A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Lao Che (band)
Lao Che is a Polish rock band formed in 1999 in Płock by former members of the band Koli. Lao Che's musical genre is a crossover of various styles such as ska and folk; the band's popularity grew after their Powstanie Warszawskie concept album, which received many prestigious nominations and awards. Current membersMariusz "Denat" Denst – sampler Hubert "Spięty" Dobaczewski – vocals, guitar Michał "Dimon" Jastrzębski – drums Filip "Wieża" Różański – keyboard Rafał "Żubr" Borycki – bass guitar Maciek "Trocki" Dzierżanowski – percussionFormer membersJakub "Krojc" Pokorski – guitar Michał "Warz" Warzycki - guitar Official website
Śródmieście is the central borough of the city of Warsaw. The best known neighborhoods in the borough are the Old New Town; the area is home to the most important national and municipal institutions, many businesses, higher education establishments and theatres. It is home to most of the tourist attractions in Warsaw, including the tallest building in Warsaw,the narrowest street, the oldest university, the oldest public park, the oldest secular monument and the oldest historical building; the name is colloquially used for Warszawa Śródmieście railway station. Stare Miasto Nowe Miasto Muranów Śródmieście Północne Śródmieście Południowe Powiśle Mariensztat Solec Ujazdów Srodmiescie travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Fryderyk is the annual award in Polish music. Its name refers to the original Polish spelling variant of Polish composer Frédéric Chopin's first name, its status in the Polish public can be compared to the UK's BRIT Award. Created in 1994 and presented for the first time in 1995, the award was conferred by the Polish Society of the Phonographic Industry. Since 1999, nominees and winners have been selected by a body called Phonographic Academy which by now consists of nearly 1000 artists and music industry professionals. Voting is anonymous and takes place in two rounds: In the first round, all Academy members can nominate five artists in each category, in the second round, members can vote for one candidate in each category from the most successful nominees established in the first round; the Fryderyk statuette is reminiscent of the Academy Awards' "Oscar", but with wings, arms stretched backwards, with headphones. The statuette was created by Dorota Dziekiewicz-Pilich; the categories in which Fryderyk awards are presented have been extended and modified since its inception in 1994.
There are three main sections – popular music, classical music, jazz. At present the following categories are used: Best Music Production Best Album Design Composer of the Year Author of the Year Best Foreign Album Album of the Year – Folk/World Music Album of the Year – Sung Poetry Album of the Year – Rock Album of the Year – Blues Album of the Year – Heavy Metal Album of the Year – Club Music Album of the Year – Hip-Hop/R&B Album of the Year – Alternative Album of the Year – Pop New Face of Fonography Group of the Year Female Vocalist of the Year Male Vocalist of the Year Video of the Year Song of the Year Best Choral and Oratorias Music Album Best Early and Baroque Music Album Best Chamber Music Album Best Symphonic and Concerto Music Album Best Solo Music Album Best Contemporary Music Album Best Vocal Recital Music Album Best Opera and Ballet Music Album Best Debut Album Composer of the Year Most Outstanding Polish Music Recording Album of the Year New Act of the Year Act of the Year As of 2009, the most successful artists in the ten-year-history of the Fryderyks are: Kasia Nosowska: 21 awards, 53 nominations, Grzegorz Ciechowski: 11 awards, 24 nominations, Kayah: 8 awards, 32 nominations, Grzegorz Turnau: 8 awards, 19 nominations, Myslovitz: 7 awards, 30 nominations, Dwa, Trzy: 7 awards, 17 nominations, Ania Dąbrowska: 7 awards, 15 nominationsNote: Awards for individual artists may include awards for their groups and vice versa.
Orkiestra Symfoniczna Filharmonii Narodowej: 5 awards, 22 nominations, Sinfonia Varsovia: 5 awards, 22 nominations, Janusz Olejniczak: 5 awards, 12 nominations, Jerzy Maksymiuk: 4 awards, 12 nominations, Jadwiga Rappé: 4 awards, 9 nominations. Tomasz Stańko: 8 awards + Golden Fryderyk, 9 nominations, Marcin Wasilewski muzyk: 6 awards, 8 nominations, Piotr Wojtasik: 2 awards, 6 nominations, Andrzej Jagodzinski: 2 awards, 4 nominations, Henryk Miśkiewicz: 1 award, 8 nominations. Jarek Smietana: 1 award, 6 nominations; this category is interesting as it reflects the Polish public's reception of international artists. The award was last given out in 2012 and the awardees were: 1994: Pink Floyd – The Division Bell 1995: Queen – Made in Heaven 1996: George Michael – Older 1997: Rolling Stones – Bridges To Babylon 1998: Madonna – Ray of Light 1999: Santana – Supernatural 2000: U2 – All That You Can't Leave Behind 2001: Leonard Cohen – Ten New Songs 2002: Red Hot Chili Peppers – By The Way 2003: Dido – Life for Rent 2004: Prince – Musicology 2005: Coldplay – X & Y 2006: Red Hot Chili Peppers – Stadium Arcadium 2008: Foo Fighters – Echoes, Patience & Grace 2009: Erykah Badu – New Amerykah, Part One 2010: Alice in Chains – Black Gives Way to Blue 2011: Kings of Leon – Come Around Sundown 2012: Adele – 21 ZPAV Official Website Fryderyk Website
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Przekrój is the oldest Polish weekly newsmagazine in operation, established in 1945 in Kraków. After temporary closure in 2013, it has been bought by photographer Tomasz Niewiadomski, subsequently relaunched in December 2016 as a quarterly magazine. Przekrój was created by the writer and graphic-artist Marian Eile-Kwaśniewski from Warsaw who, until 1969, was the first and only editor-in-chief of the magazine; the magazine focused on current social and cultural events both Polish and International. In the 1970s Przekrój reached record circulation, with 700,000 copies per issue, by far, the most popular magazine in the country; as of 2011, it had a modest circulation of 73,000 copies. The list of editors in chief in chronological order include: Marian Eile, Mieczysław Kieta, Mieczysław Czuma, Maciej Piotr Prus, Józef Lubiński, Jacek Rakowiecki, Roman Kurkiewicz, Piotr Najsztub, Mariusz Ziomecki, Jacek Kowalczyk, Katarzyna Janowska, Artur Rumianek, Donat Szyller, Roman Kurkiewicz, Zuzanna Ziomecka, Marcin Prokop and Tomasz Niewiadomski.
