Province No. 5
Province No. 5 is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal, adopted on 20 September 2015. As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, the city of Butwal has been declared the interim state capital of Province No. 5. It borders Gandaki Pradesh and Karnali Pradesh to the north, Sudurpashchim Pradesh to the west, Uttar Pradesh of India to the south; the Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Tulsipur High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Uma Kanta Jha, Shankar Pokhrel and Nahakul Subedi. The province has 87 provincial assembly constituencies and 26 House of Representative constituencies. Province No. 5 has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years; the Provincial Assembly of Province No. 5 is temporarily housed at the Chamber of Commerce Meeting Hall in Butwal.
Province No. 5 is divided into 12 districts. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer; the districts are further dived to rural municipalities. The municipalities include 32 municipalities. There are 73 rural municipalities in the province. Arghakhanchi Banke Bardiya Dang Eastern Rukum Gulmi Kapilvastu Parasi Palpa Pyuthan Rolpa Rupandehi List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
The Odia script is a Brahmic script used to write the Odia language. The Odia script is developed from the Kalinga alphabet, one of the many descendants of the Brahmi script of ancient India; the earliest known inscription in the Odia language, in the Kalinga script, dates from 1051. The script in the Edicts of Ashoka at Dhauli and Jaugada and the Minor Inscriptions of Kharavela in the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves give the first glimpse of possible origin of the Odia language. From a linguistic perspective, the Hati Gumpha inscriptions are similar to modern Odia and different from the language of the Ashokan edicts; the question has been raised as to whether Pali was the prevalent language in Odisha during this period. The Hati Gumpha inscriptions, which are in Pali, are the only evidence of stone inscriptions in Pali; this may be the reason why the famous German linguist Professor Oldenburg mentioned that Pali was the original language of Odisha. There are noticeable similarities between the Odia and Thai alphabets, which provides clues about the Sadhabas, Kalinga traders who traveled to south Asian countries and ruled there, leaving evidence of the Odia script on the Thai script, along with a cultural impact.
The curved appearance of the Odia script is a result of the practice of writing on palm leaves, which has a tendency to tear the leaves when many straight lines are written. Odia is a syllabic alphabet or an abugida wherein all consonants have an inherent vowel embedded within. Diacritics are used to change the form of the inherent vowel; when vowels appear at the beginning of a syllable, they are written as independent letters. When certain consonants occur together, special conjunct symbols are used to combine the essential parts of each consonant symbol. Oṛiyā is encumbered with the drawback of an excessively awkward and cumbrous written character.... At first glance, an Oṛiyā book seems to be all curves, it takes a second look to notice that there is something inside each. Overwhelmingly, the Odia script was used to write the Odia language. However, it has been used as a regional writing-system for Sanskrit. Furthermore, Grierson in his famed Linguistic Survey of India mentioned that the Odia script was sometimes employed for Chhattisgarhi, an Eastern Hindi language, in the eastern border regions of Chhattisgarh.
However it appears to have been replaced with the Devanagari script. ଼ ଽ ା ି ୀ ୁ ୂ ୃ ୄ େ ୈ ୋ ୌ ୍ ଁ ଂ ଃ ୦୧୨୩୪୫୬୭୮୯ ଅ ଆ ଇ ଈ ଉ ଊ ଋ ୠ ଌ ୡ ଏ ଐ ଓ ଔ କ ଖ ଗ ଘ ଙ ଚ ଛ ଜ ଝ ଞ ଟ ଠ ଡ ଢ ଣ ତ ଥ ଦ ଧ ନ ପ ଫ ବ ଵ ଭ ମ ଯ ର ଳ ୱ ଶ ଷ ସ ହ କ୍ଷ ୟ ଲ The vowels "ଇ", "ଈ", "ଉ" and "ଊ" are pronounced same as most long sounds are pronounced in the same way as short vowel sounds. When a vowel follows a consonant, it is written with a diacritic rather than as a separate letter. Two categories of consonant letters are defined in Odia: the structured consonants and the unstructured consonants; the structured consonants are classified according to where the tongue touches the palate of the mouth and are classified accordingly into five structured groups. These consonants are shown here with their IAST transcriptions; the unstructured consonants are consonants that do not fall into any of the above structures: ଯ, ର, ଳ, ୱ, ଶ, ଷ, ସ, ହ, କ୍ଷ. ୟ. ଲ, As in other abugida scripts, Odia consonant letters have an inherent vowel. It is transliterated as ⟨ a phonetic value.
