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Powers of Ten (film)

The Powers of Ten films are two short American documentary films written and directed by Charles and Ray Eames. Both works depict the relative scale of the Universe according to an order of magnitude based on a factor of ten, first expanding out from the Earth until the entire universe is surveyed reducing inward until a single atom and its quarks are observed; the first film: A Rough Sketch for a Proposed Film Dealing with the Powers of Ten and the Relative Size of Things in the Universe — was a prototype and was completed in 1968. The Powers of Ten films were adaptations of the book Cosmic View by Dutch educator Kees Boeke. Both films, a book based on the second film, follow the form of the Boeke original, adding color and photography to the black and white drawings employed by Boeke in his seminal work; the 1977 film has a number of changes from the prototype, including being in color, moving the starting location from Miami to Chicago, removing the relativistic dimension, introducing an additional two powers of ten at each extreme, a change in narrator from Judith Bronowski to Philip Morrison, much improved graphics.

In 1998, Powers of Ten was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". This version of the film has two clocks in the corner showing the comparison between the viewer's time and that of earth time; as the viewer's speed increases, earth time, relative to the viewer increases. It was installed in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum's Life in the Universe gallery at the time of the museum's opening in 1976, until the gallery's closure in 1978. There is a 1968 National Film Board of Canada film entitled Cosmic Zoom which covers the same subject using animation, it is wordless. The film begins with an overhead view of a man and woman picnicking in a park at the Chicago lakefront — a one-meter-square overhead image of the figures on a blanket surrounded by food and books they brought with them, one of them being The Voices of Time by J. T. Fraser; the man sleeps, while the woman starts to read one of the books.

The viewpoint, accompanied by expository voiceover by Philip Morrison slowly zooms out to a view ten meters across. The zoom-out continues, to a view of 100 meters (where they are shown to be in Burnham Park, near Soldier Field 1 kilometer, so on, increasing the perspective and continuing to zoom out to a field of view of 1024 meters, or the size of the observable universe; the camera zooms back in at a rate of a power of ten per 2 seconds to the picnic, slows back down to its original rate into the man's hand, to views of negative powers of ten—10−1 m, so forth, revealing a skin cell and zooming in on it—until the camera comes to quarks in a proton of a carbon atom at 10−16 meter. Morrison, Philip. Powers of Ten: A Book About the Relative Size of Things in the Universe and the Effect of Adding another Zero. Scientific American Library. ISBN 978-0-7167-6008-5. Cosmic Zoom, an eight-minute short from Canada. Cosmic Voyage, a loose remake of Powers of Ten in IMAX format for the National Air and Space Museum.

Contact, whose computer-generated opening sequence pulls back from the Earth to the whole of the known universe, is inspired by Powers of Ten. Cosmic Eye, complete remake of Powers of Ten based on state-of-the-art data available as iPhone/iPad/iPod app Video on YouTube Cozmic Zoom, a mobile application available on Android; the music video for the Sara Bareilles song "Gravity" is an homage to Powers of Ten. Rapper, Big K. R. I. T. Tributed Powers of Ten in his music video for the Bigger Picture List of American films of 1968 Orders of magnitude Earth's location in the universe Official website: "Powers of Ten". Archived from the original on June 18, 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2015. Exhibit at the California Academy of Sciences Powers of Ten" on YouTube Powers of Ten at the Internet Movie Database The Scale of the Universe 2 - an interactive web site exploring the same concept Powers of Ten at Pyramid Media

Family-wise error rate

In statistics, family-wise error rate is the probability of making one or more false discoveries, or type I errors when performing multiple hypotheses tests. Tukey coined the terms experimentwise error rate and "error rate per-experiment" to indicate error rates that the researcher could use as a control level in a multiple hypothesis experiment. Within the statistical framework, there are several definitions for the term "family": Hochberg & Tamhane defined "family" in 1987 as "any collection of inferences for which it is meaningful to take into account some combined measure of error". According to Cox in 1982, a set of inferences should be regarded a family:To take into account the selection effect due to data dredging To ensure simultaneous correctness of a set of inferences as to guarantee a correct overall decisionTo summarize, a family could best be defined by the potential selective inference, being faced: A family is the smallest set of items of inference in an analysis, interchangeable about their meaning for the goal of research, from which selection of results for action, presentation or highlighting could be made.

