Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton
Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton, KG, 5th and last Lord Charlton of Powys, was the younger son of John Charlton, the third baron, his wife, daughter of Lord Stafford. During the lifetime of his elder brother John, the fourth lord, soon after her husband's death in Ireland, Edward married the widowed Countess of March, her lordships and castles of Usk and Caerleon thus fell into his hands. This brought him into relations with the chronicler Adam of Usk, who speaks of him as juvenis elegantissimus and is loud in his praises. Charlton's relationship to the Mortimers involved him, however, in hostility to Henry of Bolingbroke, who, in July 1399, was about to proceed from Bristol to ravage his lands. Charlton accompanied Henry to Chester in his march against Richard II, was afterwards in high favour with him. About this time Charlton showed his personal severity and the extent of the franchises of a lord marcher by condemning to death the seneschal of Usk for an intrigue with his natural sister prioress of that town.
On 19 October 1401 the death of the 4th Baron Cherleton without issue involved Edward's succession to the peerage and estates of Powys. It was a critical period in the history of the Welsh marches. Owain Glyndŵr had risen in revolt, had ravaged the neighbourhood of Welshpool, the centre of the Charltons' power, whence he had been driven by John Charlton just before his death. Edward Charlton was possessed of inadequate resources to contend with so dangerous a neighbour. In 1402 Owen overthrew his castles of Usk and Caerleon, though next year Charlton seems to have again got possession of them. In 1403 he urgently besought the council to reinforce the scanty garrisons of the border fortresses. In 1404 he was reduced to such straits that the council unwillingly allowed him to make a private truce with the Welsh. In 1406 his new charter to Welshpool shows in its minute and curious provisions the extreme care taken to preserve that town as a centre of English influence, exclude the'foreign Welsh' from its government, its courts, its soil.
Some time before 1408 Charlton was made a knight of the Garter. In 1409 he procured a royal pardon for those of his vassals who had submitted to Owen, but in 1409 Owen and John, the claimant to the bishopric of St. Asaph, renewed their attack on his territories. Strict orders were sent from London that Charlton was not to leave the district, but keep all his fortresses well garrisoned against the invader; the growing preponderance of the English side may be marked in the injunction of the council not in any case to renew his old private truce with the Welsh. Charlton succeeded in maintaining himself against the waning influence of Owen. In January 1414 Sir John Oldcastle, after his great failure, escaped to those Welsh marches, where he had first won fame as a warrior, took refuge in the Powys estates of Charlton. There he lurked for some time until the promise of a great reward and the exhortations of the bishops to capture the common enemy of religion and society induced Charlton to take active steps for his apprehension.
At last, in 1417, the heretic was tracked to a remote farm at Broniarth, after a severe struggle, was captured by the servants of the lord of Powys. He was first imprisoned in Powys Castle, thence sent to London. For this service Charlton received the special thanks of parliament; the charters are still extant in which he rewarded the brothers Ieuan and Gruffudd Vychan, sons of Gruffudd ap Ieuan, for their share in Oldcastle's capture. In 1420 Charlton conferred a new charter on the Cistercian abbey of Strata Marcella, of which his house was patron, he died on 14 March 1421. Edward Charleton married twice: Firstly to Alianore Holland, daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent and sister and co-heiress of Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent, widow of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, he left two daughters and co-heiresses. The estates were divided between the co-heiresses, the peerage fell into abeyance from which it has never emerged, the creation in favour of the Greys being more a new peerage than a revival of the old one: Joan Charleton, eldest daughter, who married Sir John Grey of Heton, Northumberland Joyce Charleton, youngest daughter, who married Sir John Tiptoft, had descendants both powerful marcher chieftains.