Following a closure in 2013, Przekrój was out of print until December 2016, when it was relaunched as a quarterly, with an editorial style inspired by the early editions of the magazine from the 1950s and 1960s. Among the former contributors to Przekrój were such personalities of Polish literary scene as: Maria Dąbrowska, Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, Jan Brzechwa, Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński, Kazimierz Wyka, Daniel Mróz, Jerzy Waldorff, Sławomir Mrożek, Ludwik Jerzy Kern and Jan Błoński. List of magazines in Poland Przekrój Official website
Military history of the Warsaw Uprising
The Warsaw Uprising began with simultaneous coordinated attacks at 17:00 hours on August 1, 1944. The uprising was intended to last a few days; the battle raged throughout most of Warsaw, but after a short time it became confined to districts in the West of the town. The key factor in the battle was the massive imbalance of weapons between the two sides; the German side was well equipped whilst the Polish side had barely enough ammunition for a few days. The policy of one bullet, one German allowed the Polish fighters to sustain the uprising for many weeks at the cost of their own lives; some areas fought for a full 63 days. The losses on the Polish side amounted to 18,000 soldiers killed, 25,000 wounded and over 250,000 civilians killed. Although Stalingrad had shown the level of danger which a city can pose to armies which fight within it and the importance of local support to armies, the Warsaw uprising was the first demonstration that in an urban terrain, a vastly under-equipped force supported by the civilian population can hold its own against far better equipped professional soldiers— though at the cost of vast sacrifices on the part of the city's residents.
"W-hour", the moment of the start of the uprising, had been rescheduled for 1 August at 1700 during a briefing on 31 July around 1730. The change of "W-hour" from 2400 to 1700 proved to be a costly strategic decision, reducing the chance of surprising the Germans since many of the Polish partisans were not trained for prolonged day fighting; the order to start the uprising did not reach all of the units due to the technological and logistic limitations of the underground movement. Fighting broke out before the "W-hour" in several places where German units encountered organising Polish forces: around 1400 on Żoliborz, 1500 on Czerniaków, 1600 around Plac Napoleona, Hale Mirowskie, Plac Kercelego marketplace, Okopowa street and Mokotów; until "W-hour" those separate incidents were not perceived as part of a bigger plan. However, around 1600 SS-Standartenfuhrer Paul Otto Geibel, chief of police and SS in the Warsaw District, received a warning about the uprising from an anonymous'lieutenant of Luftwaffe', who had in turn been warned about it by a Polish woman.
He alerted the units under his command, which thus were prepared for the assault at 1700. This drastically reduced the element of surprise of the resistance. On the other hand, while the Germans had been considering the possibility of an uprising, they had no operational plans prepared for such an occasion; the results of the first two days of fighting in different parts of the city were as follows: Area I: Units in that area captured most of their assigned territory, but failed to capture strong German pockets of resistance. They thus failed to secure communications links for other areas; the main failures were in establishing a secure land connection with the northern area of Żoliborz through the northern railway line and the Cytadela fortress as well as failure to capture the bridges over Vistula. The forces mobilized in the city centre failed to capture the German-only area near the Szucha avenue. Area II: Units here failed to secure the most important military targets in the area of Żoliborz.
Many units retreated outside into the forests. Although the main body of the area was captured, the soldiers of colonel Żywiciel failed to capture the Cytadela fortress area and break through German defences at Warszawa Gdańska railway station. Area III: Units here succeeded in securing most of the territory, but sustained heavy losses; some units retreated into the forests. In the northern part of Wola the soldiers of colonel Radosław managed to capture the German barracks, the German supplies depot at Stawki Street, the flanking position at the Jewish cemetery. Area IV: The units mobilized in this area did not capture either the territory or the military targets. After suffering heavy casualties most of the forces of the Armia Krajowa retreated to the forests west of Warsaw. Only two small units of 200 to 300 men under lieut. Gustaw managed to create strong pockets of resistance, they were reinforced by units from the city centre. Units of Kedyw managed to secure most of the northern part of the area and captured all of the military targets there.
However, they were soon tied down by German resistance from the west. Area V: The situation in this area was serious from the beginning of hostilities; the partisans were to capture the defended and fortified so-called Police Area on Rakowiecka street. They were to establish a connection with the city centre through open terrain at Pola Mokotowskie. None of this succeeded; some units retreated into the forests, while others managed to capture parts of Dolny Mokotów, which was, severed from most communications routes to other areas. Area VI: The Uprising was started on the right bank of the Vistula; the main t