The following table defines the possible outcomes. Suppose we have a number m of null hypotheses, denoted by: H1, H2... Hm. Using a statistical test, we reject. We do not reject the null hypothesis. Summing each type of outcome over all Hi yields the following random variables: m is the total number hypotheses tested m 0 is the number of true null hypotheses, an unknown parameter m − m 0 is the number of true alternative hypotheses V is the number of false positives S is the number of true positives T is the number of false negatives U is the number of true negatives R = V + S is the number of rejected null hypotheses In m hypothesis tests of which m 0 are true null hypotheses, R is an observable random variable, S, T, U, V are unobservable random variables; the FWER is the probability of making at least one type I error in the family, F W E R = Pr, or equivalently, F W E R = 1 − Pr. Thus, by assuring F W E R ≤ α, the probability of making one or more type I errors in the family is controlled at level α.

A procedure controls the FWER in the weak sense if the FWER control at level α is guaranteed only when all null hypotheses are true. A procedure controls the FWER in the strong sense if the FWER control at level α is guaranteed for any configuration of true and non-true null hypotheses; some classical solutions that ensure strong level α FWER control, some newer solutions exist. Denote by p i the p-value for testing H i reject H i if p i ≤ α m Testing each hypothesis at level α S I D = 1 − 1 m is Sidak's multiple testing procedure; this procedure is more powerful than Bonferroni but the gain is small. This procedure can fail to control the FWER. Tukey's procedure is only applicable for pairwise comparisons, it assumes independence of the observations being tested, as well as equal variation across observations. The procedure calculates for each pair the studentized range statistic: Y A − Y B S E where Y A is the larger of the two means being compared, Y B is the smaller, S E is the standard error of the data in question.

Tukey's test is a Student's t-test, except that it corrects for family-wise error-rate. Start by ordering the p-values P … P and let the associated hypotheses be H … H Let k be the min


Lisakovsk is a city in Kostanay Region of northwestern Kazakhstan. It's located about 105 km SW of the regional capital city Kostanay on the right bank of the Tobol River. Population: 36,622; the city owes its existence to a high-phosphorus, 1.72 billion-ton iron ore deposit discovered in 1949. The government began to create a village in the wilderness to house miners. In 1971 the village became a city. 1991 ore production was 6.2 million tons. In the mid-eighties construction of a chemical plant was begun, but construction was interrupted after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In the early 1990s mining in Lisakovsk was in a critical situation due to a sharp fall in demand for iron concentrate in the metallurgical industry in Kazakhstan and Russia. City authorities had to take extraordinary steps to maintain the economy and to develop new industries. By decision of the Kazakhi Parliament, the city became a free economic zone in 1992, it began searching for new kinds of employment in a market economy.

Representatives of 51 different nationalities live in the city. During January–May 2010, industrial enterprises of all kinds produced goods worth 8,289.3 million tenge, 148.5% more than it produced in January–May 2009. The mining industry during this period produced goods worth 6292.7 million tenge, 175% higher than the corresponding level last year. In comparison with January–May 2009 iron ore increased by 0.8%, bauxite by 9.5%, zinc ore extraction increased 4.5 times. The share of mining citywide was 75.9%. The manufacturing industry in January–May 2010 produced products to 1307 million tenge, lower than the corresponding period last year by 4.6%. 80.1% of manufacture by volume is the production of food: food products produced 1046.7 million tenge. In the machinery industry in January–May of this year 4 agricultural harvesters. Assembling the reapers made when receiving the order; the garment industry produced 1,716 units. Amounting to 4.5 million tenge. The production of polyethylene film, corrugated cardboard and wood products-on 2.2%.

