still Midleton Powers Redbreast Teeling Single Pot Still Single Pot Still Single Pot Still whiskey portal run by Irish Distillers
A baronet or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess, is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour, not a peerage, with the exception of the Anglo-Irish Black Knight, White Knight and Green Knight. A baronet is addressed as "Sir" or "Dame" in the case of a baronetess but ranks above all knighthoods and damehoods in the order of precedence, except for the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Thistle, the dormant Order of St Patrick. Baronets are conventionally seen to belong to the lesser nobility though William Thoms claims that "The precise quality of this dignity is not yet determined, some holding it to be the head of the nobiles minores, while others, rank Baronets as the lowest of the nobiles majores, because their honour, like that of the higher nobility, is both hereditary and created by patent."Comparisons with continental titles and ranks are tenuous due to the British system of primogeniture and the fact that claims to baronetcies must be proven.
In practice this means that the UK Peerage and Baronetage consists of about 2000 families, 0.01% of UK families. In some continental countries the nobility consisted of about 5% of the population, in most countries titles are no longer recognised or regulated by the state; the term baronet has medieval origins. Sir Thomas de La More, describing the Battle of Boroughbridge, mentioned that baronets took part, along with barons and knights. Edward III is known to have created eight baronets in 1328. Present-day Baronets date from 1611 when James I granted Letters Patent to 200 gentlemen of good birth with an income of at least £1,000 a year. In 1619 James I established the Baronetage of Ireland; the new baronets were each required to pay 2,000 marks or to support six colonial settlers for two years. Over a hundred of these baronetcies, now familiarly known as Scottish baronetcies, survive to this day; as a result of the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, all future creations were styled baronets of Great Britain.
Following the Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, new creations were styled as baronets of the United Kingdom. Under royal warrants of 1612 and 1613, certain privileges were accorded to baronets. Firstly, no person or persons should have the younger sons of peers. Secondly, the right of knighthood was established for the eldest sons of baronets, thirdly, baronets were allowed to augment their armorial bearings with the Arms of Ulster on an inescutcheon: "in a field Argent, a Hand Geules"; these privileges were extended to baronets of Ireland, for baronets of Scotland the privilege of depicting the Arms of Nova Scotia as an augmentation of honour. The former applies to this day for all baronets of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom created subsequently; the title of baronet was conferred upon noblemen who lost the right of individual summons to Parliament, was used in this sense in a statute of Richard II. A similar title of lower rank was banneret. Since 1965 only one new baronetcy has been created, for Sir Denis Thatcher on 7 December 1990, husband of a former British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher.
Like knights, baronets are accorded the style "Sir" before their first name. Baronetesses in their own right use "Dame" before their first name, while wives of baronets use "Lady" followed by the husband's surname only, this by longstanding courtesy. Wives of baronets are not baronetesses. Unlike knighthoods – which apply to the recipient only – a baronetcy is hereditarily entailed; the eldest son of a baronet, born in wedlock succeeds to a baronetcy upon his father's death, but will not be recognised until his name is recognised by being placed on the Official Roll. With some exceptions granted with special remainder by letters patent, baronetcies descend through the male line. A full list of extant baronets appears in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, which published a record of extinct baronetcies. A baronetcy is not a peerage, so baronets like knights and junior members of peerage families are commoners and not peers of the realm. According to the Home Office there is a tangible benefit to the honour of baronet: according to law, a baronet is entitled to have "a pall supported by two men, a principal mourner and four others" assisting at his funeral.
Baronets had other rights, including the right to have the eldest son knighted on his 21st birthday. However, at the beginning of George IV's reign, these rights were eroded by Orders-in-Council on the grounds that Sovereigns should not be bound by acts made by their predecessors. Baronets although never having been automatically entitled to heraldic supporters, were allowed them in heredity in the first half of the 19th century where the title holder was a
Old Bushmills Distillery
The Old Bushmills Distillery is a distillery in Bushmills, County Antrim, Northern Ireland. As of December 2014, it was in the process of transitioning from ownership by Diageo plc to Jose Cuervo. All of the whiskey bottled under the Bushmills whiskey brand is produced at the Bushmills Distillery and uses water drawn from Saint Columb's Rill, a tributary of the River Bush; the distillery is a popular tourist attraction, with around 120,000 visitors per year. The company that built the distillery was formed in 1784, although the date 1608 is printed on the label of the brand – referring to an earlier date when a royal licence was granted to a local landowner to distil whiskey in the area. After various periods of closure in its subsequent history, the distillery has been in continuous operation since it was rebuilt after a fire in 1885; the area has a long tradition with distillation. According to one story, as far back as 1276, an early settler called Sir Robert Savage of Ards, before defeating the Irish in battle, fortified his troops with "a mighty drop of acqua vitae".
