A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
Alvin Toffler was an American writer and businessman known for his works discussing modern technologies, including the digital revolution and the communication revolution, with emphasis on their effects on cultures worldwide. Toffler was an associate editor of Fortune magazine. In his early works he focused on technology and its impact, which he termed "information overload." In 1970 his first major book about the future, Future Shock, became a worldwide best-seller and has sold over 6 million copies. He and his wife Heidi Toffler, who collaborated with him for most of his writings, moved on to examining the reaction to changes in society with another best-selling book, The Third Wave in 1980. In it, he foresaw such technological advances as cloning, personal computers, the Internet, cable television and mobile communication, his focus, via their other best-seller, was on the increasing power of 21st-century military hardware and the proliferation of new technologies. He founded Toffler Associates, a management consulting company, was a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation, visiting professor at Cornell University, faculty member of the New School for Social Research, a White House correspondent, a business consultant.
Toffler's ideas and writings were a significant influence on the thinking of business and government leaders worldwide, including China's Zhao Ziyang, AOL founder Steve Case. Alvin Toffler was born on October 4, 1928, in New York City, raised in Brooklyn, he was Jewish immigrants from Poland. He had one younger sister, he was inspired to become a writer at the age of 7 by his aunt and uncle, who lived with the Tofflers. "They were Depression-era literary intellectuals," Toffler said, "and they always talked about exciting ideas."Toffler graduated from New York University in 1950 as an English major, though by his own account he was more focused on political activism than grades. He met his future wife, Adelaide Elizabeth Farrell, when she was starting a graduate course in linguistics. Being radical students, they decided against further graduate work and moved to the Midwest, where they married on April 29, 1950. Seeking experiences to write about and Heidi Toffler spent the next five years as blue collar workers on assembly lines while studying industrial mass production in their daily work.
He compared his own desire for experience to other writers, such as Jack London, who in his quest for subjects to write about sailed the seas, John Steinbeck, who went to pick grapes with migrant workers. In their first factory jobs, Heidi became a union shop steward in the aluminum foundry where she worked. Alvin became a welder. In the evenings Alvin discovered he was proficient at neither, his hands-on practical labor experience helped Alvin Toffler land a position at a union-backed newspaper, a transfer to its Washington bureau in 1957 three years as a White House correspondent, covering Congress and the White House for a Pennsylvania daily newspaper. They returned to New York City in 1959 when Fortune magazine invited Alvin to become its labor columnist having him write about business and management. After leaving Fortune magazine in 1962, Toffler began a freelance career, writing long form articles for scholarly journals and magazines, his 1964 Playboy interviews with Russian novelist Vladimir Nabokov and Ayn Rand were considered among the magazine's best.
His interview with Rand was the first time the magazine had given such a platform to a female intellectual, which as one commentator said, "the real bird of paradise Toffler captured for Playboy in 1964 was Ayn Rand."Toffler was hired by IBM to conduct research and write a paper on the social and organizational impact of computers, leading to his contact with the earliest computer "gurus" and artificial intelligence researchers and proponents. Xerox invited him to write about its research laboratory and AT&T consulted him for strategic advice; this AT&T work led to a study of telecommunications, which advised the company's top management to break up the company more than a decade before the government forced AT&T to break up. In the mid-1960s, the Tofflers began five years of research on what would become Future Shock, published in 1970, it has sold over 6 million copies worldwide, according to the New York Times, or over 15 million copies according to the Tofflers' Web site. Toffler coined the term "future shock" to refer to what happens to a society when change happens too fast, which results in social confusion and normal decision-making processes breaking down.
The book has been translated into dozens of languages. He continued the theme in The Third Wave in 1980. While he describes the first and second waves as the agricultural and industrial revolutions, the "third wave," a phrase he coined, represents the current information, computer-based revolution, he forecast the spread of the Internet and email, interactive media, cable television and other digital advancements. He claimed that one of the side effects of the digital age has been "information overload," another term he coined. In 1990 he wrote Powershift with the help of his wife, Heidi. In 1996, with American business consultant Tom Johnson, they co-founded Toffler Associates, an advisory firm designed to implement many of the ideas the Tofflers had written on; the firm worked with businesses, NGOs, governments in the United States, South Korea, Brazil, Singapore and other countries. During this period in his career, Toffler lectured worldwide, taught at several schools and met world leaders, such as Mikhail Gorbachev, along with key executives and mil
The Third Wave (Toffler book)
The Third Wave is a 1980 book by Alvin Toffler. It is the sequel to Future Shock, the second in what was likely meant to be a trilogy, continued with Powershift: Knowledge and Violence at the Edge of the 21st Century in 1990. A new addition, Revolutionary Wealth, was published, however, in 2006 and may be considered as a major expansion of The Third Wave. Toffler's book describes the transition in developed countries from Industrial Age society, which he calls the "Second Wave", to Information Age "Third Wave" society. In the book Toffler describes three types of societies, based on the concept of'waves'—each wave pushes the older societies and cultures aside; the First Wave is the settled agricultural society which prevailed in much of the world after the Neolithic Revolution, which replaced hunter-gatherer cultures. The Second Wave is Industrial Age society; the Second Wave began in Western Europe with the Industrial Revolution, subsequently spread across the world. Key aspects of Second Wave society are the nuclear family, a factory-type education system and the corporation.
