Hindi Dance Music
Hindi Dance Music encompasses a wide range of songs predominantly featured in the Bollywood film industry with a growing worldwide attraction. The music became popular among overseas Indians in countries such as South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America and developed a global fan base. While Hindi Dance Music do form part of the music of Bollywood, the wide-based genre songs became popular by the early to mid 2000's after the worldwide success of the song "Mundian To Bach Ke" which charted in various international music charts and other famous dance songs such as "Kajra Re". By the late 2000s Hindi Dance Music attained worldwide recognition following the success of the Oscar-winning song "Jai Ho". By the 2010s, due to the growing fan base of EDM, Hindi Dance Music began incorporating it into their style of music while maintaining its diverse types of song production; this prompted the recognition of songs such as "Baby Doll". The style of music was greatly an influence for British singer M.
I. A. and her album Matangi. The filmi music and dances in Bollywood films are a synthesis of formal and folk Indian traditional music and dance traditions, in fusion with Middle Eastern techniques; the dances in older Hindi movies represented supposed dances of the common people, although they involved original choreography. Bollywood dances have evolved as a energetic style. Since they are group dances, they are used as joyful exercise music; the style of dance has highly influenced international artists and appears in songs such as "Don't Phunk with My Heart", "Come & Get It", "Bounce" and EDM hit "Lean On". The choreography of Bollywood dances takes inspiration from Indian folk dances, classical dances as well as disco and from earlier Hindi filmi dances; some of the notable choreographers of past years were B. Sohanlal Lachhu Maharaj Chiman Seth Krishna Kumar Among the modern choreographers the notable are: Shiamak Davar Saroj Khan Ahmed Khan Raju Khan Vaibhavi Merchant Remo Farah Khan Choreographers are known for taking Bollywood dance global: Jyoti Trivedi is known for taking Bollywood dance to the UK, namely London through The Angel Dance School.
Bollywood songs Babul Item number Hindi wedding songs Echoes from Dharamsala: Music in the Life of a Tibetan Refugee Community by Keila Diehl Music of Hindu Trinidad: Songs from the India Diaspora by Helen Myers Cassette Culture: Popular Music and Technology in North India by Peter Manuel World Music Volume 2: Latin and North America, India and Pacific by Simon Broughton, Mark Ellingham
Qawwali is a form of Sufi Islamic devotional music originating from South Asia, notably popular in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan. It is part of a musical tradition. Performed at Sufi shrines or dargahs throughout South Asia, it gained mainstream popularity and an international audience in late 20th century. Qawwali music received international exposure through the work of the late Pakistani singers Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Sabri Brothers, Aziz Mian due to several releases on the Real World label, followed by live appearances at WOMAD festivals. Other famous Qawwali singers include Pakistan's Fareed Ayyaz & Abu Muhammad, Rahat Fateh Ali Khan, Badar Maindad, Rizwan & Moazzam Duo, the late Amjad Sabri and Bahauddin Qutbuddin. Delhi's Sufi saint Amir Khusrow of the Chisti order of Sufis is credited with fusing the Persian, Arabic and Indian musical traditions in the late 13th century in India to create Qawwali as we know it today; the word Sama is still used in Central Asia and Turkey to refer to forms similar to Qawwali, in India and Bangladesh, the formal name used for a session of Qawwali is Mehfil-e-Sama.
Qaul is an "utterance", Qawwāl is someone who repeats a Qaul, Qawwāli is what a Qawwāl sings. The songs which constitute the qawwali repertoire are in Persian, Hindi and Punjabi. There are some in Persian from the Mughal era, a smattering in Saraiki and dialects of north India like Brajbhasha and Awadhi. There is qawwali in some regional languages but the regional language tradition is obscure; the sound of the regional language qawwali can be different from that of mainstream qawwali. This is true of Chhote Babu Qawwal, whose style of singing is much closer to the Bengali Baul music than to the qawwali of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, for example; the poetry is implicitly understood to be spiritual in its meaning though the lyrics can sometimes sound wildly secular, or outright hedonistic. The central themes of qawwali are love and longing. Qawwalis are classified by their content into several categories: A hamd, Arabic for praise, is a song in praise of Allah. Traditionally, a qawwali performance starts with a hamd.