In 1608, a licence was granted to Sir Thomas Phillips by King James I to distil whiskey. For the next seven years, within the countie of Colrane, otherwise called O Cahanes countrey, or within the territorie called Rowte, in Co. Antrim, by himselfe or his servauntes, to make and distil such and soe great quantities of aquavite and aqua composita, as he or his assignes shall thinke fitt; the Bushmills Old Distillery Company itself was not established until 1784 by Hugh Anderson. Bushmills suffered many lean years with numerous periods of closure with no record of the distillery being in operation in the official records both in 1802 and in 1822. In 1860 a Belfast spirit merchant named Jame Patrick Corrigan bought the distillery. In 1885, the original Bushmills buildings were destroyed by fire but the distillery was swiftly rebuilt. In 1890, a steamship owned and operated by the distillery, SS Bushmills, made its maiden voyage across the Atlantic to deliver Bushmills whiskey to America, it called at Philadelphia and New York City before heading on to Singapore, Hong Kong and Yokohama.
In the early 20th century, the U. S. was a important market for Bushmills. American Prohibition in 1920 came as a large blow to the Irish Whiskey industry, but Bushmills managed to survive. Wilson Boyd, Bushmills' director at the time, predicted the end of prohibition and had large stores of whiskey ready to export. After the Second World War, the distillery was bought by Isaac Wolfson, and, in 1972, it was taken over by Irish Distillers, meaning that Irish Distillers controlled the production of all Irish whiskey at the time. In June 1988, Irish Distillers was bought by French liquor group Pernod Ricard. In June 2005, the distillery was bought by Diageo for £200 million. Diageo have announced a large advertising campaign in order to regain a market share for Bushmills. In May 2008, the Bank of Ireland issued a new series of sterling banknotes in Northern Ireland which all feature an illustration of the Old Bushmills Distillery on the obverse side, replacing the previous notes series which depicted Queen's University of Belfast.
In November 2014 it was announced that Diageo had traded the Bushmills brand with Jose Cuervo in exchange for the 50% of the Don Julio brand of tequila that Diageo did not own. Bushmills Original – Irish whiskey blend sometimes called White Bush or Bushmills White Label; the grain whiskey is matured in American oak casks. Black Bush – A blend with a greater proportion of malt whiskey than the white label, it features malt whiskey aged in casks used for Spanish Oloroso sherry. Red Bush – Like the Black Bush, this is a blend with a higher proportion of malt whiskey than the standard bottling, but in contrast the malt whiskey has been matured in ex-bourbon casks. Bushmills 10 year single malt – Combines malt whiskeys aged at least 10 years in American bourbon or Oloroso sherry casks. Bushmills 16 year single malt – Malt whiskeys aged at least 16 years in American bourbon barrels or Spanish Oloroso sherry butts are mixed together before finishing in Port pipes for a few months. Bushmills 21 year single malt – A limited number of 21 year bottles are made each year.