Secondly to Elizabeth Berkeley, daughter of Sir John Berkeley of Beverstone Castle, who survived her husband and married secondly John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley. Their son Edmund Sutton married daughter of Joyce de Cherleton and Sir John Tiptoft. Grey and Dudley descendants jointly held the Cherleton inheritance, including Powis Castle, until it was allowed to pass to their kinsmen the Herbert family in 1587
Kingdom of Powys
The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain. It roughly covered the top two thirds of the modern county of Powys and part of the West Midlands. More and based on the Romano-British tribal lands of the Ordovices in the west and the Cornovii in the east, its boundaries extended from the Cambrian Mountains in the west to include the modern West Midlands region of England in the east; the fertile river valleys of the Severn and Tern are found here, this region is referred to in Welsh literature as "the Paradise of Powys". The name Powys is thought to derive from Latin pagus'the countryside' and pagenses'dwellers in the countryside' the origins of French "pays" and English "peasant". During the Roman Empire, this region was organised into a Roman province, with the capital at Viroconium Cornoviorum, the fourth-largest Roman city in Britain. An entry in the Annales Cambriae concerning the death of King Cadell ap Brochfael says that the land called Powys was known as Teyrnllwg.
Throughout the Early Middle Ages, Powys was ruled by the Gwerthrynion dynasty, a family claiming descent jointly from the marriage of Vortigern and Princess Sevira, the daughter of Magnus Maximus. Archaeological evidence has shown that, unusually for the post-Roman period, Viroconium Cornoviorum survived as an urban centre well into the 6th century and thus could have been the Powys capital; the Historia Brittonum, written around AD 828, records the town as Caer Guricon, one of his "28 British Towns" of Roman Britain. In the following centuries, the Powys eastern border was encroached upon by English settlers from the emerging Anglian territory of Mercia; this was a gradual process, English control in the West Midlands was uncertain until the late 8th century. In 549 the Plague of Justinian - an outbreak of a strain of bubonic plague - arrived in Britain, Welsh communities were devastated, with villages and countryside alike depopulated. However, the English were less affected by this plague as they had far fewer trading contacts with the continent at this time.
Faced with shrinking manpower and increasing Anglian encroachment, King Brochwel Ysgithrog may have moved the court from Caer Guricon to Pengwern, the exact site of, unknown but may have been at Shrewsbury, traditionally associated with Pengwern, or the more defensible Din Gwrygon, the hill fort on The Wrekin. In 616, the armies of Æthelfrith of Northumbria clashed with Powys. Seeing an opportunity to further drive a wedge between the North Welsh and those of Rheged, Æthelfrith invaded Powys' northern lands. Æthelfrith defeated Selyf and his allies. At the commencement of the battle, Bede tells us that the pagan Æthelfrith slaughtered 1200 monks from the important monastery of Bangor-on-Dee in Maelor because, he said, "they fight against us, because they oppose us by their prayers". Selyf ap Cynan was killed in the battle and may have been the first of the kings of Powys to be buried at the church dedicated to St. Tysilio, at Meifod, thence known as the Eglwys Tysilio and subsequently the dynasty's Royal mausoleum.
If King Cynddylan of Pengwern hailed from the royal Powys dynasty forces from Powys may have been present at the Battle of Maes Cogwy in 642. According to the ninth-century cycle of englyn-poems Canu Heledd, the region around Pengwern was sacked soon after, its royal family slaughtered and most of its lands were annexed by Mercia, some by Powys. However, this account is now thought to represent ninth-century imaginings of what must have been going on in the seventh, inspired by Powys's political situation in the ninth century. Powys enjoyed a resurgence with successful campaigns against the English in 655, 705-707 and 722, wrote Davies; the court was moved to Mathrafal Castle in the valley of the river Vyrnwy by 717 by king Elisedd ap Gwylog. Elisedd's successes led King Æthelbald of Mercia to build Wat's Dyke; this endeavour may have been with Elisedd's own agreement, for this boundary, extending north from the Severn valley to the Dee estuary, gave Oswestry to Powys. King Offa of Mercia seems to have continued this consultive initiative when he created a larger earth work, now known as Offa's Dyke.
