Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939. Earlier, following the Munich Agreement of September 1938, Nazi Germany had incorporated the Czech Sudetenland territory as a Reichsgau; the protectorate's population was majority ethnic Czech, while the Sudetenland was majority ethnic German. Following the establishment of the independent Slovak Republic on 14 March 1939, the German occupation of the Czech rump state the next day, Adolf Hitler established the protectorate on 16 March 1939 by a proclamation from Prague Castle; the German government justified its intervention by claiming that Czechoslovakia was descending into chaos as the country was breaking apart on ethnic lines, that the German military was seeking to restore order in the region. Czechoslovakia at the time under President Emil Hácha had pursued a pro-German foreign policy. Hácha was appointed president of the protectorate the same day.
The Protectorate was a nominally autonomous Nazi-administered territory which the German government considered part of the Greater German Reich. The state's existence came to an end with the surrender of Germany to the Allies in 1945. On 10 October 1938, when Czechoslovakia was forced to accept the terms of the Munich Agreement, Germany incorporated the Sudetenland, on the Czechoslovak border with Germany and Austria proper, with its majority of ethnic German inhabitants, directly into the Reich. Five months when the Slovak Diet declared the independence of Slovakia, Hitler summoned Czechoslovak President Emil Hácha to Berlin and intimidated him into accepting the German occupation of the Czech rump state and its reorganisation as a German protectorate. Hácha remained as technical head of state with the title of State President, but Germany rendered him all but powerless, vesting real power in the Reichsprotektor, who served as Hitler's personal representative. To appease outraged international opinion, Hitler appointed former foreign minister Konstantin von Neurath to the post.
German officials manned departments analogous to cabinet ministries, small German control offices were established locally. The SS assumed police authority; the new authorities dismissed Jews from the civil service and placed them outside of the legal system. Political parties and trade unions were banned, the press and radio were subjected to harsh censorship. Many local Communist Party leaders fled to the Soviet Union; the population of the protectorate was mobilized for labor that would aid the German war effort, special offices were organized to supervise the management of industries important to that effort. The Germans drafted Czechs to work in coal mines, in the iron and steel industry, in armaments production. Consumer-goods production, much diminished, was directed toward supplying the German armed forces; the protectorate's population was subjected to rationing. German rule was moderate by Nazi standards during the first months of the occupation; the Czech government and political system, reorganized by Hácha, continued in formal existence.
The Gestapo directed its activities against Czech politicians and the intelligentsia. The eventual goal of the German state under Nazi leadership was to eradicate Czech nationality through assimilation and deportation and to exterminate the Czech intelligentsia. In 1940, in a secret plan on Germanization of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, it was declared that those considered to be racially Mongoloid and the Czech intelligentsia were not to be Germanized, that about half of the Czech population were suitable for Germanization. Generalplan Ost assumed; the Czech intellectual élites were to be removed from Europe completely. The authors of Generalplan Ost believed it would be best if they emigrated overseas, as in Siberia, they were considered a threat to German rule. Just like Jews, Poles and several other nations, Czechs were considered to be untermenschen by the Nazi state; the Czechs demonstrated against the occupation on 28 October 1939, the 21st anniversary of Czechoslovak independence.
The death on 15 November 1939 of a medical student, Jan Opletal, wounded in the October violence, precipitated widespread student demonstrations, the Reich retaliated. Politicians were arrested en masse, as were teachers. On 17 November, all universities and colleges in the protectorate were closed, nine student leaders were executed, 1,200 were sent to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp within Nazi Germany. During World War II, Hitler decided that Neurath was not treating the Czechs harshly enough and adopted a more radical policy in the protectorate. On 29 September 1941, Hitler app
Bukovec (Frýdek-Místek District)
Bukovec is a village in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It has 1,356 inhabitants, 33.6% of the population are the Poles and 87.3% are Roman Catholics. It is the easternmost village of the country and the first village in the Czech Republic through which the Olza River flows, it lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. The village was established by Kazimierz, Duke of Cieszyn in 1353; the name of the village is derived from beech forests that grew there - buk is a Slavic root for beech. The first settlers lived off the logging of local beech forests. After 200 years, the village gained a farming-pasture character. Pastures were established on nearby hills; the number of inhabitants rose slowly. By 1647, only 20 people lived there. Settlers had many children and soon number of inhabitants rose, they lived in wooden houses. Since the 18th century, villagers lived off the transport of salt from Wieliczka to Jabłonków, transport of wood and smithing, they worked in coal mining and metallurgy.