Its absence is marked by a halanta: For the other vowels diacritics are used: Vowel diacritics may be more or less fused with the consonants, though in modern printing such ligatures have become less common. Clusters of two or more consonants form a ligature. Odia has two types of such consonant ligatures; the "northern" type is formed by fusion of two or more consonants as in northern scripts like Devanāgarī. In some instances the components can be identified, but sometimes new glyphs are formed. With the "southern" type the second component is reduced in size and put under the first as in the southern scripts used for Kannaḍa and Telugu; the following table lists all conjunct forms. ⟨ẏ⟩ and ⟨r⟩ as components of a ligature are given a special treatment. As last member they become and respectively: ⟨r⟩ as first member of a ligature becomes and is shifted to the end of the ligature: The Odia alphabet exhibits quite a few ambiguities which add to the difficulties beginners encounter in learning it.
Some of the letters of the script may be confounded. In order to reduce ambiguities a small oblique stroke is added at the lower right end as a diacritic, it resembles Halanta but it is joined to the letter, whereas Halanta is not joined. When the consonant forms a vowel ligature by which the lower right end is affected, this stroke is shifted to another position; this applies to consonant ligatures bearing the stroke. Some of the subjoined consonants, some other ligature components, variants of vowel diacritics have changing functions: Open top consonants get a subjoined variant of the vowel diacritic for ⟨i⟩ as in This same little hook is used in some consonant ligatures to denote ⟨t⟩ as first component: The subjoined form of ⟨ch⟩ is used for subjoined ⟨th⟩: The subjoined form of ⟨bh⟩ serves as a diacriti
Nastaʿlīq is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy. It was developed in Iran in the 15th centuries, it is sometimes used to write Arabic-language text, but its use has always been more popular in the Persian and Urdu sphere of influence. Nastaʿlīq remains widely used in Iran and Afghanistan and other countries for written poetry and as a form of art. A less elaborate version of Nastaʿlīq serves as the preferred style for writing in Kashmiri and Urdu, it is used alongside Naskh for Pashto. In Persian it is used for poetry only. Nastaʿlīq was used for writing Ottoman Turkish, where it was known as tâlik. Nastaʿlīq is the core script of the post-Sassanid Persian writing tradition, is important in the areas under its cultural influence; the languages of Iran, Afghanistan and the Turkic Uyghur language of the Chinese province of Xinjiang, rely on Nastaʿlīq. Under the name taʿliq, it was beloved by Ottoman calligraphers who developed the Diwani and Ruqah styles from it.
Nastaʿlīq is amongst the most fluid calligraphy styles for the Arabic script. It has short verticals with no serifs, long horizontal strokes, it is written using a piece of trimmed reed with a tip of 5–10 mm, called qalam, carbon ink, named “siyahi”. The nib of a qalam can be split in the middle to facilitate ink absorption. Two important forms of Nastaʿlīq panels are Siyah mashq. A Chalipa panel consists of four diagonal hemistiches of poetry signifying a moral, ethical or poetic concept. Siyah Mashq panels, communicate via composition and form, rather than content. In Siyah Mashq, repeating a few letters or words inks the whole panel; the content is thus of less significance and not accessible. After the Islamic conquest of Persia, the Iranian Persian people adopted the Perso-Arabic script, the art of Persian calligraphy flourished in Iran as territories of the former Persian empire. Mir Ali Tabrizi developed Nastaʿlīq by combining two existing scripts of Nasḫ and Taʿlīq. Hence, it was called Nasḫ-Taʿlīq.
