The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout. Trout are related to salmon and char: species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do fish called trout. Lake trout and most other trout live in freshwater lakes and rivers while there are others, such as the steelhead, which can spend two or three years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn. Steelhead that live out their lives in fresh water are called rainbow trout. Arctic char and brook trout are part of the char family. Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife, including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, other animals, they are classified as oily fish. The name'trout' is used for some species in three of the seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species.
Fish referred to as trout include: Genus Salmo Adriatic trout, Salmo obtusirostris Brown trout, Salmo trutta River trout, S. t. morpha fario Lake trout/Lacustrine trout, S. t. morpha lacustris Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta Flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus Marble trout, Soca River trout or Soča trout – Salmo marmoratus Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica, S. balcanicus, S. lumi, S. aphelios Sevan trout, Salmo ischchan Genus Oncorhynchus Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki Coastal cutthroat trout, O. c. clarki Crescenti trout, O. c. c. f. crescenti Alvord cutthroat trout O. c. alvordensis Bonneville cutthroat trout O. c. utah Humboldt cutthroat trout O. c. humboldtensis Lahontan cutthroat trout O. c. henshawi Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout Paiute cutthroat trout O. c. seleniris Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout, O. c. behnkei Westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisi Yellowfin cutthroat trout O. c. macdonaldi Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri Colorado River cutthroat trout O. c. pleuriticus Greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. c. virginalis Oncorhynchus gilae Gila trout, O. g. gilae Apache trout, O. g. apache Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Kamchatkan rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Coastal rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus Beardslee trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus var. beardsleei Great Basin redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii Golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti Sacramento golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. stonei Little Kern golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. whitei Kamloops rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops Baja California rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Eagle Lake trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum McCloud River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss stonei Sheepheaven Creek redband trout Mexican golden trout, Oncorhynchus chrysogaster Genus Salvelinus Brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis Aurora trout, S. f. timagamiensis Bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus Dolly Varden trout, Salvelinus malma Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush Silver trout, † Salvelinus agassizi Hybrids Tiger trout, Salmo trutta X Salvelinus fontinalis Speckled Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis Trout that live in different environments can have different colorations and patterns.
These colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, will change as the fish moves to different habitats. Trout in, or newly returned from the sea, can look silvery, while the same fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more vivid coloration. In general trout that are about to breed have intense coloration, they can look like an different fish outside of spawning season. It is impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a specific breed. Trout have fins without spines, all of them have a small adipose fin along the back, near the tail; the pelvic fins sit well back on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, a condition known as physostome. Unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying on their gills. There are many species, more populations, that are isolated from each other and morphologically different.
However, since many of these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences, what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists. The trout found in the eastern United States are a good example of this; the brook trout, the aurora trout, the silver trout all have physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet genetic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus fontinalis. Lake trout, like brook trout, belong to the char genus. Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, live m
Lincoln County, Wisconsin
Lincoln County is a county located in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,867, its county seat is Merrill. The county was named after President Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln County comprises the Merrill, WI Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Wausau-Stevens Point-Wisconsin Rapids, WI Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 907 square miles, of which 879 square miles is land and 28 square miles is water. Oneida County - north Langlade County - east Marathon County - south Taylor County - west Price County - northwest U. S. Highway 8 U. S. Highway 51 Highway 17 Highway 64 Highway 86 Highway 107 KRRL - Merrill Municipal Airport KTKV - Tomahawk Regional Airport As of the census of 2000, there were 29,641 people, 11,721 households, 8,228 families residing in the county; the population density was 34 people per square mile. There were 14,681 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.76% White, 0.41% Black or African American, 0.44% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races.
0.82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 55.9% were of German, 5.7% Polish and 5.3% Norwegian ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.9% spoke English, 1.3% German and 1.2% Spanish as their first language. There were 11,721 households out of which 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.40% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.80% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 99.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.10 males. Merrill Tomahawk National Register of Historic Places listings in Lincoln County, Wisconsin Lincoln County Lincoln County Interactive Maps Libraries and Schools in Marathon and Lincoln Counties:This digital collection contains historic images and texts that document central Wisconsin schools and libraries in Marathon and Lincoln Counties.