A na`at, Arabic for description, is a song in praise of Muhammad. The opening hamd is traditionally followed by a naat. A manqabat is a song in one of the Sufi saints. Manaqib in praise of Ali are sung at both Shi'a gatherings. If one is sung, it will follow right after the naat. There is at least one manqabat in a traditional programme. A marsiya, Arabic for lamentation for a dead person, is a lamentation over the death of much of Imam Husayn's family in the Battle of Karbala; this would be sung only at a Shi'a gathering. A ghazal, Arabic for love song, is a song. There are two extended metaphors that run through ghazals—the joys of drinking and the agony of separation from the beloved; these songs feature exquisite poetry, can be taken at face value, enjoyed at that level. In fact, in Pakistan and India, ghazal is a separate, distinct musical genre in which many of the same songs are performed in a different musical style, in a secular context. In the context of that genre, the songs are taken at face value, no deeper meaning is implied.
But in the context of qawwali, these songs of intoxication and yearning use secular metaphors to poignantly express the soul's longing for union with the Divine, its joy in loving the Divine. In the songs of intoxication, "wine" represents "knowledge of the Divine", the "cup-bearer" is God or a spiritual guide, the "tavern" is the metaphorical place where the soul may be fortunate enough to attain spiritual enlightenment. Intoxication is being filled with the joy of loving the Divine. In the songs of yearning, the soul, having been abandoned in this world by that cruel and cavalier lover, sings of the agony of separation, the depth of its yearning for reunion. A kafi is a poem in Punjabi, Seraiki or Sindhi, in the unique style of poets such as Sultan Bahoo, Shah Hussain, Bulleh Shah and Sachal Sarmast. Two of the more well-known Kafis include Mera Piya Ghar Aaya. A munajaat, Arabic for a conversation in the night or a form of prayer, is a song where the singer displays his thanks to Allah through a variety of linguistic techniques.
It is sung in Persian, with Mawlana Jalāl-ad-Dīn Rumi credited as its author. A group of qawwali musicians, called a party consists of eight or nine men including a lead singer, one or two side singers, one or two harmoniums, percussion. If there is only one percussionist, he plays the tabla and dholak the tabla with the dominant hand and the dholak with the other one. There will be two percussionists, in which case one might play the tabla and the other the dholak. There is a chorus of four or five men who repeat key verses, who aid percussion by
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
A bhajan means "sharing". It refers to any song with religious theme or spiritual ideas, in a regional languages from the Indian subcontinent; as a bhajan has no prescribed form, or set rules, it is in free form lyrical and based on melodic ragas. It belongs to a genre of music and arts, it is found in the various traditions of Hinduism but in Vaishnavism. It is found in Jainism. Ideas from scriptures, legendary epics, the teachings of saints and loving devotion to a deity are the typical subjects of bhajans, it is a group event, with one or more lead singers, accompanied with music, sometimes dancing. A bhajan may be sung in a temple, in a home, under a tree in open, near a river bank or a place of historic significance; the saints of the Bhakti movement are credited with pioneering many forms of bhajans, starting with the South Indian bhakti pioneers, but bhajans have been composed anonymously and shared as a musical and arts tradition. Its genre such as Nirguni, Vallabhapanthi, Madhura-bhakti and the traditional South Indian form Sampradya Bhajan each have their own repertoire and methods of singing.