Davies wrote of Cyril Fox's study of Offa's Dyke: In the planning of it, there was a degree of consultation with the kings of Powys and Gwent. On the Long Mountain near Trelystan, the dyke veers to the east, leaving the fertile slopes in the hands of the Welsh, and for Gwent Offa had the dyke built "on the eastern crest of the gorge with the intention of recognizing that the river Wye and its traffic belonged to the kingdom of Gwent. This new border moved Oswestry back to the English side of the new frontier, Offa attacked Powys in 760 at Hereford, again on 778, 784 and 796. Offa's Dyke remained the frontier between the Welsh and English, though the Welsh would recover by the 12th century the area between the Dee and the River Conwy, known as the Perfeddwlad or "Midlands". Powys was united with Gwynedd when king Merfyn Frych of Gwynedd married princess Nest ferch Cadell, sister of king Cyngen of Powys, the last representative of the Gwertherion dynasty. With the death of Cyngen in 855 Rhodri the Great became king of Powys, having inherited Gwynedd the year before.
This formed the basis of Gwynedd's continued claims of overlordship over Powys for the next 443 years. Rhodri the Great ruled over most of modern Wales until his death in 878, his sons would in t
Mochnant, a name translating as "the rapid stream", was a medieval cantref in the Kingdom of Powys. In the 12th century it was divided into the commotes of Mochnant Is Rhaeadr and Mochnant Uwch Rhaeadr, its north-west border was with the cantref of Penllyn in Powys but which became annexed to the Kingdom of Gwynedd during the time of Owain Brogyntyn. It bordered the cantrefi of Caereinion and Mechain to the south, Maelor to the north-east; the administrative centre was Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant in Mochnant Is Rhaeadr. After the death of Madog ap Maredudd and his eldest son and heir in 1160, the kingdom was divided up between his surviving sons Gruffydd Maelor, Owain Fychan and Owain Brogyntyn, his nephew Owain Cyfeiliog and his half-brother Iorwerth Goch. Mochnant was given to Iorwerth Goch, but in 1166 he was ejected by Owain Cyfeiliog and Owain Fychan, who took control of Mochnant Uwch Rhaedr and Mochnant Is Rhaedr respectively: Iorwerth established himself in the Ceiriog Valley, becoming the castellan of Chirk.
The northern part of Powys, including Mochnant Is Rhaeadr became Powys Fadog. Following Edward I's conquest of Wales, Mochnant Is Rhaeadr become part of the Marcher Lordship of Chirk, but Mochnant Uwch Rhaeadr remained under Welsh rule. Mochnant Is Rhaeadr was in Denbighshire, while Mochnant Uwch Rhaeadr was in Montgomeryshire; the name survives in the placename Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant, this village had the ancient commote's ecclesiastical centre at the church of St Dogfan.
John Grey, 1st Earl of Tankerville
John Grey, 1st Earl of Tankerville jure uxoris 6th Lord of Powys, KG, was an English peer who served with distinction in the Hundred Years' War between England and France under King Henry V. John Grey was the second son of Sir Thomas Grey, of Berwick and Chillingham Castle, by his wife Joan Mowbray, a daughter of John de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, 4th Baron Mowbray by Elizabeth de Segrave and heiress of John de Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave. Joan Mowbray was a grand-daughter of Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, so John Grey was a descendant of King Edward I. Sir Thomas Grey of Heton, Islandshire in Northumberland, married a certain Agnes, a lady of unrecorded parentage, he fought in many battles for the English king on the Marches of the Scottish borders. He was succeeded by his son: Sir Thomas Grey ), the chronicler, who married Margaret de Pressene, a daughter William de Pressene, of Presson, Northumberland. Pugh 1988, pp. 103, 187, 196 Sir Thomas fought in many battles, besieged castles, recorded the events he witnessed in a celebrated historical account of the campaigns known as Scalacronica, published in 1369.