After 19 years, bourbon-barrel-aged and sherry-cask-aged malt whiskeys are combined, followed by two years of finishing in Madeira drums. Bushmills 1608: Originally released as a special 400th Anniversary whiskey; some Bushmills offerings have performed well at international Spirit ratings competitions. In particular, its Black Bush Finest Blended Whiskey received double gold medals at the 2007 and 2010 San Francisco World Spirits Competitions, it received a well-above-average score of 93 from the Beverage Testing Institute in 2008 and 2011. The band NOFX mentions Bushmills in the song "Theme From A NOFX Album" on the 2000 release Pump Up The Valuum Tom Waits mentions'Old Bushmills' in the song "Tom Traubert's Blues" In the third-season episode of The Wire, Back Burners, Jimmy McNulty refers to Bushmills as "Protestant whiskey" when he is offered it after being told Jameson is unavailable Burt Reynolds plays a Police Lieutenant in the 1975 movie Hustle whose favorite alcohol is Bushmills Todd Rundgren cites "a half a pint of Bushmills" as a poor substitute for love in his song Hungry For Love from the 1973 album A Wizard, A True Star In the 1982 film The Verdict, the Paul Newman character Frank Gavin orders Bushm
A column still called a continuous still, patent still or Coffey still, is a variety of still consisting of two columns. Sir Anthony Perrier was operator of the Spring Lane distillery in Cork, Ireland from 1806. In 1822 he patented one of Europe's first continuous whiskey stills, a method that during distillation allowed the wash to flow and continuously over the heat through a labyrinth of partitions; this meant small portions of fermented "wash" received the greatest amount of heat, thereby increasing the amount of potable alcohol, collected. In 1828, Perrier's invention inspired a Scotsman, Robert Stein, to create a still that fed the "wash" through a column of partitions, he called it a "patent still". It was first used at the Cameron Bridge Grain Distillery in Scotland. Despite numerous presentations in the British Isles and in Europe, he never got the financial support needed to get his project off the ground and into the distilleries. However, a demonstration of Stein's still observed by a Dublin excise tax collector, Aeneas Coffey, yielded the greatest result.
The design was to be patented by an Irishman, Aeneas Coffey. Educated at Dublin's Trinity College, Coffey had ample opportunities to observe all manner of still designs because he had worked for a quarter of a century as an excise tax collector, he knew. He knew that the new continuous stills had a flaw. To obtain a higher proof spirit, receiving vessels had to be changed so multiple distillations could take place. Coffey opened the Dock Distillery on Grand Canal Street in Dublin; the main feature of his operation was a customised still of his own design—or rather Stein’s design with a minor modification. Coffey inserted two pipes into Stein’s column still that allowed a greater portion of the vapours to re-circulate into the still instead of flowing into the receiver with the spirit; this eliminated the need for multi-distillation and produced a spirit with a higher proof and lighter character. In 1830, he was granted Patent a two-column continuous still. Nearly every liquor producer in Europe and the Americas embraced Coffey's new continuous column still.
Cuban rum, vodka, blended Scotch whisky, blended Irish whiskey all gained new stature as output went through the roof and the character of the spirit became smoother and more palatable. Within five years of receiving his patent, Coffey had enough orders to warrant the establishment of Aeneas Coffey & Sons in London, a company that remains in operation today under the name John Dore & Co Limited, he closed Dock Distillery four years and devoted all of his time to building and installing stills in distilleries owned by others. At the time, Irish distillers were the dominant force in global whiskey production. For Coffey, his invention was shunned by the Irish who considered the whiskey produced from his still as bland and tasteless, they decided to persevere with their famous pot still whiskey and Coffey was forced to look overseas and to Scotland in particular. The first column in a column still wash descending through several levels; the second column carries the alcohol from the wash, where it circulates until it can condense at the required strength.
Column stills behave like a series of single pot stills, formed in a long vertical tube. The tube is filled with bubble plates; the rising vapor, low in alcohol, starts to condense in the cooler, higher level of the column. The temperature of each successively higher stage is lower than the previous stage, so the vapor in equilibrium with the liquid at each stage is progressively more enriched with alcohol. Whereas a single pot still charged with wine might yield a vapor enriched to 40–50% alcohol, a column still can achieve a vapor alcohol content of 96%. Further enrichment is only possible by absorbing the remaining water using other means, such as hydrophilic chemicals or azeotropic distillation. A column still is an example of a fractional distillation, in that it yields a narrow fraction of the distillable components; this technique is employed in chemical synthesis. A continuous still can, sustain a constant process of distillation. This, along with the ability to produce a higher concentration of alcohol in the final distillate, is its main advantage over a pot still, which can only work in batches.
