The upland sandpiper is a large sandpiper related to the curlews. Older names are Bartram's sandpiper. In Louisiana, it is colloquially known as the papabotte, it is the only member of the genus Bartramia. The genus name and the old common name Bartram's sandpiper commemorate the American naturalist William Bartram; the species name longicauda is from Latin longus, "long" and caudus, "tail". The name "Bartram's sandpiper" was made popular by Alexander Wilson, taught ornithology and natural history illustration by Bartram. An adult is 30 cm long with a 66 cm wingspan; the average weight is 170 g. This odd bird has a small dove-like head on a long neck, it is marbled black and brown on the back and wings. The neck is streaked with dark brown which continues down on to the flanks; the belly and undertail coverts are white. The tail is quite long for a sandpiper; the upland sports a white eye-ring and long yellow legs. They breed from eastern Alaska south east of the Rocky Mountains through Montana to northern Oklahoma and northeast to Pennsylvania, New England and extreme southern Quebec and Ontario.
There are local breeding populations in northeast Oregon and west central Idaho. They winter in northeastern Argentina and southern Brazil, it is an rare vagrant to the South Pacific, with one record each from Australia and New Zealand. Though they are sandpipers, they prefer open country with tall grasses to coastal habitat, they are found at airports, blueberry farms and abandoned strip mines in the east. Their true core range and habitat is in the northern midwest United States. Upland sandpipers forage in fields, they are sighted on fence posts and telephone poles. When an "uppy" alights, it holds its wings up for a few seconds, they are scanning the horizon for intruders. The upland sandpiper's diet includes grasshoppers, weevils, moths, flies, centipedes, spiders and earthworms, it eats some grains and seeds. Upland sandpipers can sometimes be found in loose nesting colonies; the breeding season is from early-to-late summer. The female lays 4 eggs. Both parents look after the young and may perform distraction displays to lure predators away from the nest or young birds.
Upland sandpipers can be identified by a distinctive call, sometimes called a "wolf whistle", which features a long, ascending whistle followed by a second rising and/or falling call. These sounds are made while the bird is landing or while flying high; the numbers of these birds increased as forests were cleared in the early 19th century, but declined in the late 19th century due to hunting. They are now present in Midwestern North America but populations are scattered in the east. Loss of prairie habitat is a concern. Livestock grazing has been found to reduce the number of nests in a field. Controlled burns may benefit this species as they feed on low-growing plants that are more spotted after a fire. Upland Sandpiper - Bartramia longicauda - USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter Upland Sandpiper Species Account – Cornell Lab of Ornithology "Bartramia longicauda". Avibase. BirdLife species factsheet for Bartramia longicauda "Upland sandpiper media". Internet Bird Collection. Upland sandpiper photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Bartramia longicauda at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of Upland sandpiper on Xeno-canto
The loggerhead shrike is a passerine bird in the family Laniidae. It is the only member of the shrike family endemic to North America, it is nicknamed the butcherbird after its carnivorous tendencies, as it consumes prey such as amphibians, lizards, small mammals and small birds, some prey end up displayed and stored at a site, for example in a tree. Due to its small size and weak talons, this predatory bird relies on impaling its prey upon thorns or barbed wire for facilitated consumption; the numbers of Loggerhead shrike have decreased in recent years in Midwestern, New England and Mid-Atlantic areas. In 1760 the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson included a description of the loggerhead shrike in his Ornithologie based on a specimen collected in Louisiana in the Unites States, he used the French name the Latin Lanius ludovicianus. Although Brisson coined Latin names, these do not conform to the binomial system and are not recognised by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.
When in 1766 the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus updated his Systema Naturae for the twelfth edition, he added 240 species, described by Brisson. One of these was the loggerhead shrike. Linnaeus included a brief description, adopted the binomial name Lanius ludovicianus and cited Brisson's work; the specific name ludovicianus is Late Latin for "Louis". There are seven recognized subspecies: L. l. excubitorides Swainson, 1832 – central Canada and west USA L. l. migrans Palmer, W, 1898 – east North America L. l. ludovicianus Linnaeus, 1766 – coastal southeast USA L. l. anthonyi Mearns, 1898 – Channel Islands L. l. mearnsi Ridgway, 1903 – San Clemente Island L. l. grinnelli Oberholser, 1919 – extreme south California and north Baja California L. l. mexicanus Brehm, CL, 1854 – west and central Mexico, south Baja California Miller, in 1931, suggested that the wing-chord-to-tail-length ratio was an important indicator for distinguishing between subspecies. Lanius ludovicianus migrans, found in eastern North America, can be distinguished from the western subspecies, L. l. excubitorides by wing length, tail length, colour.