The Sanskrit word bhajan or bhajana is derived from the root bhaj, which means "divide, partake, participate, to belong to". The word connotes "attachment, devotion to, fondness for, faith or love, piety to something as a spiritual, religious principle or means of salvation". In Hinduism and its Bhakti analog Kirtan, have roots in the ancient metric and musical traditions of the Vedic era the Samaveda; the Samaveda samhita is not meant to be read as a text, it is like a musical score sheet that must be heard. Other late Vedic texts mention the two scholars Shilalin and Krishashva, credited to be pioneers in the studies of ancient drama and dance; the art schools of Shilalin and Krishashva may have been associated with the performance of vedic rituals, which involved story telling with embedded ethical values. The vedic traditions integrated rituals with performance arts, such as a dramatic play, where not only praises to gods were recited or sung, but the dialogues were part of a dramatic representation and discussion of spiritual themes.
The Vedas and Upanishads celebrate Nada-Brahman, where certain sounds are considered elemental, triggering emotional feelings without having a literal meaning, this is deemed sacred, liminal experience of the primeval ultimate reality and supreme truth. This supreme truth is, states Guy Beck, considered as full of bliss and rasa in the Hindu thought, melodic sound considered a part of human spiritual experience. Devotional music genre such as Bhajan are part of a tradition. A Bhajan in Hindu traditions is an informal, loosely structured devotional song with music in a regional language, they are found all over India and Nepal, but are popular among the Vaishnavism sub-traditions such as those driven by devotion to avatars of Vishnu such as Krishna, Rama and Narayana. In Southern India, Bhajanais follow; this involves a tradition, followed for the last several centuries and includes Songs/Krithis/Lyrics from great composers all over India encompassing many Indian languages. A Bhajan may be sung individually, or more together as a choral event wherein the lyrics include religious or spiritual themes in the local language.
The themes are loving devotion to a deity, legends from the Epics or the Puranas, compositions of Bhakti movement saints, or spiritual themes from Hindu scriptures. The Bhajans in many Hindu traditions are a form of congregational singing and bonding, that gives the individual an opportunity to share in the music-driven spiritual and liturgical experience as well as the community a shared sense of identity, wherein people share food and reconnect; the bhajans have played a significant role in community organization in 19th and 20th century colonial era, when Indian workers were brought to distant lands such as Trinidad and South Africa as cheap labor on plantations. Some Bhajan songs are centuries old, popular on a pan-regional basis, passed down as a community tradition, while others newly composed. Everyone in Hindu tradition is free to compose a Bhajan with whatever ideas or in praise of any deity of their wish, but since they are sung, they follow meters of classical Indian music, the raga and the tala to go with the musical instruments.
They are sung in open air, inside temples such as those of Swaminarayan movement, in Vaishnava monasteries, during festivals or special events, at pilgrimage centers. A Bhajan is related to Kirtan, with both sharing common aims, musical themes and being devotional performance arts. A Bhajan is more free in form, can be singular melody, performed by a single singer with or without one and more musical instruments. Kirtan, in contrast, differs in being a more structured team performance with a call and response musical structure, similar to an intimate conversation or gentle sharing of ideas, it includes two or more musical instruments, with roots in the prosody principles of the Vedic era. Many Kirtan are structured for more audience participation, where the singer calls a spiritual chant, a hymn, a mantra or a theme, the audience responds back by repeating the chant or by chanting back a reply of their shared beliefs. A Bhajan, in contrast, is either experienced in silence or a "sing along".
Stavan is a form of popular and pervasive genre of devotional music in Ja
Indian rock is a music genre in India that incorporates elements of Indian music with rock music, is topically India-centric. While India is more known for its classical music, filmi Bollywood music, Indi-pop, Bhangra, the Indian rock scene has produced numerous bands and artists. India, in the 1950s and 1960s, uniquely amongst developing markets, had a record industry in the Gramophone Company of India, LPs, EPs, 45rpm records were available, including those of rock and roll acts from the USA and Britain, but of contemporary pioneering Indian rock bands; the president of the firm, Bhaskar Menon was the leading promoter of Western pop music in India. In 1970, the German Label, began an India label distributing rock music. Of these mid-1960s to early 70s beat groups, as they were termed, one of the most notable were the Mystiks from Bombay, the Beat-X from Madras, the Flintstone from Calcutta, who composed and played both early British Invasion influenced songs, post-Sgt. Pepper hard rock. From Delhi, during this period, there were The Thunderbirds, WAFWOT These bands played on the Indian university and college music circuits, some had successful EP and LP releases.