He died leaving a son Sir Thomas Grey, aged ten. Sir Thomas Grey, who married Alice Neville, a daughter of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, he was executed 2 August 1415 for his part in the Southampton Plot. Sir Henry Grey of Ketteringham, who married Emme Appleyard. William Grey. Maud Grey, who married Sir Robert Ogle of Ogle, Northumberland. Between 1408 and 1413 Henry V granted Grey three annuities, on 8 August 1415 gave him the forfeited estates of his brother, Sir Thomas Grey, executed for his part in the Southampton Plot. Grey fought at Agincourt in 1415. On 1 August 1417 Henry V launched his second invasion of Normandy, in that year Grey was Captain of Mortagne in October 1417, was with the King at the siege of Caen, where his valiant conduct caused the King to name him a Knight of the Garter. Henry V granted the castle and seigneurie of Tilly in Normandy in November 1417 forfeited by Sir William Harcourt, a supporter of the King's enemies. Grey was subsequently sent with a guard to Powys to bring the captured Lollard leader, Sir John Oldcastle, before Parliament.
In 1419 he was again in France as Captain of Mantes, on 31 January 1419 was granted the comté of Tancarville in Normandy to hold by grand sergeanty of delivery of a bascinet helmet at the Castle of Roan on Saint George's Day each year. Grey's continued service in the French wars earned him further grants, he was made governor of the Castle of Tournay. In 1418 or on 31 January 1419 he was created a Knight of the Garter. In 1420 he was Captain of Harfleur, by that date was one of the leading landowners in Normandy. On 22 March 1420/1, while fording a river near the Chateau de Beaufort at the Battle of Baugé, Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, many other of the English nobility were slain by a Franco-Scottish force, having incautiously engaged the enemy without proper preparation and with no archers in support. In 1418 Grey married Joan de Cherleton, 6th Lord of Powys, daughter and co-heiress of Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton, by his wife Eleanor Holland, widow of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March.
In his wife's right, Grey succeeded to the title of Lord Powis with its estates, including one moiety of Powis Castle, the other half having been inherited by his wife's sister Joyce de Cherleton, wife of John Tiptoft, 1st Baron Tiptoft. This arrangement remained in place until in the 1530s Joyce's great-grandson John Sutton, 3rd Baron Dudley sold the Tiptoft moiety of Powis Castle to his nephew, the 3rd and last Baron Grey of Powis. Joan de Cherleton survived her husband and in her widowhood in 1425 became heiress to her step-brother, Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, who had earlier been the focus of the Southampton Plot. By his wife he had a son and only child and heir: Henry Grey, 2nd Earl of Tankerville, Henry Grey was knighted in 1426 and married Antigone in France, the illegitimate daughter of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. During the 1430s and 1440s the French Kings Charles VI and the dauphin, Philip regained much of the territory lost to the Valois monarchy. Having lost his lands and fortune at Tancarville, the Count died on about 13 Jan 1449/50.
His title became extinct. Burke, Bernard. A genealogical history of the dormant, abeyant and extinct peerages of the British Empire. London. Cokayne, George E.. The Complete Peerage of Great Britain and Ireland. London. Milner, J. D.. "The Battle of Baugé, March 1421: Impact and Memory". History. 91: 484–507. Doi:10.1111/j.1468-229x.2006.00375.x. Mosley, Charles. Burke's Baronetage. London. Pugh, T. B.. Henry V and the Southampton Plot of 1415. Alan Sutton. ISBN 0-86299-541-8 Richardson, Douglas. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. I. Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966373 Richardson, Douglas. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. II. Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966381 Richardson, Douglas. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. III. Salt Lake City. ISBN 144996639X Grey, Earl of Tankerville Milner, John D.'The Battle of Baugé, March 1421: Impact and Memory', Vol. 91, Issue 304, pp. 484-507
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, sometimes written as Llywelyn ap Gruffydd known as Llywelyn the Last or Llywelyn Yr Ail, was Prince of Wales from 1258 until his death at Cilmeri in 1282. The son of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn Fawr and grandson of Llywelyn the Great, he was the last sovereign prince of Wales before its conquest by Edward I of England. Llywelyn was the second of the four sons of Gruffudd, the eldest son of Llywelyn the Great, Senana ferch Caradog, the daughter of Caradoc ap Thomas ap Rhodri, Lord of Anglesey; the eldest was Owain Goch ap Gruffudd and Llywelyn had two younger brothers, Dafydd ap Gruffudd and Rhodri ap Gruffudd. Llywelyn is thought to have been born around 1222 or 1223, he is first heard of holding lands in the Vale of Clwyd around 1244. Following his grandfather's death in 1240, Llywelyn's uncle, Dafydd ap Llywelyn, succeeded him as ruler of Gwynedd. Llywelyn's father and his brother, were kept prisoner by Dafydd transferred into the custody of King Henry III of England. Gruffudd died in 1244, from a fall while trying to escape from his cell at the top of the Tower of London.
