Acharya Hemachandra was a Jain scholar and polymath who wrote on grammar, philosophy and contemporary history. Noted as a prodigy by his contemporaries, he gained the title kalikālasarvajña, "the all-knowing of the Kali Yuga". Hemachandra was born in present-day Gujarat, on Kartika Sud Purnima, his date of birth differs according to sources but 1088 is accepted. His father, Chachiga-deva was a Modh Bania Vaishnava, his mother, was a Jain. Hemchandra's original given name was Changadeva. In his childhood, the Jain monk Devachandra Suri visited Dhandhuka and was impressed by the young Hemachandra's intellect, his mother and maternal uncle concurred with Devachandra, in opposition to his father, that Hemachandra be a disciple of his. Devachandra took Hemachandra to Khambhat, where Hemachandra was placed under the care of the local governor Udayana. Chachiga came to Udayana's place to take his son back, but was so overwhelmed by the kind treatment he received, that he decided to willingly leave his son with Devachandra.
Some years Hemachandra was initiated a Jain monk on Magha Sud Chauth and was given a new name, Somchandra. Udayana helped Devchandra Suri in the ceremony, he was trained in religious discourse, philosophy and grammar and became well versed in Jain and non–Jain scriptures. At the age of 21, he was ordained an acharya of the Śvētāmbara school of Jainism at Nagaur in present-day Rajasthan. At this time, he was named Hemachandra Suri. At the time, Gujarat was ruled by the Chaulukya dynasty from Anhilavada, it is not certain. As Jain monks are mendicants for eight months and stay at one place during Chaturmas, the four monsoon months, he started living at Patan during these periods and produced the majority of his works there. Around 1125, he was introduced to the Jayasimha Siddharaja and soon rose to prominence in the Chaulukya royal court. According to the Prabhavaka Charita of Chandraprabha, the earliest biography of Hemachandra, Jayasimha spotted Hemachandra while passing through the streets of his capital.
The king was impressed with an impromptu verse uttered by the young monk. In 1135, when the Siddharaja conquered Malwa, he brought the works of Bhoja from Dhar along with other things. One day Siddhraja came across the manuscript of Sarasvati-Kanthabharana, a treatise on Sanskrit grammar, he was so impressed by it that he told the scholars in his court to produce a grammar, as easy and lucid. Hemachandra requested Siddharaja to find the eight best grammatical treatises from Kashmir, he studied them and produced a new grammar work in the style of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. He named his work Siddha-Hema-Śabdanuśāśana after the king. Siddharaja was so pleased with the work that he ordered it to be placed on the back of an elephant and paraded through the streets of Anhilwad Patan. Hemachandra composed the Dvyashraya Kavya, an epic on the history of the Chaulukya dynasty, to illustrate his grammar. According to the Prabhachandra, there was an incident where Siddharaja wanted to kill his nephew Kumarapala because it was prophesied that the kingdom would meet its demise at Kumarapala's hands.
Hemachandra hid Kumarapala under a pile of manuscripts to save him. However, such motifs are common in Indian folk literature, so it is unlikely it was an actual historical event. Many sources differ on Siddharaja's motives. Hemachandra became the advisor to Kumarapala. During Kumarapala's reign, Gujarat became a center of culture. Using the Jain approach of Anekantavada, Hemchandra is said to have displayed a broad-minded attitude, which pleased Kumarapala. Kumarapala ordered the rebuilding of Somnath at Prabhas Patan; some people who were jealous of Hemachandra's rising popularity with the Kumarapala complained that Hemachandra was a arrogant person, that he did not respect the devas and that he refused to bow down to Shiva. When called upon to visit the temple on the inauguration with Kumarapala, Hemachandra bowed before the lingam but said:Bhava Bijankaura-janana Ragadyam Kshayamupagata Yasya, Brahma va Vishnu va Haro Jino va Namastasmai. I bow down to him who has destroyed the passions like attachment and malice which are the cause of the cycle of birth and death.