L. l. migrans have a paler forehead than the top of the head. According to Mundy et al.’s 1997 study, there is a substantial genetic difference between the island subspecies L. l. mearnsi and the mainland subspecies L. l. gambeli due to a gene flow barrier between the two species. The loggerhead shrike is a medium-sized passerine. "Loggerhead" refers to the large size of the head as compared to the rest of the body. It measures 9 inches from bill to tail; the wing and tail length is about 3.82 and respectively. It weighs with a range of 45-60 grams for a healthy adult shrike; the adult plumage of the loggerhead shrike is grey above, with a white to pale grey breast and black tarsi and feet. The bird possesses a black mask; the wings are black, with a distinct white patch on the primaries. The tail is black edged with white and the irises are brown; the beak is short and hooked, contains a tomial tooth to help tear into prey. It is difficult to sex an adult loggerhead shrike in the field. However, several studies have reported sexual dimorphism in size traits.
Juveniles possess a paler gray plumage, subtly vermiculated. The loggerhead shrike can be distinguished from the northern shrike by its smaller size, darker grey plumage and larger black face mask that covers the eye completely, it has a shorter bill with less prominent hook. Their calls are similar, their vocal range is broad and varied, has been described as harsh and jarring. The shrike's notes include guttural warbles; the trills sung by males during breeding season vary in pitch. When alarmed, a shrike will produce a “schgra-a-a” shriek while spreading out its tail feathers. Nestlings will make. During courtship feedings, females may ask for food with “mak” begging notes; the male emits a territorial, harsh shriek, while the female’s song is pitched lower and softer than the male’s. The male is far more vocal than the female. Loggerhead shrikes were once distributed across southern Canada, the contiguous USA and Mexico. However, their populations have declined since the 1960s. Four subspecies reside in southern coastal California: mearnsi, gambeli and anthonyi.
L. l. mearnsi is only found on San Clemente Island in California, whereas L. l. gambeli breeds on the mainland and L. l. anthonyi breeds on the Channel Islands. L. l. excubitorides is found in central North America, whereas the non-migrating L. l. ludovicianus resides in southeastern North America. The distribution of L. l. migrans ranges from north to eastern North America. The bird requires an open habitat with an area to elevated perches and nesting sites, they are found in open pastures or grasslands and appears to prefer red-cedar and hawthorn trees for nesting. The hawthorn’s thorns and the cedar’s pin-like needles protect and conceal the shrike from predators, it may nest in fence-rows or hedge-rows near open pastures, requires elevated perches as lookout points for hunting. Open pastures and grasslands with shorter vegetation
Middle Fork Vermilion River
The Middle Fork of the Vermilion River is a tributary of the Vermilion River in Illinois. The Middle Fork flows southeast to join the Vermilion near Danville. In its natural state, the Middle Fork drained a large upland marsh in; the Middle Fork has been extended into the marsh by drainage ditches. Including the ditches, the Middle Fork is about 77 miles long; the Middle Fork is Scenic River. Parks and access points include: Kickapoo State Recreation Area Middle Fork State Fish and Wildlife Area Middle Fork River, Champaign County Forest Preserve District The following cities and villages are among those in the watershed of the Middle Fork: Melvin, Illinois Paxton, Illinois Potomac, IllinoisParts of the following counties are drained by the Middle Fork: Champaign County, Illinois Ford County, Illinois Vermilion County, Illinois List of Illinois rivers American Whitewater Illinois Dept. Natural Resources Kickapoo Landing canoe outfitters Canoe Access Points Map Prairie Rivers Network USGS Stream Gage, Middle Fork
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units