Another theory holds that the name Nastaʿlīq means "that which abrogated Taʿlīq". Nastaʿlīq thrived, many prominent calligraphers contributed to its splendor and beauty, it is believed. The current practice of Nastaʿlīq is, however based on Mirza Reza Kalhor's technique. Kalhor modified and adapted Nastaʿlīq to be used with printing machines, which in turn helped wide dissemination of his transcripts, he devised methods for teaching Nastaʿlīq and specified clear proportional rules for it, which many could follow. The Mughal Empire used Persian as the court language during their rule over South Asia. During this time, Nastaʿlīq came into widespread use in South Asia; the influence continues to this day. In Pakistan everything in Urdu is written in the script, constituting the greatest part of Nastaʿlīq usage in the world; the situation of Nastaʿlīq in Bangladesh used to be the same as in Pakistan until 1971, when Urdu ceased to remain an official language. Today, only a few people use this form of writing in Bangladesh.
Nastaʿlīq is a descendant of Taʿlīq. Shekasteh Nastaʿlīq style is a development of Nastaʿlīq. Mir Ali Tabrizi Mir Emad Mirza Buzurg-i-Nuri Mishkín-Qalam Mirza Mohammad Reza KalhorAnd others, including Mirza Jafar Tabrizi, Abdul Rashid Deilami, Sultan Ali Mashadi, Mir Ali Heravi, Emad Ul-Kottab, Mirza Gholam Reza Esfehani, Emadol Kotab, Yaghoot Mostasami, Darvish Abdol Majid Taleghani, and among contemporary artists: Hassan Mirkhani, Hossein Mirkhani, Keikhosro Khoroush, Abbas Akhavein and Qolam-Hossein Amirkhani, Ali Akbar Kaveh, Kaboli. Islamic calligraphy was used to adorn Islamic religious texts the Qur'an, as pictorial ornaments were prohibited in sacred publications and spaces of Islam. Therefore, a sense of sacredness was always implicit in calligraphy. A Nastaʿlīq disciple was supposed to qualify himself spiritually for being a calligrapher, besides learning how to prepare qalam, paper and, more master Nastaʿlīq. For instance see Adab al-Mashq, a manual of penmanship attributed to Mir Emad.
Nastaʿlīq Typography first started with attempts to develop a metallic type for the script, but all such efforts failed. Fort William College developed a Nastaʿlīq Type, not close enough to Nastaʿlīq and hence was never used other than by the college library to publish its own books; the State of Hyderabad Dakan attempted to develop a Nastaʿlīq Typewriter but this attempt failed miserably and the file was closed with the phrase “Preparation of Nastaʿlīq on commercial basis is impossible”. In order to develop such a metal type, thousands of pieces would be required. Modern Nastaʿlīq typography began with the invention of Noori Nastaleeq, first created as a digital font in 1981 through the collaboration of Mirza Ahmad Jamil TI and Monotype Imaging (formerly Monotype Corp & Monot
Madhya Pradesh is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Gwalior and Sagar being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents, it borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state and Konta, was 1500 km. Konta is presently in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh state; the area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE.
Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and northeastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the Bombay State; this state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was made as a separate state. Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under forest cover, its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11.
In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average. Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era. Painted pottery dated to the mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters. Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture and Malwa culture have been discovered in the western part of the state; the city of Ujjain arose as a major centre in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti kingdom Tejas. Other kingdoms mentioned in ancient epics—Malava, Karusha and Nishada—have been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh. Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the tejas Mauryan Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. Ashoka the greatest of Mauryan rulers brought the region under firmer control. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.
Heliodorus, the Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra erected the Heliodorus pillar near Vidisha. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial centre of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports; the Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. The Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka rulers and conquered parts of Malwa and Gujarat in the 2nd century CE. Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, their southern neighbours, the Vakataka's; the rock-cut temples at Bagh Caves in the Kukshi tehsil of the Dhar district attest to the presence of the Gupta dynasty in the region, supported by the testimony of a Badwani inscription dated to the year of 487 CE. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states.