The king became a devoted follower of Hemachandra and a champion of Jainism. Starting in 1121, Hemachandra was involved in the construction of the Jain temple at Taranga, his influence on Kumarapala resulted in Jainism becoming the official religion of Gujarat and animal slaughter was banned in the state. The tradition of animal sacrifice in the name of religion was uprooted in Gujarat; as a result almost 900 years after Hemchandra, Gujarat still continues to be a predominantly lacto-vegetarian state, despite having an extensive coastline. He announced about his death six months in advance and fasted in his last days, a Jain practice called sallekhana, he died at Anhilavad Patan. The year of death differs according to sources but 1173 is accepted. A prodigious writer, Hemachandra wrote grammars of Sanskrit and Prakrit, prosody, texts on science and logic and many branches of Indian philosophy, it is said. His systematic exposition of the Jain path in the Yogaśāstra and its auto-commentary is a influential text in Jain thought.
According to Olle Quarnström it is "the most comprehensive treatise on Svetambara Jainism known to us". This Sanskrit grammar was written in the style of Pāṇini, it has seven chapters with each chapter having
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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Gujarat is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of 1,600 km – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million. It is the ninth largest state by population. Gujarat is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast and Diu to the south and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west, its capital city is Gandhinagar. The Gujarati-speaking people of India are indigenous to the state; the economy of Gujarat is the fifth-largest state economy in India with ₹14.96 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹157,000. The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Lothal and Gola Dhoro. Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch and Khambhat, served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires, during the succession of royal Saka dynasties from the Western Satraps era.
Along with Bihar and Nagaland, Gujarat is one of the three Indian states to prohibit the sale of alcohol. Present-day Gujarat is derived from Sanskrit term Gurjaradesa, meaning the land of the Gurjaras who ruled Gujarat in the 8th and 9th centuries AD. Parts of modern Rajasthan and Gujarat have been known as Gurjaratra or Gurjarabhumi for centuries before the Mughal period. Gujarat was one of the main central areas of the Indus Valley Civilisation, it contains ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal was; the ancient city of Dholavira is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilisation. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. Altogether, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat; the ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by the commercial activities of its inhabitants. There is clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Egypt and Sumer in the Persian Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC.
There was a succession of Hindu and Buddhist states such as the Mauryan Dynasty, Western Satraps, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Chalukya dynasty, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire and Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, as well as local dynasties such as the Maitrakas and the Chaulukyas. The early history of Gujarat reflects the imperial grandeur of Chandragupta Maurya who conquered a number of earlier states in what is now Gujarat. Pushyagupta, a Vaishya, was appointed the governor of Saurashtra by the Mauryan regime, he built a dam on the Sudarshan lake. Emperor Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, not only ordered engraving of his edicts on the rock at Junagadh but asked Governor Tusherpha to cut canals from the lake where an earlier Mauryan governor had built a dam. Between the decline of Mauryan power and Saurashtra coming under the sway of the Samprati Mauryas of Ujjain, there was an Indo-Greek defeat in Gujarat of Demetrius. In 16th century manuscripts, there is an apocryphal story of a merchant of King Gondaphares landing in Gujarat with Apostle Thomas.
The incident of the cup-bearer torn apart by a lion might indicate that the port city described is in Gujarat. For nearly 300 years from the start of the 1st century AD, Saka rulers played a prominent part in Gujarat's history; the weather-beaten rock at Junagadh gives a glimpse of the ruler Rudradaman I of the Saka satraps known as Western Satraps, or Kshatraps. Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I founded the Kardamaka dynasty which ruled from Anupa on the banks of the Narmada up to the Aparanta region which bordered Punjab. In Gujarat, several battles were fought between the south Indian Satavahana dynasty and the Western Satraps; the greatest and the mightiest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni who defeated the Western Satraps and conquered some parts of Gujarat in the 2nd century AD. The Kshatrapa dynasty was replaced by the Gupta Empire with the conquest of Gujarat by Chandragupta Vikramaditya. Vikramaditya's successor Skandagupta left an inscription on a rock at Junagadh which gives details of the governor's repairs to the embankment surrounding Sudarshan lake after it was damaged by floods.