Toffler writes: "The Second Wave Society is industrial and based on mass production, mass distribution, mass consumption, mass education, mass media, mass recreation, mass entertainment, weapons of mass destruction. You combine those things with standardization, centralization and synchronization, you wind up with a style of organization we call bureaucracy." The Third Wave is the post-industrial society. Toffler says that since the late 1950s most countries have been transitioning from a Second Wave society into a Third Wave society, he coined many words to describe it and mentions names invented by others, such as the Information Age. The transition from the earlier hunter-gatherer societies to the agrarian and agricultural societies is known as the Neolithic Revolution; this coincides with the transition from the Mesolithic era to the Neolithic era. The transition from the Paleolithic to the Mesolithic, in turn coincides with the emergence of the modern Homo sapiens from earlier, related archaic human species.
Nearly extinct in the present-day world, hunter-gatherer societies are not recognized in Toffler's scheme. In the classical Three-age system, distinctions are recognized between the Stone Age era Bronze Age, Iron Age, the boundary between the latter two c. 1300-1200 BC being as dramatic as that demarcating Toffler's waves. None of these phases are recognized in the Toffler scheme, in part due to the prevalence of the latter phase amongst present-day pre-industrial societies; the transition from Toffler's First Wave and Second Wave is sometimes recognized as a transition from the Iron Age to the Steel Age. At present, there is no clear delineation of the latest transition, though sometimes the term Post-industrial society, originating from Daniel Bell, is used, in addition to Toffler's "Third Wave society"; the important point is that the nature of society are altered by the impact of new technology. That to some degree peoples lives are modified to serve the technology. Though the society foreseen is still emerging, with the dramatic transitions of the past two decades, several distinguishing features were posed as characteristic of this new society.
Among others, these included The rolling back of the Industrial-Era creed of "standardization", as exemplified in the one-size-fits-all approach typical of institutions of this era, such as the education system, governments, mass media, high volume mass production and distribution, etc. The attack on the nation-state from above and below and progressive obsolescence of the nation-state itself; the assault on the nation-state from below would include both the gradual loss of consensus, such as has characterized the politics of the United States in the 21st century, as well as political turmoil in China, the Islamic world and elsewhere. It would include the rise of regional interests and the progressive devolution of the nation-state itself; the assault on the nation-state from above would include the rise of powerful non-national entities: NGO's, multinational corporations, religions with global reach, terrorist organizations or cartels. It would include the progressive hemming-in of national economies and of nation-states under a growing network of super-national organizations and affiliations.
The eclipsing of monetary wealth by knowledge and information as the primary determinant of power and its distribution. This was discussed more in the sequel Powershift; the eclipsing of manufacturing and manufacturing goods by knowledge-production and information-processing as the primary economic activity. This was expanded on in the sequel Powershift, where Toffler nearly drew the line between the two along gender lines, coining the term "Material-Ismo" to represent the infatuation with the industrial era world of manufacturing, equating value with product (a
Futures studies called futurology, is the study of postulating possible and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. In general, it can be considered as a branch of the social sciences and parallel to the field of history. Futures studies seeks to understand what is to continue and what could plausibly change. Part of the discipline thus seeks a systematic and pattern-based understanding of past and present, to determine the likelihood of future events and trends. Unlike the physical sciences where a narrower, more specified system is studied, futurology concerns a much bigger and more complex world system; the methodology and knowledge are much less proven as compared to natural science or social science like sociology and economics. There is a debate as to whether this discipline is an art or science and sometimes described by scientists as pseudoscience. Futures studies is an interdisciplinary field that aggregates and analyzes trends, with both lay and professional methods, to compose possible futures.