In the area of distribution of electricity and water production volume amounted to 689.6 million tenge. In 1984 settlements and cemeteries of the Bronze Age were found; the Andronovo culture complex dates from the 15th-18th centuries BC. Over the years research has revealed more than two thousand square meters of settlements and excavated more than a hundred and fifty burial structures in the form of burial mounds and stone walls; these findings characterize the basic life-support systems and religious ideas of Indo-Iranian tribes that lived in the steppe zone of the Upper Pritobolya in the mid-second millennium BC. The collection of the Lisakovsk city museum, which houses the bulk of the finds, includes more than 200 ceramic vessels, 30 pieces of gold jewelry in the form of rings, more than 40 bronze ornaments, stone and bronze tools. In 2011 it was announced that Kazakh archeologists had found a 3000-year-old burial site during excavation of a mound. Three Bronze Age stone vaults were found.

More than a hundred funerary structures have been studied. Items of funeral rites have been found as well as the remains of wooden structures, fragments of textiles, evidence of weaving and felt making. One of the rare finds is an idol of anthropomorphic form; the excavations of a Kurgan leader "demonstrate the complex cosmogonic idea, inherent in the architectural design of the mound. The city administration supports research archeologists around the city; as a logical extension of this work it is considering the establishment of a "Tumar" eco-cultural center as the pilot complex of tourist and ethnographic objects. The coat-of-arms of Lisakovsk was adopted in 1995; the emblem depicts a blue sky with the sun. Beneath it runs a fox - the symbol of the city. Under the fox is a dark brown stripe, blended with the frame; the emblem symbolizes the ground, rich in various minerals. Zip code - 111200 Schools of the city Lisakovsk working 7 schools. GUSSH No. 1 GUSSH No. 2 GUSSH No. 3 GUSSH No. 4 Research School Gymnasium GUSSH No. 6 PG Boarding city Lisakovsk

Lyons Township, Cook County, Illinois

Lyons Township is one of 29 townships in Cook County, Illinois, USA. As of the 2010 census, its population was 111,688. Lyons Township was established in 1850; the nearby unincorporated area of Lyons is incorrectly referred to as "Lyons Township" According to the United States Census Bureau, Lyons Township covers an area of 36.95 square miles. The boundaries of Lyons Township are Harlem Avenue on the east. There are seventeen municipalities in or within Lyons Township's thirty-seven square miles of territory: Bedford Park Bridgeview Brookfield Burr Ridge Countryside Hickory Hills Hinsdale Hodgkins Indian Head Park Justice La Grange Lyons McCook Riverside Summit Western Springs Willow SpringsThere is one unincorporated community in the township: La Grange Highlands Proviso Township Berwyn Township Riverside Township Stickney Township Worth Township Palos Township Lemont Township Downers Grove Township, DuPage County York Township, DuPage County The township contains these six cemeteries: Archer Woods Memorial Park, Bethania, LaGrange, Lithuanian National and Saint Johns.

Interstate 55 Interstate 294 U. S. Route 12 U. S. Route 34 Illinois Route 43 Illinois Route 171 La Grange Memorial Hospital Heliport Pielet Summit Heliport Des Plaines River Arie Crown Forest Preserve Buffalo Woods Columbia Woods As of the 2010 census: White: 82.1% Black: 6.0% American Indian and Alaska Native: 0.3% Asian: 2.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.02% Some other race: 7.3% Two or more races: 2.1% Hispanic or Latino: 19.0% Christopher Getty - Supervisor Mary Jo Noonan - Clerk Barbara M. Weyrick - Assessor Sean McDermott - Highway Commissioner Michael A. Porfirio - Trustee Tom Garrette - Trustee Colleen H. Kelly - Trustee Timothy M. Sprague - Trustee "Lyons Township, Cook County, Illinois". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-10. "Pamphlet For Public Information" published by Lyons Township Clerk Robert S. Berliner, 1968. United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States National Atlas Lyons Township official website US Census Lyons Township Information Center Cook County official site


