Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 927, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Æthelstan. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway; the Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster, the City of London established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre. Histories of the kingdom of England from the Norman conquest of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1714. Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 claim descent from the Normans; the completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown.
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. From the 1340s the kings of England laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the Wars of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty ruled during the English Renaissance and again extended English monarchical power beyond England proper, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542. Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, his daughter Elizabeth I the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World. From the accession of James VI and I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland.
Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament; this concept became established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, functioned in effect as a constitutional monarchy. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain; the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning "land of the English", by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the purported homeland of the Angles; the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period. The Latin name was Anglorum terra, the Old French and Anglo-Norman one Angleterre.
By the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for monarchs from Æthelstan until John was Rex Anglorum. Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first to call himself "King of England". In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie. From John's reign onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Regina Anglie. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title King of Great Britain; the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex and Wessex; the Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, native Anglo-Saxon life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, a high king over the other kings. The decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful, it absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825. The kings of Wessex became dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore making Egbert the first king to reign over a united England. In 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he regarded as a turning point in his reign; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred." Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly... and made it habitable once more." Alfred's "restoration"
Castell Dinas Brân
Castell Dinas Brân is a medieval castle occupying a prominent hilltop site above the town of Llangollen in Denbighshire, Wales. The presently visible castle was built in the 1260s by Gruffydd Maelor II, a Prince of Powys Fadog, on the site of several earlier structures, including an Iron Age hillfort. Dinas Brân has been variously translated as the "crow's fortress" or "fortress of Brân", with Brân as the name of an individual or of a nearby stream. An English name, "Crow Castle", has been used since at least the 18th century; the first building placed at Dinas Brân was not the castle which now stands in ruins on top of the hill, but an Iron Age hillfort built around 600 BC. An earthen rampart was constructed topped by a wooden palisade and this was further protected by a deep ditch on the shallower southern slope; the walls of the hillfort encircled a village of roundhouses. Dinas Brân is one of many hillforts in this part of Wales. There are many others on the Clwydian Hills further in the Marches to the south.
Dinas Brân is in. The last Prince of Powys, Gruffydd Maelor, died in 1191 and the kingdom was subsequently divided into Powys Fadog in the north and Powys Wenwynwyn in the south, his son, Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor, lord of Powys Fadog, founded the nearby Valle Crucis Abbey. Although no specific archaeological evidence has been found, some records suggest Madog ap Gruffydd ruled from Dinas Brân. If a structure did exist it would have been a wooden fortification consisting of a wooden palisade surrounding a hall and other buildings; these early records further say the castle was destroyed by fire, following which a new castle was built on the same site, therefore little prospect for finding any archaeological evidence of the early building remains. An earlier structure has been suggested, belonging to Elisedd ap Gwylog from the 8th century, it was this Elisedd, named on the Pillar of Eliseg and is one of the founders of the kingdom of Powys, but again no physical evidence for any structure at Dinas Brân has been found.
The castle visible today was built by Gruffydd II ap Madog son of Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor sometime in the 1260s. At the time Gruffydd II ap Madog was an ally of Prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd Prince of Wales, with Powys acting as a buffer state between Llywelyn's heartland of Gwynedd and England. Dinas Brân was one of several castles being built following the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery which had secured Wales for Llywelyn, free from English interference. Indeed, the castle at Dolforwyn Castle near Newtown ordered to be built by Llywelyn around the same time has some similarities to Dinas Brân and may have been the work of the same master mason. Gruffudd died in 1269 or 1270 and the castle passed down to his four sons. Madoc the eldest son was the senior; the peace between Llywelyn and Edward did not last long and in 1276 war started between England and Wales. Edward's larger armies soon invaded the support for Llywelyn crumbled. Two of the brothers made peace with the second brother Llywelyn and Madoc.