Notable from this period was the female R&B singer, Usha Iyer, now Usha Uthup, who had successful covers of "Jambalaya" and The Kingston Trio song, "Greenback Dollar". A notable compilation LP titled "Simla Beat'70" was released during this period, from a contest of the same name; the winning bands recorded their versions of Western hard rock of the time. This tradition of covering Western rock would continue until the 1980s, when it was more common to compose original songs; the rock n' roll scene was closely followed by Junior Statesman, a magazine started in 1965 contemporaneously with Rolling Stone magazine in the USA and NME in the UK. Like Western rock musicians at the time, Indian musicians began fusing rock with traditional Indian music from the mid-1960s onwards. Many of these songs were filmi songs produced for popular Bollywood films, which overshadowed the country's independent rock scene; some of the more well known early rock songs from Bollywood films include Mohammed Rafi's "Jaan Pehechan Ho" in Gumnaam, Kishore Kumar's "O Saathi Re" in Muqaddar Ka Sikandar, Asha Bhosle songs such as "Dum Maro Dum" in Hare Rama Hare Krishna, "Ae Naujawan Hai Sab" in Apradh, "Yeh Mera Dil Pyar Ka Diwana" in Don.
In the 1960s, renowned Western acts such as The Yardbirds, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Doors and The Byrds were notably influenced by Indian classical music as a way of reinforcing the psychedelia in their music. While jazz musicians, notably John Coltrane, had ventured into Indian music and spiritualism, the influence of Indian classical music on 1960s rock began in earnest with George Harrison's Ravi Shankar inspired raga rock song "Norwegian Wood" in 1965 and The Beatles' public sojourn with the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi at his ashram in Rishikesh in 1968, following the release of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band in 1967. Raga rock led to the development of psychedelic rock, which in turn laid the foundations for heavy metal music; the Indian rock scene would give rise to one of the world's most famous rock stars, Freddie Mercury, born Farrokh Bulsara. One of his formative musical influences was the Bollywood singer Lata Mangeshkar, he began his music career as a teenager in Bombay with the rock band, The Hectics, founded in 1958 and performed cover versions of Western rock and roll artists such as Little Richard and Cliff Richard.
After leaving the band in 1962, he moved to England, where he led the rock band Queen, which went on to become one of the world's most famous rock bands. The Indian rock scene gave rise to one of the pioneers of disco music, who began his career in an Indian rock band called The Trojans, it was India's first English-speaking band, found success producing cover versions of The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Trini Lopez, other Western hits of the day, in the clubs of Bangalore and Bombay. After the band broke up, he moved in 1967 to England, where he found breakthrough success after producing "Kung Fu Fighting" for Carl Douglas. While the orientalist trend of the 60s and 70s was by the 80s and 90s over, India itself continued to produce bands in various styles of rock music, from soft rock and roll and pop rock, to hard rock and metal. In the early 1980s, rock was overshadowed by disco, which dominated Indian pop music up until the mid-1980s. With the arrival of MTV, tastes changed, encouraging bands to harden their style and focus more on underground styles such as death metal, alternative metal, progressive rock.