It includes analyzing the sources and causes of change and stability in an attempt to develop foresight. Around the world the field is variously referred to as futures studies, strategic foresight, futures thinking and futurology. Futures studies and strategic foresight are the academic field's most used terms in the English-speaking world. Foresight was the original term and was first used in this sense by H. G. Wells in 1932. "Futurology" is a term common in encyclopedias, though it is used exclusively by nonpractitioners today, at least in the English-speaking world. "Futurology" is defined as the "study of the future." The term was coined by German professor Ossip K. Flechtheim in the mid-1940s, who proposed it as a new branch of knowledge that would include a new science of probability; this term has fallen from favor in recent decades because modern practitioners stress the importance of alternative and plural futures, rather than one monolithic future, the limitations of prediction and probability, versus the creation of possible and preferable futures.
Three factors distinguish futures studies from the research conducted by other disciplines. First, futures studies examines trends to compose possible and preferable futures along with the role "wild cards" can play on future scenarios. Second, futures studies attempts to gain a holistic or systemic view based on insights from a range of different disciplines focusing on the STEEP categories of Social, Economic and Political. Third, futures studies challenges and unpacks the assumptions behind dominant and contending views of the future; the future thus is not fraught with hidden assumptions. For example, many people expect the collapse of the Earth's ecosystem in the near future, while others believe the current ecosystem will survive indefinitely. A foresight approach would seek to highlight the assumptions underpinning such views; as a field, futures studies expands on the research component, by emphasizing the communication of a strategy and the actionable steps needed to implement the plan or plans leading to the preferable future.
It is in this regard, that futures studies evolves from an academic exercise to a more traditional business-like practice, looking to better prepare organizations for the future. Futures studies does not focus on short term predictions such as interest rates over the next business cycle, or of managers or investors with short-term time horizons. Most strategic planning, which develops goals and objectives with time horizons of one to three years, is not considered futures. Plans and strategies with longer time horizons that attempt to anticipate possible future events are part of the field; as a rule, futures studies is concerned with changes of transformative impact, rather than those of an incremental or narrow scope. The futures field excludes those who make future predictions through professed supernatural means. Johan Galtung and Sohail Inayatullah argue in Macrohistory and Macrohistorians that the search for grand patterns of social change goes all the way back to Ssu-Ma Chien and his theory of the cycles of virtue, although the work of Ibn Khaldun such as The Muqaddimah would be an example, more intelligible to modern sociology.
Early western examples include Sir Thomas More’s “Utopia,” published in 1516, based upon Plato’s “Republic,” in which a future society has overcome poverty and misery to create a perfect model for living. This work was so powerful that utopias have come to represent positive and fulfilling futures in which everyone’s needs are met; some intellectual foundations of futures studies appeared in the mid-19th century. Isadore Comte, considered the father of scientific philosophy, was influenced by the work of utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, his discussion of the metapatterns of social change presages futures studies as a scholarly dialogue; the first works that attempt to make systematic predictions for the future were written in the 18th century. Memoirs of the Twentieth Century written by Samuel Madden in 1733, takes the form of a series of diplomatic letters written in 1997 and 1998 from British representatives in the foreign cities of Constantinople, Rome and Moscow. However, the technology of the 20th century is identical to that of Madden's own era - the focus is instead on the political and religious state of the world in the future.
Madden went on to write The Reign of George VI, 1900 to 1925, where (in th
Enforcement is the process of ensuring compliance with laws, rules, standards, or social norms. By enforcing laws and regulations, governments attempt to effectuate successful implementation of policies. Enforcement serves a number of functions. Enforcement can be effectuated by private, non-governmental actors. Enforcement is accomplished through coercive means or by utilizing power disparities to constrain action; some scholars, such as Kate Andrias, have argued that institutions enforce rules when deciding "when and how to apply" laws and regulations. Some governments will delegate enforcement powers to subordinate governmental entities or private parties. In the United States, for example, the federal government and state governments delegate a range of enforcement powers to administrative agencies. There has been considerable debate in legal scholarship about the degree to which governments should oversee and supervise institutions to which enforcement powers have been delegated. Institutions may choose to exercise discretion, thereby enforcing laws, regulations, or norms only in selective circumstances.
Some scholars, such as Joseph H. Tieger, have suggested that selective enforcement is inherent component of all enforcement regimes, because it is impossible for enforcers to observe and catch every violation. Other scholars, such as Margaret H. Lemos and Alex Stein, have suggested that "strategic" enforcement is a cost-effective method of achieving social benefits. Law enforcement Primary and secondary legislation Law enforcement in Germany Court of Arbitration in Germany Law enforcement in France Composition of the government - Christophe Castaner in France The citations in this article are written in Bluebook style. Please see the talk page for more information