Text-based materials include: Marchetti, Louis. History of the Public Library Building and Names of Donors, 1909, a record of the proceedings, leading up, culminating in the erection and completion of the Library Building of the city of Wausau, with names of Donors attached thereto. Compiled and presented to the Library by Louis Marchetti, President of the Library Board from 1904 to 1908
Langlade County, Wisconsin
Langlade County is a county located in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,977, its county seat is Antigo. Langlade County was created on March 1879 as New County, it was renamed Langlade County, in honor of Charles de Langlade, on February 20, 1880, organized on February 19, 1881. The county's original borders extended northward from the top of Shawano County up to the Michigan state line. Between 1881 and 1885, the borders of Langlade County changed as nearby Lincoln and Shawano counties added or gave up area. Langlade lost its northernmost area along the Michigan border to Forest County when it was created in 1885. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 888 square miles, of which 871 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water; the highest point in the county is at the foot of the Basswood Lookout Tower west of Summit Lake Oneida County - northwest Forest County - northeast Oconto County - east Menominee County - southeast Shawano County - south Marathon County - southwest Lincoln County - west Nicolet National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 20,740 people, 8,452 households, 5,814 families residing in the county.
The population density was 24 people per square mile. There were 11,187 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.93% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races. 0.82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 49.4% were of German, 8.6% Polish, 6.2% Irish and 5.8% American ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 8,452 households out of which 29.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.20% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.40% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 18.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 98.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.60 males. U. S. Highway 45 Highway 17 Highway 47 Highway 52 Highway 55 Highway 64 KAIG - Langlade County AirportThe county owns and operates the Langlade County Airport which serves both the local and transient general aviation community. Antigo White Lake Elcho Post Lake Summit Lake Kent/Drexel Van Ostrand National Register of Historic Places listings in Langlade County, Wisconsin Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Wisconsin Counties of Waupaca, Wood, Lincoln, Vilas and Shawano. Chicago: J. H. Beers, 1895. Dessureau, Robert M. History of Langlade County, Wisconsin. Antigo, Wis.: Berner Bros. 1922. Langlade County government website Langlade County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation Langlade County Historical Society
Merrill is a city in and the county seat of Lincoln County, United States. It is located to the south of and adjacent to the Town of Merrill; the population was 9,661, according to the 2010 census. Merrill is part of the United States Census Bureau's Merrill MSA, which includes all of Lincoln County. Together with the Wausau MSA, which includes all of Marathon County, it forms the Wausau-Merrill CSA. Merrill was first inhabited by the Chippewa Native Americans; the first European settlement there was a logging town named Jenny Bull Falls. By 1843, a trading post was constructed near the town. Within four years a dam, started by Andrew Warren, was constructed over the Wisconsin River. Warren established the first mill powered by the dam, other saw mills in the area. In 1870, T. B. Scott succeeded Warren, the mill soon became successful. In 1899 the mill burned down. During that time the name of the community was changed to Merrill, in honor of Sherburn S. Merrill, the general manager of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, Pacific Railroad.in 1881, the Wisconsin Telephone company began operation, with 20 phones in service.
In 1883, the first City Council met and T. B. Scott was named the first mayor. By 1885, the population had risen to 7,000 3,000 less than Merrill's population today; the railroad and passenger depot was a hub of social activity through the lumber industry's boom years and after. It became a community youth center, but has since been razed. By 1900, the timber industry was in decline and the community was compelled to diversify its economy. In July 1912, the Wisconsin River and several of its tributaries flooded from Rothschild to Merrill, destroying several dams, as well as causing hundreds of thousands of dollars in damage in Merrill. Merrill is located at 45°10′57″N 89°41′44″W, along the Wisconsin River at its confluence with the Prairie River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.81 square miles, of which, 7.24 square miles is land and 0.57 square miles is water. Merrill is located west of US Route 51 on State Highway 64. Council Grounds State Park is due west of the city.
As of the census of 2010, there were 9,661 people, 4,175 households, 2,516 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,334.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,619 housing units at an average density of 638.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.3% White, 0.5% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.8% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.0% of the population. There were 4,175 households of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.7% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age in the city was 40.4 years. 23.9% of residents were under the age of 18.