However, the castle was not in Madoc's control as the surrender document with the English refers to conditions relating to the recapture of Dinas Brân. Meanwhile, Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln arrived in Oswestry with forces to capture Dinas Brân; as soon as he had arrived he was told that the defenders of the castle the younger brothers Owain and Gruffudd - who were still allies of Llywelyn Prince of Wales, had set fire to and abandoned the castle. The reason for this action is not clear but it may be that they had no confidence that they could defend the castle against the English forces, did not want to let it fall intact into Edward's, or their elder brother's hands; the castle was not badly damaged, the fire being limited to the timber structures within the walls and Lincoln recommended to King Edward that the castle be repaired and garrisoned with English troops. Edward placed some troops at the castle at least into the next year 1277 when Llywelyn sued for peace and ordered some repair work to be undertaken.
The history of the castle during the final war which restarted in 1282 is not recorded. It may have been recaptured by the Welsh like many other castles in the early months of the war, but the English were victorious. Madoc had by now died: the three surviving brothers all fought to no avail. Following the end of the war in October 1282 and the death of Llywelyn, most of Powys Fadog including the castle was granted to John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. Rather than rebuild Dinas Brân, De Warenne choose instead to build a new castle at Holt on the Flintshire, Cheshire border and Dinas Brân continued till the present day a picturesque and romantic ruin. Dinas Brân is in layout a rectangular castle with the longer sides running east-west. Beyond the northern wall the steep natural slope falls several hundred feet, whilst the southern and eastern walls are defended by a 20 feet deep rock-cut ditch and counterscarp bank. At the south-eastern corner where the ditch is at its deepest stands the keep, which looks out onto a easy approach to the castle from the River Dee.
The two-storey keep would have been the strongest part of the castle, with its own defended approach through a narrow passage. Next to the keep at the north eastern corner is a gatehouse, approached by a wooden bridge spanning the ditch. There is however no evidence remaining of the bridge and its supporting structure so that the exact configuration remains un
Earl of Lincoln
Earl of Lincoln is a title, created eight times in the Peerage of England, most in 1534. The title was borne by the Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne from 1768 to 1988, until the dukedom became extinct. William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Lincoln and 1st Earl of Arundel The Earldom was created for the first time around 1141 as William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel, is mentioned as Earl of Lincoln in 1143 in two charters for the Abbey of Affligem, representing his wife Adeliza of Louvain, former wife of King Henry I. William de Roumare, Earl of Lincoln The Earldom was created for a second time by King Stephen sometime after 1143 for William de Roumare. However, in 1149 or 1150, as William had gone over to the side of Empress Matilda, the King Stephen took the earldom from him and elevated Gilbert de Gant as Earl of Lincoln. Gilbert de Gant, Earl of Lincoln The Earldom was created for a third time by King Stephen in 1149 or 1150 for Gilbert de Gant, but on his death in 1156 it reverted to the Crown.
The Earldom was created for a fourth time in 1217 for Ranulph de Blondeville. He had no issue. In April 1231, with the consent of the King, before his death he passed the Earldom to his sister Hawise of Chester, she was formally invested by King Henry III in October 1232. Royal consent was needed for this, because the Earldom would otherwise have reverted to the crown in the absence of a legitimate male heir, she in turn passed the Earldom, again with the consent of the King, to her daughter Margaret de Quincy suo jure, her son-in-law John de Lacy, Baron of Pontefract. They were formally invested by Henry III in November 1232, their grandson, the third Earl, married Margaret Longespee. Their daughter Alice inherited the earldom, she was the wife of Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster. They had no children and the earldom reverted to the Crown on Alice's death in 1348. 1217–1231 Ranulf de Blondeville, 1st Earl of Lincoln 1231–1232 Hawise of Chester, 1st Countess of Lincoln suo jure 1232–1240 John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln 1232–1266 Margaret de Quincy, 2nd Countess of Lincoln suo jure 1272–1311 Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln 1311–1348 Alice de Lacy, 4th Countess of Lincoln suo jure The above list does not contain the men who became Earl of Lincoln by right of their wives who were Countess of Lincoln suo jure, except for John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln.