The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528. Harsha ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century; when the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara. The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand; the Chandellas built the majestic Hindu-Jain temples at Khajuraho, which represent the culmination of Hindu temple architecture in Central India. The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty held sway in northern and western Madhya Pradesh at this time, it left some monuments of architectural value in Gwalior. Southern parts of Madhya Pradesh like Malwa were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire which imposed its rule on the Paramara kingdom of Malwa; the Paramara king Bhoja was a renowned polymath.
The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim
The Telugu people or Telugu vaaru, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Telugu as their native language and/or trace their ancestry to the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. There is a large significant Telugu population in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Odisha and Andaman and Nicobar Islands; the Telugu language is the third-most spoken language in India and the fourth most in the Indian subcontinent, following Hindi and Marathi. Telugu is a South-Central Dravidian language spoken in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, where it is an official language. Early inscriptions date from 575 AD and literary texts from the 11th century, written in a Telugu script adapted from the Bhattiprolu alphabet of the early inscriptions. Kuchipudi is a famous Classical Indian dance from Telangana, India. Kuchipudi Vilasini Natyam Perini Shivatandavam Oggu Katha Burra Katha Andhra Natyam Telugu Cinema Kalankari - The art Kalamkari is pronounced as Kalankari in Andhra Pradesh MaleUttareeyam or Pai Pancha Pancha Jubba The top portion Lungi WomenCheera GirlsLanga Oni Lehenga Important festivals celebrated by Telugu people include: Bhogi, Makara Sankranti, Kanuma in January.
Maha Shivaratri in February/March. Ugadi or the Telugu New Year in March/April. Sri Rama Navami celebrated 9 days after Ugadi. Bonalu celebrated in Ashada masam. Hanuman Jayanti in March/May/June. Vaikuntha Ekadashi in June/August. Varalakshmi Vratam in August. Krishna Janmashtami in August. Vinayaka Chaviti in August. Bathukamma celebrated for nine days during Durga Navratri. Dasara in September/October. Atla Tadde 3rd day in bright half of Ashviyuja month. However, the exact date may vary according to the Hindu calendar. Deepavali date may vary as per the Hindu calendar.) Nagula Chaviti in October/November. Ramadan, Eid Al Adha, Eid Al Fitr, Vesak Day, Easter and Christmas are among the minorities. Telugu is the fourth most spoken language after Hindi in India. Andhra Pradesh and Telangana are the principal resident states for Telugu people. Telugu people form the majority speakers in South India with over 71 million speakers in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana; this is followed by 3.7 million in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu making them the second largest language groups in those neighboring states.
In Karnataka, Telugu people are predominantly found in the border districts with majority in Bangalore city. In Tamil Nadu, Telugu people who migrated during the Vijayanagara period have spread across several northern districts. In Maharashtra the Telugu population is followed by 0.7 million in Orissa. Other states with significant populations include West Bengal and Chhattisgarh with 200,000 and 150,000 respectively; the overseas Telugu diaspora numbers more than 800,000 in the United States, with the highest concentration in Central New Jersey. Kakatiya dynasty Satavahana dynasty Krishnadevaraya List of people from Telangana List of people from Andhra Pradesh Queensland Telugu Association Telugu development Telugu cuisine Hyderabad Translations of Telugu fiction and articles
Province No. 1
Province No. 1 is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal, adopted on 20 September 2015. As per a CDC report, Province No. 1 has 28 parliamentary seats and 56 provincial seats under the first-past-the-post voting system. As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, the city of Biratnagar has been declared the interim capital of Province No. 1. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal to the east, Province No. 3 and Province No. 2 to the west, Bihar of India to the south. According to the 2011 census, there are around 4.5 million people in the province, with a population density of 175.6 per square kilometer. The Kiratas were the aborigines of the north-eastern Himalayas. According to Baburam Acharya, they ruled over it, they were short and had robust bodies, broad cheeks, flat noses, thin whiskers, dark eyes. They were well trained in the art of warfare, were skillful archers, they were the ancestors of the present day Kiratas.