The Anarta and Saurashtra regions were both parts of the Gupta empire. Towards the middle of the 5th century, the Gupta empire went into decline. Senapati Bhatarka, the Maitraka general of the Guptas, took advantage of the situation and in 470 he set up what came to be known as the Maitraka state, he shifted his capital from Giringer near Bhavnagar, on Saurashtra's east coast. The Maitrakas of Vallabhi became powerful with their rule prevailing over large parts of Gujarat and adjoining Malwa. A university was set up by the Maitrakas, which came to be known far and wide for its scholastic pursuits and was compared with the noted Nalanda University, it was during the rule of Dhruvasena Maitrak that Chinese philosopher-traveler Xuanzang/ I Tsing visited in 640 along the Silk Road. Gujarat was known to the ancient Greeks and was familiar with other Western centers of civilization through the end of the European Middle Ages; the oldest written record of Gujarat's 2,000-year maritime history is documented in a Greek book titled The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century.
In the early 8th century, the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate established an empire in the name of the rising religion of Islam, which stretched
Prithviraja III, popularly known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai Pithora in the folk legends, was an Indian king from the Chahamana dynasty. He ruled the traditional Chahamana territory, in present-day north-western India, he controlled much of the present-day Rajasthan and Delhi. His capital was located at Ajayameru, although the medieval folk legends describe him as the king of India's political centre Delhi to portray him as a representative of the pre-Islamic Indian power. Early in his career, Prithviraj achieved military successes against several neighbouring Hindu kingdoms, most notably against the Chandela king Paramardi, he repulsed the early invasions by Muhammad of Ghor, a ruler of the Muslim Ghurid dynasty. However, in 1192 CE, the Ghurids defeated Prithviraj at the Second battle of Tarain, his defeat at Tarain is seen as a landmark event in the Islamic conquest of India, has been described in several semi-legendary accounts. The most popular of these accounts is Prithviraj Raso, which presents him as a "Rajput", although the Rajput identity did not exist during his time.
The extant inscriptions from Prithviraj's reign are few in number, were not issued by the king himself. Much of the information about him comes from the medieval legendary chronicles. Besides the Muslim accounts of Battles of Tarain, he has been mentioned in several medieval kavyas by Hindu and Jain authors; these include Hammira Mahakavya and Prithviraj Raso. These texts contain eulogistic descriptions, are therefore, not reliable. Prithviraja Vijaya is the only surviving literary text from the reign of Prithviraj. Prithviraj Raso, which popularized Prithviraj as a great king, is purported to be written by the king's court poet Chand Bardai. However, it is full of exaggerated accounts. Other chronicles and texts that mention Prithviraj include Prabandha-Chintamani, Prabandha Kosha and Prithviraja Prabandha; these were composed centuries after his death, contain exaggerations and anachronistic anecdotes. Both Prabandha-Chintamani and Prithviraja-Prabandha portray Prithviraj as an inept and unworthy king, responsible for his own downfall.
Prithviraj has been mentioned in Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali, a Sanskrit text containing biographies of the Kharatara Jain monks. While the work was completed in 1336 CE, the part that mentions Prithviraj was written around 1250 CE; the Alha-Khanda of the Chandela poet Jaganika provides an exaggerated account of Prithviraj's war against the Chandelas. Prithviraj was born to the Chahamana king queen Karpuradevi. Both Prithviraj and his younger brother Hariraja were born in Gujarat, where their father Someshvara was brought up at the Chaulukya court by his maternal relatives. According to Prithviraja Vijaya, Prithviraj was born on the 12th day of the Jyeshtha month; the text does not mention the year of his birth, but provides some of the astrological planetary positions at the time of his birth, calling them auspicious. Based on these positions and assuming certain other planetary positions, Dasharatha Sharma calculated the year of Prithviraj's birth as 1166 CE; the medieval biographies of Prithviraj suggest.
