Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Prahran is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 5 km south-east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Stonnington local government area. Prahran recorded a population of 12,982 at the 2016 Census. Prahran is a part of Greater Melbourne, with many shops and cafes; the area of Prahran, centred along Commercial Road was one of Melbourne's gay villages, but no longer is. The shopping street Chapel Street is a mix of upscale fashion cafes. Greville Street, once the centre of the Melbourne's hippie community, has many cafés, restaurants, clothing shops and music shops. Prahran takes its name from Pur-ra-ran, a compound of two Aboriginal words, meaning "land surrounded by water"; the proximity of the Yarra River and a swamp to the southwest explains that description. In 1837 George Langhorne named the area Pur-ra-ran, a compound of two Aboriginal words, meaning "land surrounded by water"; when he informed the Surveyor-General Robert Hoddle of the name, it was written as "Prahran".
Prahran Post Office opened on 1 April 1853. Describing Prahran, as it was in the mid 1850s, F. R. Chapman remembered: Between the 1890s and 1930s Prahran built up a huge shopping centre, which by the 1920s had rivalled the Melbourne Central Business District. Large emporiums sprang up along Chapel Street. Prahran became a major entertainment area; the Lyric theatre, built on the corner of Victoria Street in 1911, burnt down in the 1940s. The Royal was the second old theatre built; the Empress, another popular theatre on Chapel Street, was destroyed by fire in 1971. The site was operated by the cut-price clothes and homewares chain Waltons for the next decade and was developed into the Chapel Street Bazaar. In the 1960s, in an effort to boost the growing local population and inject new life into the suburb, the Victorian Government opened the Prahran Housing Commission estate, just off Chapel Street, together with a larger estate, located just north in South Yarra. Further complementing the high rise developments was a low density development between Bangs and Bendigo Streets.
In the 1970s, the suburb began to gentrify, with much of the remaining old housing stock being renovated and restored. The area had a substantial Greek population and many took advantage of the rise in property values during the 1980s, paving the way for further development and a subsequent shift in demographics. During the 1990s, the population increased markedly, with demand for inner-city living fuelling a medium-density housing boom, which continues in the area, as part of the Melbourne 2030 planning policy, it was during the 1990s. Many gay and gay-friendly businesses were found along Commercial Road, between Pran Central and the railway overpass, the last of these closing around 2012. In Prahran, 61.2% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 4.2%, Greece 3.5%, New Zealand 3.4%, China 1.6% and India 1.3%. Prahran is home to a large collection of architecturally significant commercial buildings, with many on the Victorian Heritage Register; the Chapel Street section of Prahran is notable for its collection of turn of the century emporiums and large buildings, which include: Prahran Arcade – Built in 1889 on Chapel Street, is a richly detailed building both externally and internally.
Retains the original arcade, but decorative roof was removed in the 1950s. Known locally as "Birdland" due to pigeons which once bred in the recessed balconies of the building and the large eagles which adorn the facade, but are now screened by chicken wire. Was a Dan Murphy's cellar for many years, but a JB HiFi store. Now heritage registered. Reads Emporium – Built in 1914 on the corner of Chapel Street and Commercial Road. A landmark of the area, its twin beacons, which sit atop large copper clad domes, were once visible like lighthouses for miles around, but no longer operate. During the 1970s, the site traded as a department store under the name Moore's before the lower stories were converted into shops in the 1980s and named "Pran Central"; the upper stories were restored and converted into fashionable apartments in 2005. Now heritage registered. Big Store – Built in 1902 and closed in 1968 on Chapel Street. A second store as large as the main store, once stood in the carpark to the west, beyond Cato Street, linked by cross-over walkways.
This large Edwardian building is used by Coles Supermarkets. Maples Corner -- Built in 1910 on the corner of High Streets. Converted into offices in the 1980s and many deteriorating decorative features were replaced with post modern elements. Love & Lewis – Built in 1913 on Chapel Street and converted into a mix of offices and apartments in 2004. Now heritage registered. Other significant Prahran emporiums include Conway's Buildings and the large Colosseum building, lost to fire in 1914. Other heritage buildings include the former Prahran Town Hall, the adjacent former City Hall, the neighbouring police station and court house and Rechabite Hall, in the Second Empire style; the Prahran Fire Tower is on Macquarie Street. State School number 2855 Prahran Primary School, on High Street was converted into apartments in 2005. St Matthew's Church, a large bluestone church on High Street built in the 1880s, was converted into offices in the 1980s. Residenti
Victorian Heritage Register
The Victorian Heritage Register lists places deemed to be of cultural heritage significance to the State of Victoria, Australia. It has statutory weight under the Heritage Act 1995 which established Heritage Victoria as the State Government listing and permit authority. Listing on the Victorian Heritage Register is separate from listing by a local Council or Shire, known as a Heritage Overlay. Heritage Victoria is part of the Department of Environment, Land and Planning of the Government of Victoria, Australia. Heritage Victoria reports to the Heritage Council who approve recommendations to the Register and hear appeals when a registration is disputed; the Council hears appeals by an owner to a permit issued by Heritage Victoria. The Minister for Planning is the responsible Minister for Heritage Victoria and the Heritage Act 1995; as of 2013, there were over 2,200 places and objects listed on the VHR. The Act allows the registration of a wide range of cultural heritage places and objects, including: historic archaeological sites and artefacts historic buildings and precincts gardens and cemeteries cultural landscapes shipwrecks and relics significant objects and collectionsPlaces listed on the Victorian Heritage Register can be found on the Victorian Heritage Database, which lists many places with a local level of protection.