The gender makeup of the city was 47.6% male and 52.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,146 people, 4,183 households, 2,631 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,441.7 people per square mile. There were 4,397 housing units at an average density of 624.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.77% White, 0.20% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races. 1.03% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,183 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, 19.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,098, the median income for a family was $45,860. Males had a median income of $30,789 versus $21,372 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,429. About 5.7% of families and 9.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.7% of those under age 18 and 15.0% of those age 65 or over. The Lincoln County Courthouse, begun in 1903, was completed at a cost of $119,882, its central rotunda is 32 feet in diameter. A 48-inch bell and one-ton clock were mounted on the roof tower, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 19, 1978. Merrill is served by the Merrill Area Public School District. Northcentral Technical College's Public Safety Training center was built in Merrill in 2005. Jefferson Elementary School Kate Goodrich Elementary School Washington Elementary School Prairie River Middle School Merrill High School Trinity Lutheran School St. John Lutheran School St. Francis Xavier Catholic School New Testament Church Christian Academy From 188
The Wisconsin River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. At 430 miles long, it is the state's longest river; the river's name, first recorded in 1673 by Jacques Marquette as "Meskousing", is rooted in the Algonquian languages used by the area's American Indian tribes, but its original meaning is obscure. French explorers who followed in the wake of Marquette modified the name to "Ouisconsin", so it appears on Guillaume de L'Isle's map; this was simplified to "Wisconsin" in the early 19th century before being applied to Wisconsin Territory and the state of Wisconsin. The Wisconsin River originates in the forests of the North Woods Lake District of northern Wisconsin, in Lac Vieux Desert near the border of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, it flows south across the glacial plain of central Wisconsin, passing through Wausau, Stevens Point, Wisconsin Rapids. In southern Wisconsin it encounters the terminal moraine formed during the last ice age, where it forms the Dells of the Wisconsin River.
North of Madison at Portage, the river turns to the west, flowing through Wisconsin's hilly Western Upland and joining the Mississippi 3 miles south of Prairie du Chien. The highest waterfall on the river is Grandfather Falls in Lincoln County; the modern Wisconsin River was formed in several stages. The lower, westward-flowing portion of the river is located in the unglaciated Driftless Area, this section of the river's course predates the rest by several million years; the lower reach of the river is narrower than its upstream valley, leading to the suggestion the upper portions of the ancestor of the river flowed east previous to the Pleistocene. The remaining length of the river was formed as glaciers advanced and retreated over Wisconsin; the stretch of river from Stevens Point north to Merrill was a drainage route for meltwater flowing away from the glaciers which covered northern Wisconsin during the Wisconsin Glaciation. As the glaciers retreated further northward, the river grew in that direction.
South from Stevens Point, the meltwater would have flowed into Glacial Lake Wisconsin, a prehistoric proglacial lake that existed in the central part of the state. As temperatures warmed around 15,000 years ago, the ice dam holding the lake in place burst, unleashing a catastrophic flood that carved the Dells of the Wisconsin River and joined the upper stretches of the river with the pre-existing lower river valley that today flows from Portage to Prairie du Chien. In the summer of 1673, French missionary Jacques Marquette, French-Canadian explorer Louis Joliet, their crew of five Metis arrived near the headwaters of the Fox River. From there, they were told to portage their two canoes a distance of less than two miles through marsh and oak plains to the Wisconsin River. "The river on which we embarked is called Meskousing," wrote Marquette. "It is wide. In his only other reference to the river, Marquette says that the Mississippi is "narrow at the place where Miskous empties." After they returned, Joliet used the name "Miskonsing" on a map that he drew in 1674, when the news of their voyage was first published in 1681 the book's author, Melchisedec Thevenot, called it the "Mescousin" River.
The name used today was born when the explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, misread Marquette's initial M, written by hand in cursive script, "Ou" in 1674. This found its way onto printed maps though in a report written in 1682 La Salle tried to correct himself: "On the east one comes first to the river called by the Savages Ouisconsing, or Misconsing, which flows from the east." Over the next two decades the initial M disappeared as writers and mapmakers always called the river by some version that began with a vowel. For the next 150 years the river, by extension our part of the world was known as "Ouisconsin." Sloppy printers sometimes turned this into Ouriconsing and Ouiskonche, but the "Ouis …" spelling was the one most used by both French and English writers until the mid-19th century. As American soldiers and officials traveled through the area for the first time following the War of 1812, they used the French spelling, but when large numbers of lead miners streamed into the country south of the river in the 1820s, the U.
S. government began to refer to it differently in debates and legislation. These legal documents created by the government in Washington sometimes used the French spelling, but they introduced the uniquely American, "Wisconsin." The U. S. House of Representatives Journal was the first to print it, during discussion of "laying out a town at Helena, on the Wisconsin river, in the Territory of Michigan …" In the five years that followed, the modern spelling was used with increasing frequency in government publications as well as in commercially published books and maps. In 1836, when territorial status was authorized on July 4, the name became "Wisconsin". Oddly, the person who did the most to create Wisconsin Territory didn't like the name. James Duane Doty, who first visited the region in 1820, was the principal advocate for the spelling "Wiskonsan", which shows up dozens of times through the early 1840s. "During all this time, Governor Doty and the legislature were in constant hostility," wrote contemporary observer Theodore Rodolf.
"One of the governor's vagaries had to be settled by a joint resolution. The governor had a fondness f