The Prithviraja Vijaya states. The Raso goes on to claim that he became well-versed in a number of subjects, including history, medicine, painting and theology. Both the texts state that he was proficient in archery. Prithviraj moved from Gujarat to Ajmer, when his father Someshvara was crowned the Chahamana king after the death of Prithviraja II. Someshvara died in 1177 CE; the last inscription from Someshvara's reign and the first inscription from Prithviraj's reign are both dated to this year. Prithviraj, a minor at the time, ascended the throne with his mother as the regent; the Hammira Mahakavya claims that Someshvara himself installed Prithviraj on the throne, retired to the forest. However, this is doubtful. During his early years as the king, Prithviraj's mother managed the administration, assisted by a regency council. Kadambavasa served as the chief minister of the kingdom during this period, he is known as Kaimasa, Kaimash or Kaimbasa in the folk legends, which describe him as an able administrator and soldier devoted to the young king.
Prithviraja Vijaya states that he was responsible for all the military victories during the early years of Prithviraj's reign. According to two different legends, Kadambavasa was killed by Prithviraj; the Prithviraja-Raso claims that Prithviraj killed the minister after finding him in the apartment of the king's favourite concubine Karnati. Prithviraja-Prabandha claims that a man named Pratapa-Simha conspired against the minister, convinced Prithviraj that the minister was responsible for the repeated Muslim invasions. Both these claims appear to be inaccurate, as the much more reliable Prithviraja Vijaya does not mention any such incident. Bhuvanaikamalla, the paternal uncle of Prithviraj's mother, was another important minister during this time. According to Prithviraja Vijaya, he was a valiant general who served Prithviraj as Garuda serves Vishnu; the text states that he was "proficient in the art of subduing nāgas". According to the 15th-century historian Jonaraja, "naga" here refers to elephants.
However, Har Bilas Sarda interpreted Naga as the name of a tribe, theorized
Magha was a Sanskrit poet at King Varmalata's court at Shrimala, the then-capital of Gujarat. Magha was born in a Shrimali Brahmin family, he was grandson of Suprabhadeva. His epic poem Shishupala Vadha, in 20 sargas, is based on the Mahabharata episode where the defiant king Shishupala is beheaded by Krishna's chakra, he is thought to have been inspired by, is compared with, Bharavi. Māgha's fame rests on the Shishupala Vadha. Vallabhadeva and Kshemendra quote some verses that are not found in the Shishupala Vadha as that of Māgha, so it is believed that Māgha wrote some other works that are now lost. Unlike most Indian poets who give no autobiographical details or allude to contemporary events at all, Māgha, in the concluding five verses of the work, gives some autobiographical details, rare for Indian poets; the verses inform that his father was Dattaka and his grandfather was Suprabhadeva, a minister at the court of a king whose name is mentioned in different editions as Varmalāta, Dharmanābha, Dharmanātha, Varmalākhya, etc.
These verses are therefore called the kavi-vaṃśa-varṇana by commentators. According to tradition, Māgha was a native of Gujarat, being born in Shrimal Nagar Present Bhinmal district Jalore in Rajasthan. By his own accounts and that of others, he was born wealthy and lived a carefree life, although according to one legend, he died in poverty. Māgha is quoted by Anandavardhana, in the Kavirajamarga, thus putting him no than the 8th century. Pathak notes that he alludes to the Kāśikāvṛtti and its commentary Nyāsa, the latter of, not mentioned by I-Tsing and thus must have been written after his departure from India in 695 CE. Thus, Pathak puts Māgha in the second half of the 8th century. Hermann Jacobi puts him in the 6th century, Kielhorn and others put him in the second half of the 7th century. Māgha is popular with Sanskrit critics and is extensively quoted by them, his Shishupala Vadha seems to have been inspired by the Kirātārjunīya of Bharavi, intended to emulate and surpass it. Like Bharavi, he displays rhetorical and metrical skill more than the growth of the plot, is noted for his intricate wordplay, textual complexity, verbal ingenuity.