Novatianism was an Early Christian sect devoted to the theologian Novatian that held a strict view that refused readmission to communion of Lapsi. The Church of Rome declared the Novatianists heretical following the letters of Saint Cyprian of Carthage. After the martyrdom of Pope Fabian during the Decian persecution, a Roman priest, opposed the election of Pope Cornelius in 251, on the grounds that Cornelius was too liberal in accepting lapsed Christians. Novatian held that lapsed Christians, who had not maintained their confession of faith under persecution, may not be received again into communion with the church, he was presented himself as Bishop of Rome. He and his followers were excommunicated by a synod held at Rome in October of the same year. Novatian is said to have suffered martyrdom under the Emperor Valerian I. Novatian should not be confused with one Novatus, a priest of Carthage, who advocated re-admitting the "lapsi" without an enforced penance. Cyprian of Carthage came to a position opposed to both and advocated a council be held to establish a policy under which former idolaters could be once again admitted to communion with the church.

Lardner argues that Eusebius and the Greeks in general were correct in calling the Roman presbyter Novatus, not Novatianus. He attributes the origin of the latter name to Cyprian, who called the Roman presbyter Novatianus, as being a follower of his own rebellious priest, Novatus of Carthage. Novatian's strict views may be found in The Shepherd of Hermas. After his death, the Novatianist sect spread and could be found in every province, were numerous in some places; those who allied themselves with the doctrines of Novatian were called Novatianists. However, they called themselves καθαροι or "Purists" reflecting their desire not to be identified with what they considered the lax practices of a corrupted and what was hitherto a universal Church. While Novatian had refused absolution to the "lapsi", his followers extended this doctrine to include all "mortal sins". Most of them forbade second marriage, they always had a successor of Novatian at Rome, everywhere they were governed by bishops. Because Novatianists did not submit to the bishop of Rome, they were labeled by Rome as schismatics.

Additionally, Rome labeled Novatianists heretics for denying that the Church had the power to grant absolution in certain cases. Beyond that, their practices were the same as that of the universal Church, including monasticism in the fourth century. In the 4th and 5th centuries, the Donatist sect in Africa Proconsulare maintained a similar belief about Christians who had lapsed under the pressures of persecution, they too were declared heretics. Antipope Donatist James L. Papandrea Vogt, HJ, Coetus Sanctorum. Der Kirchenbegriff des Novatian und die Bonn. Papandrea, JL, The Trinitarian Theology of Novatian of Rome: A Study in Third-Century Orthodoxy, Lewiston, NJ. Papandrea, James L. Rome: A Pilgrim’s Guide to the Eternal City Papandrea, James L. Novatian of Rome: On the Trinity, Letters to Cyprian of Carthage, Ethical Treatises, James L. "Novatian of Rome Novatian of Rome and the Culmination of Pre-Nicene Orthodoxy"

Battle of Dongxing

The Battle of Dongxing known as the Battle of Dongguan, was fought from January to February 253 between the states of Cao Wei and Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. The battle concluded with a tactical victory for Wu; as early as 211, Sun Quan, the founding emperor of Wu, had ordered the construction of defensive structures at Ruxu for defensive preparations against possible attacks from a rival warlord, Cao Cao. In 230, Sun Quan had a dam built at Dongxing to contain the nearby Lake Chao. Sun Quan was succeeded by his son Sun Liang as the emperor of Wu. In November or December 252, the Wu regent Zhuge Ke started construction works at the Dongxing dam, increasing its length such that it joined the hills at either side of the dam, two castles were built in the middle. Zhuge Ke stationed 1,000 troops in each castle and put Quan Duan and Liu Lue in charge of them, while he led the rest of the men back. Wei felt humiliated when Wu began infringing on its territory by doing construction works on the Dongxing dam.