He is included in the above list. The other men who became Earl of Lincoln by right of their wives were: Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke, married Margaret de Quincy in January 1242, died November 1245 Thomas of Lancaster, husband of Alice de Lacy, became Earl of Lincoln on the death of his father-in-law in February 1311, died March 1322 Sir Eubulus le Strange, married Alice de Lacy before November 1324, died September 1335 Hugh de Freyne, married Alice de Lacy before March 1336, died c. January 1337As Earl of Lincoln, these husbands had immense power with the right to control the estates of their wives; the above list does not include Margaret Longespee, the lady, titled Countess of Lincoln by right of her husband Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln. The Earldom was created for a fifth time in the following year, 1349, when it was revived for Alice's nephew-in-law Henry of Grosmont, created Duke of Lancaster, it became extinct on his death in 1361. John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln The Earldom was created for a sixth time in 1467 for John de la Pole.
He was the eldest son of John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, Elizabeth of York. He predeceased his father and the title became extinct on his death in 1487. Henry Brandon, 1st Earl of Lincoln The Earldom was created for the seventh time in 1525 for Henry Brandon, he was the only son of 1st Duke of Suffolk, by his wife Mary Tudor. He died at the age of eleven in 1534; this creation of the Earldom was made for the eighth time in 1572 for the naval commander Edward Clinton, 9th Baron Clinton. He served as Lord High Admiral under Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I, he was succeeded by the second Earl. He represented Lancashire in the House of Commons, his son, the third Earl, sat as Member of Parliament for Great Lincolnshire. In 1610 he was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Clinton, his great-grandson, the fifth Earl, died without surviving issue in 1692 when the earldom and barony separated. The barony fell into abeyance between his aunts.
He was succeeded in the earldom by the sixth Earl. He was the grandson of second son of the second Earl, his son, the seventh Earl, served as Paymaster of the Forces, as Constable of the Tower and as Cofferer of the Household. Lord Lincoln married daughter of Robert Sydney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, his eldest son, the eighth Earl, died as a child and was succeeded by his younger brother, the ninth Earl. He was Cofferer of the Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire and Cambridgeshire, he married his first cousin Catherine Pelham (d. 17
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Llywelyn the Great
Llywelyn the Great, full name Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, was a King of Gwynedd in north Wales and ruler of all Wales. By a combination of war and diplomacy he dominated Wales for 45 years. During Llywelyn's childhood, Gwynedd was ruled by two of his uncles, who split the kingdom between them, following the death of Llywelyn's grandfather, Owain Gwynedd, in 1170. Llywelyn had a strong claim to be the legitimate ruler and began a campaign to win power at an early age, he made a treaty with King John of England that year. Llywelyn's relations with John remained good for the next ten years, he married John's natural daughter Joan in 1205, when John arrested Gwenwynwyn ap Owain of Powys in 1208, Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys. In 1210, relations deteriorated, John invaded Gwynedd in 1211. Llywelyn was forced to seek terms and to give up all lands east of the River Conwy, but was able to recover them the following year in alliance with the other Welsh princes, he allied himself with the barons who forced John to sign Magna Carta in 1215.
By 1216, he was the dominant power in Wales, holding a council at Aberdyfi that year to apportion lands to the other princes. Following King John's death, Llywelyn concluded the Treaty of Worcester with his successor, Henry III, in 1218. During the next fifteen years, Llywelyn was involved in fights with Marcher lords and sometimes with the king, but made alliances with several major powers in the Marches; the Peace of Middle in 1234 marked the end of Llywelyn's military career, as the agreed truce of two years was extended year by year for the remainder of his reign. He maintained his position in Wales until his death in 1240 and was succeeded by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn. Llywelyn was born about 1173, the son of Iorwerth ab Owain and the grandson of Owain Gwynedd, ruler of Gwynedd until his death in 1170. Llywelyn was a descendant of the senior line of Rhodri Mawr and therefore a member of the princely house of Gwynedd, he was born at Dolwyddelan, though not in the present Dolwyddelan castle, built by Llywelyn himself.