He uses a rich vocabulary, so much so that the claim has been made that his work contains every word in the Sanskrit language. Whereas Bhāravi glorifies Shiva, Māgha glorifies Krishna. A popular Sanskrit verse about Māgha says: उपमा कालिदासस्य भारवेरर्थगौरवं| दन्डिन: पदलालित्यं माघे सन्ति त्रयो गुणः|| upamā kālidāsasya, bhāraver arthagauravaṃ, daṇḍinaḥ padalālityaṃ — māghe santi trayo guṇaḥ "The similes of Kalidasa, Bharavi's depth of meaning, Daṇḍin's wordplay — in Māgha all three qualities are found."Thus, Māgha's attempt to surpass Bharavi appears to have been successful. However, Māgha follows Bhāravi's structure too and the long-windedness of his descriptions loses the gravity and "weight of meaning" found in Bhāravi's poem. Māgha is more admired as a poet than the work is as a whole, the sections of the work that may be considered digressions from the story have the nature of an anthology and are more popular. Māgha influenced Ratnākara's Haravijaya, an epic in 50 cantos that suggests a thorough study of the Shishupalavadha.
The Dharmashramabhyudaya, a Sanskrit poem by Harichandra in 21 cantos on Dharmanatha the 15th tirthankara, is modeled on the Shishupalavadha
Vividha Tirtha Kalpa
Vividha Tirtha Kalpa is a cited Jain text composed by Jinaprabha Suri in the 14th century CE. It is a compilation of about 60 Kalpas, most of them give the accounts of major Jain Tirthas. Vividha Tirtha Kalpa is an example of the tirtha-mala texts that are compilations about Jain Tirthas throughout India, ranging from Nirvana Kanda of Kundakunda to modern publications. Jinaprabh Suri is said to have written three Jain prayers in Persian. Jinaprabha Suri lived during the rule of Muhammad bin Tughluq, he travelled and has left a record of contemporary events as well as oral traditions. He was born in Gujarat in the Tambi clan of Shrimal Jain community, he was initiated at the age of 8 and became an Acharya in Kharatara Gaccha at 23. Some of the Kalpas contain the date of compositions; the dates range from Samvat 1364 to Samvat 1389. The last section of the book was written in 1332 CE in Delhi during the rule of Muhammad Bin Tuglaq; the tirthas mentioned cover regions: Gujarat and Kathiawad Punjab and Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan and Malava Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar Karnataka and TelanganaThe description suggests that at that time, while the Svetambara-Digambara division had become distinct, the tirtha were visited by Jains of both sects.
He describes the destruction of many temples in recent period. Tirth Pat Jainism in Delhi Shatrunjaya
Vasavadatta is a character in the Svapnavasavadatta Vasavadatta is a classical Sanskrit romantic tale, written in an ornate style of language. Its author is Subandhu, whose dates are not known, he is taken to have written the work in the second quarter of the 7th century. However, scholar Maan Singh has stated that he was a courtier of the Gupta emperor Kumaragupta I as well as Skandagupta and dated him between 385 and 465 CE; the work's style has been described as "developed, elaborate and pedantic" and has influenced prose writers. The Kanchanadarpana of Sivarama Tripathin and the Tattvadipini of Jagaddhara are two significant works that have critiqued and commented on the Vasavadatta. Louis Herbert Gray first translated Vasavadatta into English, published by the Columbia University Press in 1913 as the eighth volume of the 13 volume Columbia University Indo-Iranian Series in between 1901–32 and edited by A. V. Williams Jackson; the outline of the plot of this work is as follows:Kandarpaketu, son of king Chintamani, is a handsome and charming prince.