The window from which he attempted to escape the Tower was bricked up and can still be seen to this day. This freed Dafydd ap Llywelyn's hand as King Henry could no longer use Gruffudd against him, war broke out between him and King Henry in 1245. Llywelyn supported his uncle in the savage fighting. Owain, was freed by Henry after his father's death in the hope that he would start a civil war in Gwynedd, but stayed in Chester, so when Dafydd died in February 1246 without leaving an heir, Llywelyn had the advantage of being on the spot. Llywelyn and Owain came to terms with King Henry and in 1247, signed the Treaty of Woodstock at Woodstock Palace; the terms they were forced to accept restricted them to Gwynedd Uwch Conwy, the part of Gwynedd west of the River Conwy, divided between them. Gwynedd Is Conwy, east of the river, was taken over by King Henry; when Dafydd ap Gruffudd came of age, King Henry accepted his homage and announced his intention to give him part of the reduced Gwynedd. Llywelyn refused to accept this, Owain and Dafydd formed an alliance against him.
This led to the Battle of Bryn Derwin in June 1255. Llywelyn defeated Owain and Dafydd and captured them, thereby becoming sole ruler of Gwynedd Uwch Conwy. Llywelyn now looked to expand his area of control; the population of Gwynedd Is Conwy resented English rule. This area known as "Perfeddwlad" had been given by King Henry to his son Edward and during the summer of 1256, he visited the area, but failed to deal with grievances against the rule of his officers. An appeal was made to Llywelyn, that November, crossed the River Conwy with an army, accompanied by his brother, whom he had released from prison. By early December, Llywelyn controlled all of Gwynedd Is Conwy apart from the royal castles at Dyserth and Dnoredudd as a reward for his support and dispossessing his brother-in-law, Rhys Fychan, who supported the king. An English army led by Stephen Bauzan invaded to try to restore Rhys Fychan but was decisively defeated by Welsh forces at the Battle of Cadfan in June 1257, with Rhys having slipped away to make his peace with Llywelyn.
Rhys Fychan now accepted Llywelyn as overlord, but this caused problems for Llywelyn, as Rhys's lands had been given to Maredudd. Llywelyn restored his lands to Rhys, but the king's envoys approached Maredudd and offered him Rhys's lands if he would change sides. Maredudd paid homage to Henry in late 1257. By early 1258, Llywelyn was using the title Prince of Wales, first used in an agreement between Llywelyn and his supporters and the Scottish nobility associated with the Comyn family; the English Crown refused to recognise this title however, in 1263, Llywelyn's brother, went over to King Henry. On 12 December 1263 in the commote of Ystumanner, Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn did homage and swore fealty to Llywelyn. In return he was made a vassal lord and the lands taken from him by Llywelyn about six years earlier were restored to him. In England, Simon de Montfort defeated the king's supporters at the Battle of Lewes in 1264, capturing the king and Prince Edward. Llywelyn began negotiations with de Montfort, in 1265, offered him 30,000 marks in exchange for a permanent peace, in which Llywelyn's right to rule Wales would be acknowledged.