He may have been born in the old castle. Little is known about Iorwerth Drwyndwn, who died when Llywelyn was an infant. There is no record of Iorwerth having taken part in the power struggle between some of Owain Gwynedd's other sons following Owain's death, although he was the eldest surviving son. There is a tradition that he was disfigured in some way that excluded him from power. By 1175, Gwynedd had been divided between two of Llywelyn's uncles. Dafydd ab Owain held the area east of the River Rhodri ab Owain held the west. Dafydd and Rhodri were the sons of Owain by his second marriage to Cristin verch Goronwy; this marriage was not considered valid by the church as Cristin was Owain's first cousin, a degree of relationship which according to Canon law prohibited marriage. Giraldus Cambrensis refers to Iorwerth Drwyndwn as the only legitimate son of Owain Gwynedd. Following Iorwerth's death, Llywelyn was, at least in the eyes of the church, the legitimate claimant to the throne of Gwynedd.
Llywelyn's mother was Marared anglicised to Margaret, daughter of Madog ap Maredudd, prince of Powys. There is evidence that, after her first husband's death, Marared married in the summer of 1197, the nephew of Roger Powys of Whittington Castle with whom she had a son, David ap Gwion. Therefore, some maintain that Marared never married into the Corbet family of Caus Castle and Moreton Corbet Castle. However, there is in existence a grant of land from Llywelyn ab Iorworth to the monastery of Wigmore, in which Llywelyn indicates his mother was a member of the house of Corbet, leaving the issue unresolved. In his account of his journey around Wales in 1188, Giraldus Cambrensis mentions that the young Llywelyn was in arms against his uncles Dafydd and Rhodri; this young man, being only twelve years of age, during the period of our journey, to molest his uncles David and Roderic, the sons of Owen by Christiana, his cousin-german. In 1194, with the aid of his cousins Gruffudd ap Cynan and Maredudd ap Cynan, he defeated Dafydd at the Battle of Aberconwy at the mouth of the River Conwy.
Rhodri died in 1195, his lands west of the Conwy were taken over by Gruffudd and Maredudd while Llywelyn ruled the territories taken from Dafydd east of the Conwy. In 1197, Llywelyn imprisoned him. A year Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, persuaded Llywelyn to release him, Dafydd retired to England where he died in May 1203. Wales was divided into Pura Wallia, the areas ruled by the Welsh princes, Marchia Wallia, ruled by the Anglo-Norman barons. Since the death of Owain Gwynedd in 1170, Rhys ap Gruffydd had made the southern kingdom of Deheubarth the strongest of the Welsh kingdoms, had establ
Glyndyfrdwy, or sometimes Glyn Dyfrdwy, is a village in the modern county of Denbighshire, Wales. It is situated on the A5 road halfway between Llangollen in the Dee Valley. A Norman castle motte was built near the village in the 12th century to command the route through the Dee Valley. Known locally as Owain Glyndŵr's Mount, only an eroded mound remains. On 16 September 1400 Owain Glyndŵr proclaimed himself Prince of Wales near this village, at his manor of Glyndyfrdwy, Owain Glyndŵr, his proclamation began. Glyndŵr's manor hall is to have been a square moated building, defended by a water-filled moat, a palisade and a gate. In 1403, the site was devastated by the forces of Henry of Monmouth, the English Prince of Wales, who became King Henry V; the Owain Glyndŵr Memorial Hall contains artefacts associated with Glyndŵr. It holds a copy of the Pennal Letter to King Charles VI of France, a document of 1405 ratifying the terms of a 1404 treaty between Glyndŵr and the French, a letter confirming the appointments of his Chancellor, Gruffydd Young and Glyndŵr's brother-in-law, John Hanmer as Ambassadors to the French Court.