In his dreams, he once has a vision of a lovely maiden. He resolves to set out in search of this beauty, his friend Makaranda remonstrates with him, saying that setting out into the wilderness with no idea of one's goal is foolishness. Kandarpaketu tells him of his conviction that this girl has been his companion of many lifetimes and that they are destined to be united in this lifetime and every future lifetime too. Let them set out, fate will direct their steps in the right direction. Rather than let his friend depart alone, Makaranda accompanies him in his quest, they leave the capital in search of this unknown beauty. Soon enough, they meet with success; the two friends lie down to rest in the shade of a tree on the banks of the Narmada river. Here, the prince overhears a conversation between a pair of love-birds perched on the tree above them; the male bird is extolling the charms and virtues of Vasavadatta, daughter of king Shringarashekhara of Kusumapura. The bird reveals further that this princess had, in her dreams, had a vision of a charming prince who had smitten her heart.
The princess had vividly described the young man to her companion and confidante and had despaired of meeting with him in real life, for her destiny seemed to take her another way. The bird had overheard the description of the prince and, being a love-bird, had resolved to fly out over the country, locate the young man, bring him to the princess. To cut the story short, the bird leads Kandarpaketu to Tamalika and the group proceeds to Kusumapura where Tamalika arranges for Kandarpaketu to meet Vasavadatta, they duly recognize each other from their respective dreams in a lyrical passage. However, Kandarpaketu learns to his horror that Vasavadatta's father, king Shringarshekhara, has arranged for her to wed Pushpaketu, son of Vijayaketu, chief of the Vidyadharas, the next morning. Kandarpaketu and Vasavadatta flee to the Vindhya mountains forthwith, mounted upon a magic steed, leaving Makaranda behind at Kusumapura. After reaching safety in the Vindhya mountains, the exhausted lovers fell asleep.
When Kandarpaketu wakes up, he finds Vasavadatta missing. He searches for her in vain and mad with grief, decides to end his life; when he is on the verge of committing suicide by drowning, a voice from the sky rings out and promises him that he will be re-united with Vasavadatta. Kandarpaketu wanders for several months in the forest and lovelorn, he chances upon a stone image of Vasavadatta. He touches the image, miraculously, the stone turns into a living and breathing Vasavadatta. After regaining life, Vasavadatta narrates to Kandarpaketu the series of events that befell her after they both fell asleep in the forests of the Vindhya mountains, she went in search of wild fruits to eat. She was caught between two groups of soldiers, each led by a chieftain who fell in love with her at first sight and wished to possess her. While they were fighting with each other, she managed to escape. During her flight through the forest, she unintentionally trespassed into the hermitage of an ascetic and disturbed his penances.
Again, Vasavadatta's beauty is the culprit. The hermit curses Vasavadatta that her beauty be turned to stone, that she return to vibrant life only upon receiving the touch of the man, destined from previous births to be her husband. By the curse of the hermit, Vasavadatta was petrified into stone; the fact that Vasavadatta returned to life upon being touched by Kandarpaketu confirms that he has been her husband in former lifetimes and is destined to be her husband in this and future lifetimes as well. Her father, King Sringarasekhara, gives her hand in marriage to Kandarpaketu; the couple proceed to Kandarpaketu's paternal kingdom and live there ever after. T. V. Srinivasachariar. Vasavadatta of Subandhu, Trichinopoly, St. Joseph's College Press. Louis Herbert Gray. Vasavadatta: A Sanskrit Romance by Subandhu. 1965 reprint: ISBN 978-0-404-50478-6. Jaydev Mohanlal Shukla, Vāsavadatta of Subandhu, crit. Ed. Jodhpur. Bronner, Extreme Poetry, The South Asian Movement of Simultaneous Narration, New York, Columbia University Press.