From the interwar period until after World War II, smuggling was widespread, as in other villages near the borders. After Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia; the village as a municipality was subscribed to the political district of Cieszyn and the legal district of Jablunkov. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality grew from 844 in 1880 to 1,071 in 1910 with the majority being native Polish-speakers accompanied by German-speaking and Czech-speaking people. In terms of religion in 1910 the majority were Roman Catholics, followed by Protestants; the village was traditionally inhabited by Silesian Gorals, speaking Jablunkov dialect. After World War I, fall of Austria-Hungary, Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Czechoslovakia. Following the Munich Agreement, in October 1938 together with the Zaolzie region it was annexed by Poland, administratively adjoined to Cieszyn County of Silesian Voivodeship.
It was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Czechoslovakia. From 1975 to 1990 the village was administratively a part of Jablunkov; the village has been traditionally Roman Catholic. The first church was built in June 1939. Bukovec is still locally known for its slow pace of lifestyle. Villagers keep all religious traditions. Many of the traditional old wooden houses can still be seen. Cicha, Irena. Olza od pramene po ujście. Český Těšín: Region Silesia. ISBN 80-238-6081-X. Official website
Kozlovice (Frýdek-Místek District)
Kozlovice is a village in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It has around 2,850 inhabitants. Village Měrkovice is administrative part of Kozlovice; the village was founded in 1294. Village website
Brušperk is a town in the Czech Republic, established after 1269. Media related to Brušperk at Wikimedia Commons Municipal website
Baška (Frýdek-Místek District)
Baška is a municipality in Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It is located on about 5 km southeast of Frýdek-Místek; the municipality has a population of 3,398 and consists of three villages merged in 1960. On the northeast edge of Baška there is a shallow water reservoir used for recreational purposes; the village was first mentioned in 1434 as Bassky. Politically it belonged to the Duchy of Teschen, a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became part of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1573 it was sold as one of 16 villages and the town of Friedeck and formed a state country split from the Duchy of Teschen. After World War I and fall of Austria-Hungary it became a part of Czechoslovakia. In March 1939 it became a part of Protectorate of Moravia. After World War II it was restored to Czechoslovakia. In 1960 Silesian Baška was merged with Moravian ` Kunčičky u Bašky. Municipal website
Frýdek was an independent town in Silesia, joined with the Moravian town of Místek on 1 January 1943 to form the town of Frýdek-Místek. It lies on the western border of the Cieszyn Silesia region. Frýdek lies on the right bank of the Ostravice River, agreed in 1261 by a special treaty between Władysław Opolski, Duke of Opole and Racibórz and Ottokar II of Bohemia to be a local border between their states. In 1290 in the process of feudal fragmentation of Poland the Duchy of Teschen was formed, the border on the Ostravice was confirmed in 1297; the border from the Silesian side was protected by a small gord around which a small town emerged called Jamnice/Jamnica. It could have been first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as item in Jannutha. Both the town and a gord were mentioned in 1327 as Jemnicz when Casimir I, Duke of Cieszyn became a vassal of the King of Bohemia; the term oppidum used to describe it in the accompanying document was used in contrary to civitates ruling themselves under German rights of Cieszyn and Fryštát.
It meant that Jemnicz was ruled under Polish traditional rights. The town Frydek was first mentioned in 1386 as Fridek and in 1416 as Fredeck; the town had to be established under German rights between 1327 and 1386 on the grounds of Jemnicz, absorbed by Frýdek. The church in Jemnicz stayed a parish church for Frýdek for some time in the 14th century, but the parish was moved to a newly built church in Frýdek, mentioned in the register of Peter's Pence payment from 1447 among 50 parishes of Teschen deaconry as Fredek. During the location of Frýdek the castle was built, as part of the new town's defensive walls, where afterwards resided a ducal clerk, responsible for collecting taxes; the castle was expanded in the 15th century by Duke of Cieszyn. In that century the town together with the surrounding villages was a few times pawned. In 1526 the Kingdom of Bohemia became part of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1573 Frýdek together with 16 nearby villages were sold and split from the Duchy of Teschen and formed a separate state country.
The state country, with the Frýdek castle as its administrative centre, was owned by a several noble families. In the 18th century first Jews settled in the town. In the late 18th century textile industry developed in Frýdek. In 1848 the town became a seat of one of seven in the Austrian Silesia. In 1871 the railway reached the town. In 1864-1865 a Jewish synagogue was built here, in 1911 a Lutheran church was built. According to the Austrian census of 1910 the town had 9879 inhabitants living in 734 buildings; the census asked people their native language, results show that 5123 were German-speaking, 4033 were Czech-speaking and 574 was Polish-speaking. The dominant religious groups were Roman Catholics with 9199, followed by Protestants with 353 and the Jews with 353. After World War I, fall of Austria-Hungary it became a part of Czechoslovakia. In March 1939 it became a part of Protectorate of Moravia. On 1 January 1943 the towns of Frýdek and Místek and a several other villages were joined to form a single town.