It has pictures of Glyndŵr's Parliament house in Dolgellau, a portrait drawn from his Great Seal and a replica seal. In 1866 the parish of Glyndyfrdwy was created from the former Corwen townships of Carrog and Tir Llanerch, along with portions of Bonwm and Rhagat; the parish was in the traditional county of Merionethshire until 1974 when it became part of Clwyd following the Local Government Act 1972. In 1996 further changes placed it in the county of Denbighshire; the Great Western Railway line from Ruabon to Llangollen was extended via Corwen and Dolgellau to Barmouth. Glyndyfrdwy railway station was opened in 1866 and a passing loop and second platform were added there; the line was closed in the 1960s under the Beeching Axe and Glyndyfrdwy station was demolished. In 1977 a group of railway enthusiasts came together to form the Llangollen Railway, with the intention to restore and rebuild a large section of the line; the work was undertaken in stages and by 1991 the track had been replaced as far as Glyndyfrdwy.
On 17 April 1992 the first Llangollen Railway passenger train arrived at Glyndyfrdwy. Glyndyfrdwy was the terminus of the Deeside Tramway, a narrow gauge railway built to serve the local slate quarries; the tramway was one of the last operating industrial railways in Britain. Castles of Wales Llangollen Railway www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Glyndyfrdwy and surrounding area
Gwyddelwern is a small village and community of 508 residents, reducing to 500 at the 2011 census, situated 2 miles north of Corwen in Denbighshire in Wales. The village was part of the Edeyrnion district of Meirionnydd. Edeyrnion was part of the Glyndŵr district of Clwyd from 1974 to 1996, when the area became part of the principal area of Denbighshire; the village straddles the A494 road. The name is "poetically", but incorrectly, translated as The Irishman's Alder Grove. Gwyddel being Irishman, wern referring to a damp or swampy area arising from run-off from surrounding hills. However, the name is derived from gwyddeli, meaning thickets, hence the correct translation would be alder marsh in the thickets. In colloquial speech the village is referred to as Gwyddel; the outlook to the west of the village is dominated by the hills Bryn Gwenallt. To the south the view extends over the Dee Valley to the Berwyn Mountains and Arenig Fawr near Bala. Besides farm work, local employers include a saw mill in the village and light manufacturing in Corwen and Cynwyd, further south.
The nearby hamlet of Bryn Saith Marchog, features in the story of Branwen, daughter of Llyr, part of the Mabinogion, is so named after Bendigeidfran, who stationed seven princes or knights there to watch over his lands while he was away in Ireland. The Lordship of Gwyddelwern was a junior title within the House of Powys Fadog and was recorded in 1400 as being held by Tudur ab Gruffydd Fychan II, the younger brother of Owain Glyndŵr. Tudur perished in battle during Glyndŵr's war of independence and the title became dormant. In 1550, Gwyddelwern absorbed the neighboring parish of Llanaelhaiarn. Quarrying was important to Gwyddelwern: the two local quarries being the Dee Clwyd Granite Quarry and Graig Lelo Quarry. There is still activity at Graig Lelo, which plays host to a vehicle breakers and a granite and marble finishing business. Gwyddelwern became the first full-operational railway station in the Vale of Edeyrnion, when services started on 22 September 22, 1864 with the opening of the Denbigh and Corwen Railway.
The station generated much income from the two quarries. The station had a coal yard, horse loading bay and cattle pens with a weighing machine. There was a freight loop at Gwyddelwern, on the otherwise single track line. Passenger services ended on 2 February 1953 and goods traffic on 2 December 1957. Gwyddelwern's historic architecture includes the much-rebuilt high spire of the parish church of St Beuno; the churchyard is circular, an indication of the age of the site to pre Christian times. Which shares a boundary with the local inn - Tŷ Mawr the Rose and Crown. Parts of Tŷ Mawr date back to the 11th century and, during extensive renovation, a rare jeton or 15th century gaming token was found in one of the wall spaces. Dennis W. Williams, Rails to Corwen. Dennis W. Williams, 2001 www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Gwyddelwern and surrounding area