Continuous stills are charged with preheated feed liquor at some point in the column. Heat is supplied to the base of the column. Stripped liquid is drawn off at the base, while alcoholic spirits are condensed after migrating to the top of the column. Column stills are used in the production of grain whisky and are the most used type of still in the production of Bourbon and other American whiskeys. Distillation by column still is the traditional method for production of Armagnac, although distillation by pot still is allowed; the use of column stills for the distillation of Cognac is forbidden. Distillation by column stills are permitted for Calvados Domfrontais. Calvados Pays d'Auge AOC is required to be distilled by pot still. Pot still Batch distillation Coffey still
National College of Art and Design
The National College of Art and Design is Ireland's oldest art institution, offering the largest range of art and design degrees at undergraduate and postgraduate level in the country. Originating as a drawing school in 1746, many of the most important Irish artists and art educators have studied or taught in the college. NCAD has always been located in central Dublin, in 1980 it relocated to the historic Liberties area; the College has around 950 full-time students and a further 600 pursuing part-time courses, NCAD's students come from more than forty countries. NCAD is a Recognised College of University College Dublin, it is a member of the European League of Institutes of the Arts. The National College of Art and Design can trace its origins in an unbroken line back to the drawing school set up by Robert West in George's Lane, in 1746, sponsored by the Dublin Society; the institution has been influenced in turn by the French Enlightenment, the Victorian schools of design, including industrial design, the Arts and Crafts movement, the search for Irish national identity and innovations in British art education in the 1960s.
The school has played a role in Irish social and cultural developments - it had a significant influence on the eighteenth century Irish school of painting and sculpture and it affected the standard of applied ornament in architecture and crafts. Most Irish artists of importance have spent some time in the college, in the twentieth century the teaching staff has included Sir William Orpen, Oliver Sheppard, Oswald Reeves, Harry Clarke, Seán Keating, Maurice MacGonigal, Laurence Campbell and Bernardus Romein; the opening up of Irish culture in the 1960s had a profound effect on the college, resulting in years of student disturbances and closures by the government. Central to this was the debate about Modernism versus traditional discipline and the control exercised by the Department of Education and its predecessors. There was the pressure for industrial design reform in face of the new economic future of an independent Ireland, again within the Common Market; the consequence of all this revolution was a statute of 1971 which re-established the college, granting it freedom to run its own affairs academically.
The college was further restructured in 1975 and a wide range of degree courses developed. Following its relocation to Thomas Street in the early 1980s, the college expanded its offer of undergraduate courses and introduced a range of postgraduate courses and research based options up to PhD level. 1746: The Dublin Society decided to subsidise Robert West's Drawing School in George's Lane by means of student premiums. 1750: the Dublin Society set aside rooms for a drawing school at their premises in Shaw's Court off Dame Street - the stables there were converted into drawing schools. West was the Master of the Figure School and James Marrin was the Master of the Landscape and Ornamental School. Thomas Ivory was Master of the Architectural School. Throughout the 18th century, the Dublin Parliament gave an annual grant to the Dublin Society, which included support for the school. In fact this was the only state supported school in Great Ireland; the Society awarded prizes and medals to the best students annually, as well as to the Irish artistic community at large.
1767: the Society moved to a new building in Grafton Street, to which the Drawing Schools were moved from Shaw's Court. 1796: The Society and its Schools were established in Hawkins Street. 1800: From this year the State subsidy began to come from the United Kingdom parliament at Westminster. This led to a great deal of ongoing friction with the Treasury and other branches of government in London, as the Westminster establishment was much less sympathetic to the Society and its work and sought to centralise direct control from London. 1811: A fourth school — in addition to Figure Drawing, Landscape & Ornamental Drawing, Architectural Drawing — was added: the School of Modelling, to which the eminent Irish sculptor Edward Smyth was appointed as Head. All Schools, with the exception of the School of Modelling, offered only drawing — no painting; the method of teaching was by means of drawing the nude model, the antique, copying prints and drawings. The training in drawing ornamental patterns was a key element, becoming the chief element after 1854.
1815: The Society moved to Leinster House on Kildare Street and shortly afterwards converted stables for use as a drawing school. The stables were on a site used by the National Library. 1820: The Dublin Society became the Royal Dublin Society. 1827: Permanent drawing schools were built beside Leinster House together with the gallery overhead, used to exhibit the Society's teaching collection of sculpture and works of art generally. The schools were below, in the basement. 1849: The Board of Trade in London took control of the School as a school of design and gave it a direct vote of funding, managed by the Royal Dublin Society. 1854: Control of the School now passed to the newly established Department of Science and Art, based in South Kensington, London. The School was made to conform to the new London syllabus emphasising design education. Fine art education in the 19th century in Ireland was the province of the Royal Hibernian Academy. 1877: The School was bought out from the Royal Dublin Society by the British Government and becomes the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art, a school wholly centrally-supported through the Department of Science and Art, dealing locally with the Director of Science and Art in Dublin, responsible for the Library and Museum and certain other institutions.
During the late 19th century design for lace was promoted in the Scho