Yalamber the king of the Kiratas defeated Bhuvan Singh, the last king of the Ahir dynasty and established Kirat rule in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. He extended his kingdom as far as the Trishuli River in the west. Kirata's Kingdom was divided into many principalities and chiefs ruled in eastern Nepal. Limbuwan, Morang Kingdom belonged to them. King of Gorkha unified all the kirati kingdoms or Principalities in Nepal from 1771 to 1789. Before establishment of new constitution on 20 September 2015, the area of Province No. 1 was one of the five Development Regions of Nepal, named Eastern Development Region. It had 16 districts, 14 existing districts of Province No. 1 and 2 districts Siraha and Saptari of Province No. 2. The Eastern Development Region was divided into 3 zones; the zones were: Kosi Zone and Sagarmatha Zone. Mechi included 4 districts, Kosi included Sagarmatha included 6 districts; the total area of The region was 28,456 km². Province No. 1 covers an area of 25,905 km2. The Province has three-fold geographical division: Himalayan in the north, Hilly in the middle and Terai in the southern part of Nepal, varying between an altitude of 60 m and 8,848 m.
Terai, extended from east to west, is made up of alluvial soil. To the west of Koshi River, in between Mahabharat Range and Churia Range, there elongates a valley called Inner Terai. Churai Range, Mahabharat Range and other hills of various height, basins and valleys form the hilly region; some parts of this region are favorable for agriculture but some other parts are not. Himalayan region, in the north, consists of many mountains ranges. Mahalangur, Umvek, Lumba Sumba and Janak being some of them; the highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest. Nepal's lowest point, Kechana Kawal at 58 m, is located in Jhapa district of this Province. There are gentle slopes as well. Chure, many basins and valleys form the Terai region. Between the Churia and Mahabharat a low land of inner Terai exists; the Koshi river flows through the region with its seven tributaries. Tundra vegetables, coniferous forest, deciduous monsoon forests and sub-tropical evergreen woods are vegetations found here. Sub-tropical, sub-temperate, alpine and tundra types of climates are found here.
Province No. 1 includes the snow fall capped peaks including Mt. Everest, Makalu with Solukhumbu and Taplejung districts towards the north, the jungle clad hill tracts of Okhaldhunga, Bhojpur, Tehrathum and Panchthar in the middle and the alluvial fertile plains of Udayapur, Sunsari and Jhapa. Province 1 includes places like Haleshi Mahadev Temple, Pathivara Temple and Barahachhetra, which are the famous religious shrines for Hindus. Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with their geographical features. Province no. 1 has three geographical folds: The low-land of Terai, the hilly region and the highlands of the Himalayas. The low land altitude is 59 m. Whereas the highest point is 8848 m. In the north summers are cool and winters severe, while in the south summers are tropical and winters are mild. Climatically, the southern belt of Province, the Terai, experiences warm and humid climate. Eastern Nepal receives 2,500 millimeters of rain annually. Province no. 1 has five seasons: spring, monsoon and winter.
Northern part of Province No. 1 has the highest mountain of the world and there are many peaks that are higher. Here is a list of mountains in Province No. 1. There are many rivers in the region which flow towards south from the Himalayas which are tributaries of other large rivers which joins Ganga River. Sapt Koshi or the Koshi is the main river of the region. Seven tributaries join the Koshi; the major rivers in the province are: Mechi River Kankai River Koshi River Below given names are tributaries: Tamor Arun River Sun Koshi Dudh Koshi Likhu Khola Bhote Koshi Indrawati River Sagarmatha National Park – 1,148 km2 Makalu Barun National Park – 1,500 km2 Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve – 175 km2 Kanchenjunga Conservation Area – 2,035 km2 Gokyo Lake Complex – 7,770 ha Kosi
South Asia or Southern Asia, is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush. South Asia is bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean and on land by West Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia; the current territories of Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal, India and Sri Lanka form South Asia. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is an economic cooperation organisation in the region, established in 1985 and includes all eight nations comprising South Asia. South Asia covers about 5.2 million km2, 11.71% of the Asian continent or 3.5% of the world's land surface area. The population of South Asia is about 1.891 billion or about one fourth of the world's population, making it both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world.