After the war it was restored to Czechoslovakia
University of Silesia in Katowice
The University of Silesia in Katowice is an autonomous state-run university in Silesia Province, Poland. It should not be confused with a named university in the Czech Republic, the Silesian University in Opava; the university offers research facilities. It offers undergraduate, PhD degree programs, as well as postgraduate, postdoctoral research and continuous education and training programs; the roots of the University of Silesia in Katowice date back to 1928, when the Instytut Pedagogiczny w Katowicach was established in Katowice which exist till 1939. In 1950 Higher Pedagogical School in Katowice is established, first preparations to formation of what would become the University of Silesia in Katowice were taken just after the finish of Second World War. In June 1962, a branch of Jagiellonian University was settled in Katowice, which concentrated, apart from humanities, on mathematics and law. Together with the Higher Pedagogical School in Katowice, these are the foundations of what came to life on June 8, 1968, as the University of Silesia in Katowice.
And so on October 1, 1968, the University had its first academic year inaugurated, providing 6,000 students with twelve programmes, such as philology, psychology, law, mathematics, chemistry, physical education and mechanics. Three years the branch of the University in Cieszyn was established, in following years six new faculties were opened. In the years of 2002 and 2003, last two faculties were established, which had their roots in reformed branch of the University in Cieszyn. Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach has facilities in four cities in the region: Katowice, Sosnowiec and Chorzów; the majority of facilities are in Katowice. The university is in the center of a urbanized and ethnically complex region, the Metropolitan Association of Upper Silesia. Heavy industry is a significant influence, ecological challenges are formidable; the university tries to maintain close links with Silesian traditions. Number of teachers: 2,082 Number of students: 27,395 Number of faculties: 12 Number of programmes: 71 Number of specializations: 234 The University of Silesia has signed over 600 bilateral agreements with partner institutions in countries all over the world.
Among the others University of Silesia cooperates with: Saint Petersburg State University, University of Buenos Aires, University of Alberta, Beijing Foreign Studies University, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies and in the frame of programme Erasmus+ with: University of Vienna, University of Helsinki, Charles University in Prague, University of Birmingham, University of Strasbourg, University of Bologna, Sapienza University of Rome, University of Verona, University of Lisbon, Stockholm University, University of Oslo, Paris-Sorbonne University, University of Zurich, University of Valencia, University of Barcelona. The University of Silesia in Katowice has schools of modern languages, natural science, technology, a language teacher training college, it is divided into the following faculties: Faculty of Fine Arts and Music Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection Faculty of Ethnology and Sciences of Education Faculty of Philology Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science Faculty of Mathematics and Chemistry Faculty of Earth Sciences Faculty of Social Sciences Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology Faculty of Law and Administration Faculty of Radio and Television Faculty of Theology prof. dr hab.
Kazimierz Popiołek prof. dr hab. Henryk Rechowicz prof. dr hab. Sędzimir Klimaszewski prof. dr hab. August Chełkowski prof. dr hab. Maksymilian Pazdan prof. dr hab. Tadeusz Sławek prof. dr hab. Janusz Janeczek prof. dr hab. Wiesław Banyś prof. dr hab. Andrzej Kowalczyk Scientific Information Centre and Academic Library, opened in 2012, is a modern scientific library open for students and researchers, but people unrelated to university or academic activities. Being a joint-project of the University of Silesia and University of Economics in Katowice, most of the materials are available in the open space to which users have free access; the library is equipped with modern technologies and information tools, is adapted to meet the expectations people with disabilities. In 2017, Times Higher Education ranked the university within the 801-1000 band globally. Krzysztof Kieślowski Krzysztof Zanussi Jerzy Stuhr Andrzej Fidyk Marcin Koszałka Eugenia Mandal Marcin Wrona Bogdan Dziworski Filip Bajon Marek Kuczma August Chełkowski Jan Mikusiński Piotr Zawojski Renata Przemyk, singer Krystyna Bochenek, politician Michał Rosa, film director Bartosz Konopka, film director, Academy Award nomination Tomasz Beksiński, radio presenter and journalist University of Silesia in Katowice - website Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach - website