Ranchi is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement, which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh; the Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission; the name Ranchi is derived from the previous name of the Oraon village at Archi. "Archi" derives from the Oraon word for bamboo stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave; the spirit shouted archi, archi and vanished. Archi became Rachi. Another etymological evidence suggests Ranchi to be derived from'rici', as the modern day landmark of Ranchi city, the Pahari Mandir, is known as Rici Buru - the hill of the kites, the city originated on the foothills of Rici Buru with the construction of bada talaab by Commissioner Thomas Wilkinson at the same site.
The entire administration of SWFA was run from Commissioner's office situated at the foothill of Rici Buru. Ranchi lies at 23°22′N 85°20′E near to the Tropic of Cancer, its municipal area is 652.02 km2, its average elevation is 651 m above sea level. Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, the eastern section of the Deccan plateau. Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation, development of the city, the average temperature has increased. Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate, its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it's known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas; the annual rainfall is about 1430 mm.
From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm. As of 2011 India census, Ranchi municipal corporation has a population of 1,126,741, making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 51.3% of the population and females 48.7%. Ranchi city has an average literacy rate of 87.68%. The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants; as per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was one of the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore. Hindi is the official language of the Ranchi city; the populace of Ranchi converse in Hindi. A number of Hindi dialects such as Nagpuri, Khortha spoken. Tribal language Mundari is spoken by Munda tribe. Hinduism is the prominent religion of Ranchi city followed by 64.31% of the population.
Islam is the second most followed religion in the city by 16.42% of the people. Minorities are Christians 8.52%, Sikhism 0.39%, Jains 0.22%, Buddhists 0.06%, those that didn't state a religion are 0.35%, others are 9.72%. Sadar Hospital, Ranchi Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi Ranchi is centre for numerous sports activities, including cricket, hockey and many others; the 34th National Games were held in Ranchi in February 2011. An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. So far, this stadium has hosted one T20 International match. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for Kolkata Knight Riders, three champions league 2013 matches and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik runs besides the cricket stadium; the Ranchi franchise for Hockey India League was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named Ranchi Rhinos.
Ranchi Rays Ranchi Rhinos Jaipal Singh Stadium JSCA International Cricket Stadium Birsa Munda Hockey Stadium Birsa Munda Athletics Stadium Birsa Munda Football Stadium Bhagawan Birsa Biological Park known as Jharkhand Zoo is wildlife zoo spread over 104 hectares that features numerous animals including Asian Black Bear, Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lions, Indian Peacock, Indian Elephant among others. Tagore Hill Jagannath Temple Dassam Falls Jonha Falls Rock Garden Rajesh Chauhan, former Indian cricketer, was born in Ranchi Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Ex-Captain of Indian Cricket Team, famous for winning Cricket World Cup in 2011 Carl Haeberlin, German physician, was born in Ranchi Deepika Kumari, International Level Archer Anjana Om Kashyap, Indian journalist and news presenter. Rajesh Jais Alisha Singh and choreographerPeter Mansfield, British journalist and historian, was born in Ranchi Kariya Munda, Deputy Speaker of the 15th Lok Sabha and Member of Parliament from Khunti, Jharkhand Vinay Pathak, actor schooled at Vikas Vidyalaya, Ranchi Mukund Nayak, folk singer and dancer Nandlal Nayak, folk artist and Music composer Pat Reid MBE MC, escapee from Colditz Castle, was born in Ranchi Tapen Sen, Former Judge Calcutta High Court, Punjab & Haryana High Court and Jharkhand High Court.
Telesphore Toppo, Cardinal-Archbishop of Ra
Advaita Vedanta known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy, one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization. The term Advaita refers to its idea that the true self, Atman, is the same as the highest metaphysical Reality; the followers of this school are known as Advaita Vedantins, or just Advaitins, they seek spiritual liberation through acquiring vidyā, meaning knowledge, of one's true identity as Atman, the identity of Atman and Brahman. Advaita Vedanta traces its roots in the oldest Upanishads, it relies on three textual sources called the Prasthanatrayi. It gives "a unifying interpretation of the whole body of Upanishads", the Brahma Sutras, the Bhagavad Gita. Advaita Vedanta is the oldest extant sub-school of Vedanta, one of the six orthodox Hindu philosophies. Although its roots trace back to the 1st millennium BCE, the most prominent exponent of the Advaita Vedanta is considered by the tradition to be 8th century scholar Adi Shankara. Advaita Vedanta emphasizes Jivanmukti, the idea that moksha is achievable in this life in contrast to Indian philosophies that emphasize videhamukti, or moksha after death.
The school uses concepts such as Brahman, Maya, Avidya and others that are found in major Indian religious traditions, but interprets them in its own way for its theories of moksha. Advaita Vedanta is one of the most influential schools of classical Indian thought. Many scholars describe it as a form of monism, others describe the Advaita philosophy as non-dualistic. Advaita influenced and was influenced by various traditions and texts of Hindu philosophies such as Samkhya, Nyaya, other sub-schools of Vedanta, Shaivism, the Puranas, the Agamas, as well as social movements such as the Bhakti movement. Beyond Hinduism, Advaita Vedanta interacted and developed with the other traditions of India such as Jainism and Buddhism. Advaita Vedanta texts espouse a spectrum of views from idealism, including illusionism, to realist or nearly realist positions expressed in the early works of Shankara. In modern times, its views appear in various Neo-Vedanta movements, it has been termed as the paradigmatic example of Hindu spirituality.
The Advaita Vedanta school has been referred to by various names, such as Advaita-vada, Abheda-darshana, Dvaita-vada-pratisedha, Kevala-dvaita. According to Richard King, a professor of Buddhist and Asian studies, the term Advaita first occurs in a recognizably Vedantic context in the prose of Mandukya Upanishad. In contrast, according to Frits Staal, a professor of Philosophy specializing in Sanskrit and Vedic studies, the word Advaita is from the Vedic era, the Vedic sage Yajnavalkya is credited to be the one who coined it. Stephen Phillips, a professor of philosophy and Asian studies, translates the Advaita containing verse excerpt in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, as follows: Advaita is a subschool of Vedanta, the latter being one of the six classical Hindu darśanas. It, like nearly all these philosophies, has an integrated body of textual interpretations and religious practices for what Hinduism considers four proper aims of life: virtue, material prosperity and the fourth and final aim being moksha, the spiritual liberation or release from cycles of rebirth.
Traditional Advaita Vedanta centers on the study of the sruti the Principal Upanishads, along with the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. Within the Vedanta tradition of Hinduism are many sub-schools, of which Advaita is one. Unlike Buddhism, but like Jainism, all Vedanta schools consider the existence of Atman as self-evident; the Vedanta tradition posits the concept of Brahman as the eternal, unchanging metaphysical reality. The sub-schools of Vedanta disagree on the relation between Brahman; the Advaita darsana considers them to be identical. Advaita Vedanta believes that the knowledge of Atman is liberating. Along with self-knowledge, it teaches that moksha can be achieved by the correct understanding of one's true identity as Ātman, the dispassionate and unmoveable observer, the identity of Ātman and Brahman; the process of acquiring this knowledge entails realising that one’s True Self, the Atman, is the same as Brahman. This is achieved through. Sankara contends that this direct awareness is construction-free, not construction-filled.
Self-knowledge is, not seen as an awareness of Brahman, but instead an awareness, Brahman, since one will transcend any form of duality in this state of consciousness. Correct knowledge, which destroys avidya and perceptual errors related to Atman and Brahman, is obtained through three stages of practice, sravana and nididhyasana; the Vedanta tradition of Hinduism rejects the dualism of Samkhya. The Samkhya school of Hindu thought proposes two metaphysical realities, namely Purusha and Prakriti states that Purusha is the efficient cause of all existence while Prakriti is its material cause. Advaita, like all Vedanta schools, states that Brahman is both the efficient and the material cause, "that from which the origination and dissolution of this universe proceed." What created all existence is present in and reflected in all beings and inert matter, the creative principle was and is everywhere, always. This Brahman it postulates is sat-cit-ananda. By accepting thi
Traditionally, an ashram-Hindi is a spiritual hermitage or a monastery in Indian religions. The term ashram comes from the Sanskrit root śram-. According to S. S. Chandra, the term means "a step in the journey of life". In contrast, according to George Weckman, the term ashram connotes a place where one strives towards a goal in a disciplined manner; such a goal could be ascetic, yogic or any other. An ashram would traditionally, but not in contemporary times, be located far from human habitation, in forests or mountainous regions, amidst refreshing natural surroundings conducive to spiritual instruction and meditation; the residents of an ashram performed spiritual and physical exercises, such as the various forms of yoga. Other sacrifices and penances, such as yajnas were performed. Many ashrams served as gurukulas, residential schools for children under the guru-shishya tradition. Sometimes, the goal of a pilgrimage to the ashram was not tranquility, but instruction in some art warfare. In the Ramayana, the princes of ancient Ayodhya and Lakshmana, go to Vishvamitra's ashram to protect his yajnas from being defiled by emissary-demons of Ravana.
After they prove their mettle, the princes receive martial instruction from the sage in the use of divine weapons. In the Mahabharata, Krishna, in his youth, goes to the ashram of Sandipani to gain knowledge of both intellectual and spiritual matters. Boarding schools in the tribal areas of Maharashtra and elsewhere in India, are called ashram shala or ashram schools. One such school is the Lok Biradari Prakalp Ashram Shala. A number of ashrams have been established outside India; these ashrams are connected to Indian lineages, focus on imparting Yoga-related teachings, are headed by spiritual teachers
A yogi is a practitioner of yoga. In Vedic Sanskrit, yoga means "to add", "to join", "to unite", or "to attach" in its most common literal sense, whereas in recent days in the West, yoga means only the physical exercises of hatha yoga, the asanas; the term yogi is used broadly to refer to sannyasi or practitioners of meditation in a number of Indian religions. The feminine form is yogini, but is not always used in the West. Yogi, or jogi, since the 12th century CE, while meaning those dedicated to Yoga practice, has referred to members of the Nath siddha tradition of Hinduism. Alternatively, in tantra traditions of Hinduism and Jainism, a practitioner of tantra may be called a yogi. In Hindu mythology, god Shiva and goddess Parvati are depicted as an emblematic yogi–yogini pair. In Classical Sanskrit, the word yogi is derived from yogin. Yogi is technically male, yoginī is the term used for female practitioners; the two terms are still used with those meanings today, but the word yogi is used generically to refer to both male and female practitioners of yoga and related meditative practices belonging to any religion or spiritual method.
The term yogini is used for divine goddesses and enlightened mothers, all revered as aspects of the mother goddess, Devi. A yogi, states Banerjea, should not be confused with someone practicing asceticism and excessive self-mortification. In Hinduism the term yogi refers to an adherent of yoga; the earliest evidence of yogis and their spiritual tradition, states Karel Werner, is found in the Keśin hymn 10.136 of the Rigveda, though with the terminology of Rudra who evolved into Shiva worshipped as the lord of Yoga in Hinduism. The Hindu scripture Rigveda uses words of admiration for the Yogis, whom it refers to as Kesin, describes them as follows: Carrying within oneself fire and poison and earth, ranging from enthusiasm and creativity to depression and agony, from the heights of spritual bliss to the heaviness of earth-bound labor; this is true of man in general and the Keśin in particular, but the latter has mastered and transformed these contrary forces and is a visible embodiment of accomplished spirituality.
He is said to enlightenment itself. The Keśin does not live a normal life of convention, his hair and beard grow longer, he spends long periods of time in absorption and meditating and therefore he is called "sage". They wear clothes made of yellow rags fluttering in the wind, or more they go naked, clad only in the yellow dust of the Indian soil, but their personalities are not bound to earth, for they follow the path of the mysterious wind when the gods enter them. He is someone lost in thoughts: he is miles away; the term yogin appears in Katyayana Shrauta-sutra and chapter 6 of Maitri Upanishad, where the implied context and meaning is "a follower of the Yoga system, a contemplative saint". The term sometimes refers to a person, they belong to Shaiva tradition, but some Natha belong to the Vaishnava tradition. In both cases, states David Lorenzen, they practice yoga and their principal god tends to be Nirguna, a god, without form and semi-monistic, influenced in the medieval era by the Advaita Vedanta school of Hinduism, Madhyamaka school of Buddhism, as well as Tantra and Yogic practices.
The Yoga-Bhashya, the oldest extant commentary on the Yoga-Sutra offers the following fourfold classification of yogis: Prathama-kalpika Madhu-bhumika Prajna-jyoti Atikranta- bhavaniya A yogi or yogini aspires to Brahmacharya, which means celibacy if single, or non-cheating on one's partner. There have been two parallel views, in Hindu texts, on sexuality for a yogini. One view asserts restraint in sexual activity, towards monk- and nun-like asexuality, as transmutation away from worldly desires and onto a spiritual path, it is not considered, states Stuart Sovatsky, as a form of moralistic repression but a personal choice that empowers the yoga practitioner to redirect his or her energies. The second view, found in Tantra traditions according to David Gordon White, asserts that sexuality is an additional means for a yogi or yogini to journey towards and experience the bliss of "one realized god-consciousness for oneself". In the second view, sexuality is a yogic practice, one broadly revered through the lingam–yoni iconography of Shiva–Parvati, the divine yogi–yogini in Hindu mythology.
A yogi or yogini lives by other voluntary ethical precepts called Niyamas. These include: Ahiṃsā: nonviolence, non-harming other living beings Satya: truthfulness, non-falsehood Asteya: not stealing Dayā: kindness, compassion Ārjava: non-hypocrisy, sincerity Kṣamā: forgiveness Dhṛti: fortitude Mitāhāra: moderation in diet both in terms of quantity and quality Śauca: purity, cleanliness Tapas: austerity and perseverance in one's purpose Santoṣa: contentment, acceptance of others and of one's circumstances as they are, optimism for self Dāna: generosity, sharing with others According to David White, iddha means'realized, perfected one', a term applied to a practitioner who has, through his practice, realized his dual goal of superhuman powers (siddhis,'realizations','perfectio
University of Calcutta
The University of Calcutta is a collegiate public state university located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India established on 24 January 1857. It was the first institution in Asia to be established as a multidisciplinary and secular Western-style university. Within India it is recognized as a "Five-Star University" And Accredited "A" Grade by National Assessment and Accreditation Council and declared as a "University With Potential For Excellence" & a "Centre with Potential for Excellence In Particular Area" by the University Grants Commission, its alumni and faculty include four Nobel laureates, namely Ronald Ross, Rabindranath Tagore, C. V. Raman, Amartya Sen; the university has the highest number of students who have cleared the doctoral entrance eligibility exam in Natural Science & Arts conducted by Government of India's National Eligibility Test to become eligible to pursue research with a full scholarship awarded by the Government of India. The Calcutta University Act came into force on 24 January 1857 and a 41-member Senate was formed as the policy making body of the university.
The land for the establishment of this university was given by Maharaja Maheshwar Singh Bahadur, a Maharaja of Darbhanga. When the university was first established it had a catchment area covering the area from Lahore to Rangoon, Ceylon, the largest of any Indian university. Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee was the Vice-Chancellor for four consecutive two-year terms and a fifth two-year term. Four Nobel laureates were associated with this university: Ronald Ross. Rabindra Nath Tagore, C. V. Raman and Amartya Sen; the current university seal is the modified version of the sixth seal. The motto Advancement of Learning has remained the same through the seal's transitions; the university has a total of 14 campuses spread over the city of its suburbs. The major campuses are the Central Campus in College Street, Rashbehari Shiksha Prangan in Rajabazar, Taraknath Palit Shiksha Prangan in Ballygunge and Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan in Alipore. Other campuses include the Hazra Road Campus, the University Press and Book Depot, the B. T.
Road Campus, the Viharilal College of Home Science Campus, the University Health Service, the Haringhata Campus, the Dhakuria Lakes and the University Ground and Tent at Maidan. Asutosh Siksha Prangan is the main campus of the university. Located on College Street, is spread over a small area of 2.7 acres. Rashbihari Siksha Prangan, located on Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road in Rajabazar, established in 1914, houses several scientific and technological departments, including pure and applied chemistry and applied physics, applied mathematics, physiology and molecular biology, others. Taraknath Siksha Prangan on Ballygunge Circular Road in the southern part of the city, houses the departments of agriculture, biochemistry, botany, statistics, neuroscience, marine science and most notably geology, among others, and Department of Jute and Fibre Technology. Known as Institute of Jute Technology. Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan known as Alipore Campus,located at Alipore is the Humanities campus of the University.
Departments of History, Ancient Indian History & Culture, Islamic History & Culture, South & South East Asian Studies, Political Science, Business Management are situated in this campus. Department of Museology, houses in this campus is a valuable department of the University as well as any universities in India; the university is building a campus, known as "Technology Campus" or "Tech Campus", to bring together the three engineering and technical departments, in Sector 3, JD Block, Salt Lake. As of December 2016, most of these departments have been moved to this campus and regular classes are held here; the main building houses most of these departments while the Nanotechnology. Undergraduates enroll for a three-year program. Students choose a major when they enter the university, cannot change it unless they opt for the university's professional or self-financed postgraduate programs later. Science and business disciplines are in high demand in the anticipation of better employment prospects.
Most programs are organized on an annual basis. Most departments offer masters programs of a few years' duration. Research is conducted in specialized institutes as well as individual departments, many of which have doctoral programs. University of Calcutta has the biggest research center which started from the 100th Science Congress of India in January, 2013; this is the Center for Research in Nanosience and Nanotechnology in the Technology Campus of CU at Salt Lake, West Bengal. The university has 18 research centres, 710 teachers, 3000 non-teaching staff and 11,000 post-graduate students. Internationally, the University of Calcutta was ranked 751-780 in the QS World University Rankings of 2018; the same rankings ranked it 125 in Asia and 64 among BRICS nations. It was ranked 801-1000 in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings of 2018, 201-250 in ASIA an
West Bengal is an Indian state, located in eastern region of the country on the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is India's fourth-most populous state, it has an area of 88,752 km2. A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, Nepal and Bhutan in the north, it borders the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata, the seventh-largest city in India, center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country; as for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period; the region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas.
It was a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Gauda served as the capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. From the 13th century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans, powerful Hindu states, Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th century; the British East India Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in an expansion of Western education, culminating in developments in science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance. A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, East Bengal, a province of Pakistan which became independent Bangladesh.
Between 1977 and 2011 the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist government. The economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with ₹13.14 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹108,000. The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, includes authors in literature, such as Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". West Bengal is known for its enthusiasm for the sport of association football, as well as cricket; the origin of the name Bengal is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE; the Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga. Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure. At the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west.
The eastern part came to be known be as East Pakistan, the eastern wing of newly born Pakistan and the western part came to be known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state. In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga; this is the native name of the state meaning western Bengal in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in English, "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress, the Left Front, the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution. However, the central government has turned down the proposal stating that the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three and the name should not be the same as that of any other territory. Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had earlier thought.
The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom, according to the Indian epic Mahabharata. Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh and the Suhma Kingdom. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai, located at the mouths of the Ganges. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi. According to the Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya, a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country; the kingdom of Magadha was formed in the 7th century BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar and Bengal. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of the lives of Mahavira, founder of Jainism, Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, it kingdoms. Under Ashoka, the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rd century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire.
Two kingdoms – Vanga or Samatata, Gauda –
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River 75 kilometres west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port; the city is regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, is nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, the East India Company retook it the following year.
In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat, assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. Following Indian independence in 1947, once the centre of modern Indian education, science and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation; as a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, film and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges.
West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports; the word Kolkata derives from the Bengali term Kôlikata, the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was to be established. There are several explanations about the etymology of this name: The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of Kali".
It can be a variation of'Kalikshetra'. Another theory is. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or "flat area"; the name may have its origin in the words khal meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa, which may mean "dug". According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata. Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata or Kôlikata in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation; the discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was credited as the founder of the city.
The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village, they were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British completed the cons