The database can be accessed here. A place listed on the Victorian Heritage Register does not mean a place cannot be demolished or altered. Information on permits can be found here.'Delisting' a place occurs only if the place has been destroyed, or a permit has been granted for total demolition or alterations so extensive the place no longer has State level significance. The Planning Minister may intervene in the process of listing or the granting of a permit, by not accepting the advice of Heritage Victoria or the Heritage Council, preventing a place from being listed, or allowing greater alteration or total demolition. All places and objects listed on the register are entitled to a Blue plaque. Heritage listed buildings in Melbourne Category:Victorian Heritage Register List of heritage registers Media related to Victorian Heritage Register at Wikimedia Commons Victorian Heritage Database Heritage Victoria website Heritage Act 1995
Chapel Street, Melbourne
Chapel Street is a shopping and entertainment precinct in Melbourne, Australia. It has myriad shops ranging from exclusive upmarket fashion designers at the South Yarra end to trendy retailers and eateries in Windsor. Chapel Street is straight and runs for over 4.14 kilometres along an approximate north-south alignment from the Yarra River in the north to Brighton Road in the south, traversing the south east suburbs of South Yarra, Windsor, St Kilda and St Kilda East. Major street crossings are Alexandra Avenue, Toorak Road, Commercial Road, High Street, Dandenong Road, Alma Road, Inkerman Street and Carlisle Street. To the north of Dandenong Road, Chapel Street is one of Melbourne’s premier shopping and entertainment strips with over 980 shops, street cafés, bars and nightclubs, it has a reputation as Melbourne's style capital. South of Dandenong Road is predominantly a residential area. Tram route 78 travels along the entire length between Richmond and St Kilda. Tram routes 3, 5, 6, 58, 64 and 72 all intersect Chapel Street.
The Sandringham line railway stations of South Yarra, Prahran and Balaclava are all within 300 metres of Chapel Street. The section of Chapel Street between Toorak Road and Dandenong Road is completely filled with traffic from around midnight to 3 a.m. each Friday and Saturday night. This is due to the large number of clubs and restaurants along Chapel Street, but to owners of modified cars cruising this section, without a specific destination; this practice is known in Melbourne as "Laps of Chaps" or "Chap Laps", is confined to Chapel Street, although this behaviour originated on Lygon Street, Carlton. Joseph Crook is believed to have built the first house in Chapel Street in 1849, when the street was known as Fitzroy Road. Chapel Street was named after the first church in Prahran, an Independent Church, built 100 metres north of Malvern Road on the east side, between 1850 and 1852; the first minister of "The Chapel", as it was known locally, was Rev William Moss. In an address to the Collins Street Independent Church in 1888 the Rev. Moss said, "I may mention that our chapel at Prahran was the only place of worship in the district for over two years, gave to the business street of that flourishing city its name Chapel Street".
The Chapel was used as a school building until about 1883, when it was demolished. The only surviving church in the commercial part of Chapel Street, the Baptist Church, built in the 1850s on the corner of Wilson Street, is now the Irish theme pub Bridie O'Reilly’s. A bridge linking Chapel Street and Church Street, Richmond was not built until 1857 and a ferry service operated over the Yarra River. In the 1850s much of the area between Commercial Road and the Yarra River was formed of deep clay deposits which resulted in a number of brickmakers establishing businesses on both sides of Chapel Street; the last of the brickworks, The South Yarra Fire Brick Company continued until the 1980s when it was sold to the Singapore Developer Jack Chia for "The South Yarra Project" development, to include The Como Centre. 1888 sparked major development on the street with the permanent installation of a tram service. From its beginning Chapel Street, between Toorak Road and Dandenong Road was a trading and shopping street with flour milling, bakers, boot makers, general stores, bricklayers and blacksmiths, chemists and an undertaker.
At the start of the 20th century large multi-level emporiums began to spring up in the Prahran section of the street. At this point, Chapel Street rivalled the CBD as Melbourne's shopping destination. Emporium development continued right through to the 1930s. In the 1970s, Pran Central opened as a major shopping mall. In the 1980s, the Jam Factory and Como Centre at the South Yarra end were the biggest developments to effect the character of the street. Gentrification ensured. From the Yarra River heading south: The Como Centre is a multi-storey office, retail cinema and hotel complex on the north-east corner of Chapel Street and Toorak Road, it is the headquarters of ATV-10 Television. The Jam Factory is an iconic shopping and entertainment complex on the corner of Garden Street. Just off Elizabeth Street is the Prahran Market, a fresh food market which has occupied its present site for over 120 years. Commercial Road shopping strip is the centre of one of Melbourne's gay villages; the Chapel Off Chapel gallery venue is at the end of Carlton Street.