The Treaty of Pipton, 22 June 1265, established an alliance between Llywelyn and de Montfort, but the favourable terms given to Llywelyn in this treaty were an indication of de Montfort's weakening position. De Montfort was to die at the Battle of Evesham in a battle in which Llywelyn took no part. After Simon de Montfort's death, Llywelyn launched a campaign in order to gain a bargaining position before King Henry had recovered. In 1265, Llywelyn captured Hawarden Castle and routed the combined armies of Hamo Lestrange and Maurice fitz Gerald in north Wales. Llywelyn moved on to Brycheiniog, in 1266, he routed Roger Mortimer's army. With these victories and the backing of the papal legate, Llywelyn opened negotiations with the king, was recognised as Prince of Wales by King Henry in the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267. In return for the title, the retention of the lands he had conquered and the homage of all the native rulers of Wales, he was to pay a tribute of 25,000 marks in yearly instalments of 3,000 marks, could if he wished, purchase the homage of the one outstandin
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
John Charleton, 1st Baron Cherleton
John Charleton, 1st Baron Cherleton, 1st Lord Charlton of Powys came from a family of minor landowners near Wellington, Shropshire. He was the son of Robert de Charleton of Apley castle near Wrockwardine, he had entered the service of the crown as a page, when Prince Edward became king, Charleton remained in the royal household. He was recorded as a king's yeoman on 18 September 1307 and was styled as a knight shortly afterwards. In January 1308 he accompanied the king to France for his wedding, in 1309 served in Ireland, he held the post of Chamberlain in the Royal Household before 1314, although the importance of the post is unclear. On 26 July 1309 he married Hawys Gadarn, heiress of the Lordship of Powys from her father the last Prince of Powys Owen de la Pole. Charleton acquired Pole castle on his marriage, from 1310 to 1315 he built the basis of the present Powis Castle. Strengthening the English authority over his Welsh lands, in 1310 he and Hawise's uncle Griffin de la Pole raised 400 footsoldiers from the lordship of Powis to fight against the Scots.
King Edward summoned him to Parliament as the 1st Lord Cherleton on 26 July 1313, a title acquired through the inherited right of his wife Hawise to Powys, which explains the common informal addition to his title of "Lord of Powis", "dominus de Powis" or "seigneur de Powis". John Charleton's authority in Powys grew too much for Hawise's uncle Griffin, aided in his opposition by the Le Strange lords of Knockin, Shropshire. By 1314, John was governor of Builth castle, with a constabulary role over the Welsh which included opposing Welsh rebels in 1316. In 1317 he raised another 300 foot soldiers for the king, in 1319 raised a further 500 soldiers for service against the Scots. John had taken action against Hawise's uncle Griffin by 1320 recovering all of his wife's estates, as well as having the lands of her four uncles settled on her, in default of their male issue. Following the confiscation of the Gower Lordship from the de Braose family in breach of Marcher autonomy by King Edward and its gift to his favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger, in 1321 John Cherleton joined in the baronial rebellion of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster against the Despenser family and the King.
On 11 September 1322 he was quickly pardoned for his part in the rebellion having returned to the King's side, raising another 500 men for him in 1325. John de Charleton's authority on the Welsh border was threatened by The Earl of Arundel who became Justice of Wales in 1322, Warden of the Welsh Marches in 1325, establishing his base as Constable of Montgomery Castle. In the autumn of 1326, Charleton's former ally Roger Mortimer, Queen Isabella took action against the Despenser family and other unpopular advisers to King Edward. Arundel remained loyal to the king, which gave Charleton the opportunity to rid himself of his rival by arresting and executing him under the orders of the Queen. Thomas Charlton, Bishop of Hereford, Lord Privy Seal from 1316-1320 was John's brother. On 29 June 1337, after King Edward III had taken power from Queen Isabella, John Charleton was appointed Chief Justiciar of Ireland and his brother Thomas became Lord Chancellor of Ireland. Within a year John had returned following a dispute.
John Charleton split his last years between his properties at Apley Castle in Shropshire, Charlton Hall in Shrewsbury and Powis Castle in Mid-Wales. In his life he was a patron of Strata Marcella abbey, was buried at the Franciscan Greyfriars Abbey in Shrewsbury, next to his wife, her father and grandfather. A fourteenth-century stained glass Jesse window, now in St Mary's church, but in the Greyfriars, shows at the bottom right hand corner, a knight bearing the arms of Powys, Charleton, he was succeeded by 2nd Baron Cherleton. A daughter, married John Sutton II, their descendant Edmund Sutton would marry Joyce Tiptoft, daughter of Joyce de Cherleton, co-heiress of Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton, last to hold the title Baron Cherleton. Apley Preservation Association