Overall, it accounts for about 39.49% of Asia's population, over 24% of the world's population, is home to a vast array of people. In 2010, South Asia had the world's largest population of Hindus and Sikhs, it has the largest population of Muslims in the Asia-Pacific region, as well as over 35 million Christians and 25 million Buddhists. The total area of South Asia and its geographical extent is not clear cut as systemic and foreign policy orientations of its constituents are quite asymmetrical. Aside from the central region of South Asia part of the British Empire, there is a high degree of variation as to which other countries are included in South Asia. Modern definitions of South Asia are consistent in including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives as the constituent countries. Myanmar is included in Southeast Asia by others; some do not include Afghanistan, others question whether Afghanistan should be considered a part of South Asia or the Middle East. The current territories of Bangladesh and Pakistan, which were the core of the British Empire from 1857 to 1947, form the central region of South Asia, in addition to Afghanistan, a British protectorate until 1919, after the Afghans lost to the British in the Second Anglo-Afghan war.
The mountain countries of Nepal and Bhutan, the island countries of Sri Lanka and Maldives are included as well. Myanmar is added, by various deviating definitions based on substantially different reasons, the British Indian Ocean Territory and the Tibet Autonomous Region are included as well; the common concept of South Asia is inherited from the administrative boundaries of the British Raj, with several exceptions. The Aden Colony, British Somaliland and Singapore, though administered at various times under the Raj, have not been proposed as any part of South Asia. Additionally Burma was administered as part of the Raj until 1937, but is now considered a part of Southeast Asia and is a member state of ASEAN; the 562 princely states that were protected by but not directly ruled by the Raj became administrative parts of South Asia upon joining Union of India or Dominion of Pakistan. Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India,The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a contiguous block of countries, started in 1985 with seven countries – Bangladesh, India, the Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka – and added Afghanistan as an eighth member in 2007.
China and Myanmar have applied for the status of full members of SAARC. This bloc of countries include two independent countries that were not part of the British Raj – Nepal, Bhutan. Afghanistan was a British protectorate from 1878 until 1919, after the Afghans lost to the British in the Second Anglo-Afghan war; the World Factbook, based on geo-politics and economy defines South Asia as comprising Afghanistan, Bhutan, British Indian Ocean Territory, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The South Asia Free Trade Agreement incorporated Afghanistan in 2011, the World Bank grouping of countries in the region includes all eight members comprising South Asia and SAARC as well, the same goes for the United Nations Children's Fund; the United Nations Statistics Division's scheme of sub-regions include all eight members of the SAARC as part of Southern Asia, along with Iran only for statistical purposes. Population Information Network includes Afghanistan, Burma, Nepal and Sri Lanka as part of South Asia.
Maldives, in view of its characteristics, was admitted as a member Pacific POPIN subregional network only in principle. The Hirschman–Herfindahl index of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific for the region includes only the original seven signatories of SAARC; the British Indian Ocean Territory is connected to the region by a publication of Jane's for security considerations. The region may include the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, part of the British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, but is now administered as part of the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang; the inclusion of Myanmar in South Asia is without consensus, with many considering it a part of Southeast Asia and others including it within South Asia. Afghanistan was of importance to the British colonial empire after the Second Anglo-Afghan War over 1878–1880. Afghanistan remained a British protectorate until 1919, when a treaty with Vladimir Lenin included the granting of independe