Pran Central at the corner of Commercial Road is a redevelopment of a National Trust classified building into a retail and residential complex with a multicultural food court. Greville Street is a small niche shopping strip. Prahran Town Hall, on the corner of Greville Street was opened in 1861; the Prahran Mission, a community services organization run by UnitingCare Australia. The Prahran campus of Swinburne University is near the south west corner of High Street; the first bowling club in Australia, the Melbourne Bowling Club, is situated behind Chapel Street in Union Street. The club was founded on 11 March 1864; the Astor Theatre on the south west corner of Dandenong Road is a Heritage Victoria registered, 1930’s art deco cinema which seats over 1,100 people. St Michael's Grammar School now incorporates many of the area's old buildings. Jordan Moore's jaw; the jaw of this once infamous British explorer is seen floating around the steps of Revolver nightclub on Chapel Street. Legend has it if you see it between 3am and 4am on the last Sunday in March during a full moon, you will have eternal good luck and fortune
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Swinburne University of Technology
Swinburne University of Technology is an Australian public university based in Melbourne, Victoria. It was founded in 1908 as the Eastern Suburbs Technical College by George Swinburne in order to serve those without access to further education in Melbourne’s eastern suburbs, its main campus is located in Hawthorn, a suburb of Melbourne, located 7.5 km from the Melbourne central business district. In addition to its main Hawthorn campus, Swinburne has campuses in the Melbourne metropolitan area at Wantirna and Croydon as well as has a campus in Sarawak, Malaysia. In the 2016 QS World University Rankings, making it one of the top art and design schools in Australia and the world. Swinburne University of Technology has its origins in the Eastern Suburbs Technical College, established in 1908 in the Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn by George Swinburne. In 1913, the institution changed its name to Swinburne Technical College, it attained university status on 1 July 1992 with the passage of the Swinburne University of Technology Act.
As a consequence of the Dawkins reforms to Australian higher education in the early 1990s, the university began teaching in the suburb of Prahran through a merger in 1992 with Victoria College, which stood on the site of Victoria's first training institute, the Prahran Mechanics' Institute. In 1997, Swinburne opened a campus at Victoria. In 1998, it merged with the Outer East Institute of TAFE and began operating from campuses at Croydon and Wantirna. In 1999, Swinburne established the National Institute of Circus Arts. In 2000, the university opened a campus in Sarawak, Malaysia, as a partnership between the university and the Sarawak State Government. In February 2011, the university opened the Advanced Technologies Centre, a 22,000 square metre building of modern architectural design at its Hawthorn campus, known locally as "the cheese grater building". Following a series of funding cuts announced by the Victorian Government to vocational education in May 2012, Swinburne announced that it would close its Lilydale and Prahran campuses.
Lilydale campus closed on 1 July 2013. The university sold its Prahran campus to the Northern Melbourne Institute of TAFE in 2014. In 2015, Swinburne launched its law school and became the first university in Victoria to enable students to complete their practical legal training during the final year of their law degree; the Hawthorn campus is Swinburne’s main campus. It hosts a range of vocational and postgraduate programs. Wantirna is a TAFE-specific campus; the campus offers courses in areas including health and community services, visual arts and accounting. The university's Croydon campus is a TAFE-specific campus, with a focus on training in trades such as building, carpentry and plumbing. While Swinburne no longer operates at the Prahran campus, the National Institute of Circus Arts continues to be based there; the Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus is located in Kuching, Malaysia. The university's joint venture with SEEK Limited led to the creation of Swinburne Online in 2011.
Swinburne is internationally recognized for the output from international partnership researches. Swinburne was ranked top 75 in the field of physics by the Academic Ranking of World Universities in the 2014. Swinburne was ranked 32nd in the world for art and design in the 2016 QS World University Rankings, making it one of the top art and design schools. Swinburne has been placed in the top 75 for civil engineering and physics in the top 100 in Shanghai Ranking's Global Ranking of Academic Subjects by the 2016; the university was listed in the top 40 for the art and design subject area by the 2018 QS World Rankings of Universities by Subject. Another STEM has debuted new subjects in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2019, other education top 200, psychology top 300, business and economics top 500. Swinburne Business School ranked in the top 25% Economists and Institutions in Australia and 265th Business School in the world as of October 2018. There were three Swinburne Master programs that ranked in top 200 worldwide by Eduniversal in 2018.
The university operates Swinburne College, a provider of pathway education courses which prepare students for university study. Programs offered by Swinburne College include English language, foundation studies and professional year programs. Swinburne College had collaborated with Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies. Swinburne Student Union is the independent student representative body of Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. Membership is opt-in for all students. Andrew Dominik: film director. Chopper, The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford, Killing Them Softly, the documentary One More Time with Feeling. Mark Hartley: film director, Not Quite Hollywood: The Wild, Untold Story of Ozploitation! Richard Lowenstein: film director, "Autoluminescent", He Died With A Felafel In His Hand, Dogs In Space, "Strikebound" L. Scott Pendlebury: landscape and portrait artist.