The 1990s saw the rise of a much larger following of various harder styles for this reason. Bands that had formed in the 80s, such as Rock Machine -...altered their style with the influx of newer techniques and influences from the west. Notable suburban metal-blues bands with 1960s and 1970s metal influences included IIT Powaii based Axecalibre, fronted by Oliver Pinto, Prashant Nair and covered flamboyant guitar-based blues and hardcore metal including ballads. Contemporarie
Music of Kashmir, Jammu and Ladakh
Kashmiri music reflects the rich musical heritage and cultural legacy of Kashmir. Traditionally the music composed by ethnic Kashmiris has a wide range of musical influences in composition. Due to Kashmir's close proximity to Central Asia, Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, a unique blend of music has evolved encompassing the music of the three regions. But, Kashmiri Valley music is closer to Central Asian music, using traditional Central Asian instruments and musical scales, while music from Jammu is similar to that of North India and Ladakhi music is similar to the music of Tibet. Chakri is one of the most popular types of traditional music played in Kashmir. Chakri is a responsorial song form with instrumental parts, it is played with instruments like the harmonium, the rubab, the sarangi, the nout, the geger, the tumbaknaer and the chimta, it is performed by the Muslim and Hindu kashmiris. Chakri was used to tell stories like fairy tales or famous love stories such as Yousuf-Zulaikha, Laila-Majnun, etc.
Chakri ends with the rouf, though rouf is a dance form but few ending notes of Chakri which are played differently and on fast notes is called Rouf. It is a important part of the Henna Night during weddings. Henzae is a traditional and ancient form of singing, practiced by Kashmiri Pandits at their festivals, it appears to have archaic features. Rouf is a traditional dance form performed by women on certain important occasions like marriage and other functions and in cultural activities. Ladishah is one of the most important parts of the Kashmiri music tradition. Ladishah is a sarcastic form of singing; the songs are sung resonating to the present social and political conditions and are utterly humorous. The singers move from village to village performing during the harvesting period; the songs are composed on the spot on issues relating to that village, be it cultural, social or political. The songs reflect the truth and that sometimes makes the song a bit hard to digest, but they are entertaining.
Sufiana Kalam is the classical music of Kashmir, which uses its own ragas, is accompanied by a hundred-stringed instrument called the santoor, along with the Kashmiri saz, the setar, the wasool and the dokra. The dance based on the sofiyiana kalam is the hafiz nagma. Music and musical instruments find mention in the earliest texts like the Nilmatapurana and Rajatarangini by Kalhana; the fact that it was a Kashmiri, who wrote a commentary called Abhinavabharati on Bharata's Natyashatra shows how much importance was given to music in the ancient times. A favorite traditional instrument is the santoor, a hundred string percussion instrument, played by the goddess Sharada. Notable santoor players from Jammu and Kashmir include Shivkumar Sharma, from Jammu, Bhajan Sopori from the Kashmir Valley. One of the main features of a Ladakh marriage is the recitation of lengthy narratives by singers in unusual costumes. Popular dances in Ladakh include the Khatok Chenmo, Kompa Tsum-tsak, Chaams, Chabs-Skyan Tses, Raldi Tses and alley yaato.
Traditional music includes daman. The music of Ladakhi Buddhist monastic festivals, like Tibetan music involves religious chanting in Tibetan or Sanskrit as an integral part of the religion; these chants are complex recitations of sacred texts or in celebration of various festivals. Yang chanting, performed without metrical timing, is accompanied by resonant drums and low, sustained syllables. Religious mask dances are an important part of Ladakh's cultural life. Hemis monastery, a leading centre of the Drukpa tradition of Buddhism, holds an annual masked dance festival, as do all major Ladakhi monasteries; the dances narrate a story of the fight between good and evil, ending with the eventual victory of the former. Weaving is an important part of traditional life in eastern Ladakh. Both women and men weave, on different looms. Typical costumes include gonchas of elaborately embroidered waistcoats and boots and hats; the Ladakh Festival is held every year from 1 to 15 September. Performers adorned with turquoise headgear throng the streets.
Monks wear colourful masks and dance to the rhythm of cymbals and trumpets. The yak and Tashispa dances depict the many legends and fables of Ladakh. Buddhist monasteries sporting prayer flags, display of thankas, archery competitions, a mock marriage and horse-polo are the some highlights of this festival. Kashmir List of topics on the land and the people of "Jammu and Kashmir" Official Site
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I