The Wei general Zhuge Dan proposed to the regent Sima Shi a plan to counter Wu, Sima Shi accepted his idea. In December 252 or January 253, the Wei imperial court commissioned Wang Chang, Guanqiu Jian, Zhuge Dan and Hu Zun to attack Wu from three directions: Wang Chang would attack Jiangling; when news of the Wei attack reached Wu, Zhuge Ke led 40,000 troops to resist the enemy. Hu Zun ordered his men to build pontoon bridges to get to the dam and divided them into two groups to attack the two castles; however the castles were difficult to access. The Wu generals said, "When the enemy learns that the Grand Tutor is coming here they will retreat when we reach the shore." However, only Ding Feng had a different view. He said: "No, they are making large movements in their territory. They are prepared, as they have mobilised large numbers of troops from Xu and Luo, so why would they go back empty-handed? Don't think that the enemy won't come. We should ready ourselves for battle." When Zhuge Ke reached Dongxing, he placed Ding Feng, Liu Zan, Lü Ju and Tang Zi in command of the vanguard and they moved west along mountainous terrain.

Ding Feng warned: "We are moving too slow. If the enemy seizes favourable ground, it will be harder to deal with them." He led 3,000 soldiers with him, travelling on a different route from the main bulk of Wu forces. Strong north winds were blowing at that time. Ding Feng and his 3,000 men reached the frontline within two days and seized control of Xu embankment, it was in winter and there was snowfall. The Wei officers were off guard and having a drinking session, so, despite the feeble size of his army, Ding Feng rallied his men: "Today is the day we claim titles and rewards!" He ordered his troops to remove their armour and helmets, discard their jis and spears, arm themselves with only shields and short weapons such as swords. The Wei soldiers laughed when they saw this event, instead refused to ready themselves for combat. Ding Feng and his men destroyed the enemy camp at the front. Just another Wu force led by Lü Ju and others arrived and joined Ding Feng in attacking the enemy camp; the Wei forces were thrown into chaos.

Many Wei soldiers scrambled to cross the pontoon bridges but the bridges collapsed. They fell into the water and started trampling on each other while trying to get onto land. Huan Jia, a Wei Commandery administrator, was killed in action. Han Zong, a Wu general who defected to Wei and led the Wei vanguard in this battle lost his life in battle. Zhuge Ke sent the head to Sun Quan's temple; when Wang Chang and Guanqiu Jian heard of the Wei defeat at Dongxing, they burnt their camps and withdrew as well. Back in the Wei imperial court, many officials argued for the Wei commanders to be either demoted or dismissed for their failure in the invasion; however Sima Shi said: "that resulted in this situation. It's my fault. What have the generals done wrong?" Sima Shi's younger brother Sima Zhao, supervising the campaign, was stripped of his title of nobility. On the other hand, Wu forces captured large quantities of equipment and livestock left behind by Wei forces and marched back in triumph. Zhuge Ke received the title of Marquis of Yangdu and the appointment of Governor of Jing and Yang provinces, as well as 1,000 jin of gold, 200 fine horses and 10,000 rolls each of silk and cloth.

Ding Feng was promoted to General Who Eliminates Bandits and enfeoffed as a Marquis of a Chief Village. The battle is featured as a playable stage in the seventh installment of Koei's video game series Dynasty Warriors; the battle consists of two halves in Dynasty Warriors 7. The first half is played from Zhuge Dan's point of view and the second features Wang Yuanji saving Zhuge Dan after crossing a bridge and being ambushed by Ding Feng; the game states that Zhuge Dan captured the two strongholds at Dongxing. In the Xtreme Legends expansion, the battle is playable from Ding Feng's point of view, his aim is to ambush Wei forces from the mountain. Chen, Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms. Fang, Xuanling. Book of Jin. Pei, Songzhi. Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms