Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Meijer Inc. is an American supercenter chain throughout the Midwest, with its corporate headquarters in Walker, a part of the Grand Rapids metropolitan area. Founded in 1934 as a supermarket chain, Meijer is credited with pioneering the modern supercenter concept in 1962. About half of the company's 242 stores are located in Michigan, with the other half in Illinois, Kentucky and Wisconsin; the chain was ranked No. 19 on Forbes magazine's 2015 list of "America's Largest Private Companies" and 19 in Fortune magazine's 2008 "The 35 largest U. S. private companies". In 2016, Supermarket News ranked Meijer No. 15 in the 2016 Top 75 U. S. & Canadian Food Retailers & Wholesalers. Based on 2015 revenue, Meijer is the 26th-largest retailer in the United States. Meijer was founded as Meijer's in Michigan, by Hendrik Meijer, a Dutch immigrant. Meijer was a local barber, his first employees included his 14-year-old son, Frederik Meijer, who became chairman of the company. The current co-chairmen, brothers Hank and Doug Meijer, are Hendrik's grandsons.
After studying trends in the grocery industry, Meijer was among the first stores to offer self-service shopping and shopping carts. He offered staple items, such as vinegar, at bargain prices; the Greenville store was successful and additional Meijer groceries were opened in Ionia and Cedar Springs. By the 1960s, the company had over two dozen stores located throughout West Michigan. In 1949, the first two Meijer stores opened in Michigan. "In a contest, a customer suggested the name "Thrifty" for Meijer's little Dutch boy, who became the corporate symbol for the next 30 years." In 1962, Meijer launched its modern format, with a store at the corner of 28th Street and Kalamazoo Avenue in Grand Rapids. At a size of 180,000 square feet, it combined grocery shopping and department store shopping in a single large store; the store was built with six-inch thick floors, so should the concept fail, the nongrocery half could be converted into an indoor car dealership. New stores were built in the same manner until the mid-1970s, when an architect mentioned the extra cost to management.
The second such store opened in Norton Shores that year, followed by two more in 1964, one on Alpine Avenue in Walker and one on Westnedge Avenue in Portage, Michigan. This was followed by the first Mid-Michigan location in Delta Charter Township, Michigan, in 1966 and the first Metro Detroit store in Ypsilanti, Michigan, in 1972. Meijer expanded into Northern Michigan with their 33rd location in Traverse City opening in 1977, still open to this day. Fred Meijer took over the company upon his father's death in 1964. Under his leadership, the Thrifty Acres stores became a success and were renamed Meijer in 1986. Meijer's stand-alone grocery operations continued until the early 1990s, as the larger stores became dominant. In 1985, Forbes magazine reported Walmart at the time had failed in what were known as hypermarkets because Sam Walton and company did not understand the grocery business. Walton launched the first Hypermart USA store in 1987, opening only four stores, the last in 1990. An article in Forbes Magazine said Meijer understood the importance of the food business, it was not something just tacked onto a discount store.
The quality of the produce is important. By contrast, surveys said and now that Meijer ranks high on produce quality. With the increasing dominance of Walmart throughout the country during the 1990s and up to the present, Meijer is facing the effects of an intensely competitive retail industry. In late 2003, the company laid off 350 people from the corporate offices, distribution centers and field offices. A marketing professor, Dr. Ben Rudolph of Grand Valley State University near Meijer's corporate headquarters, lambasted this move, saying they "apparently blinked" and that Meijer's "decision was driven by panic". Continuing cutbacks in 2006, the company outsourced 81 information technology positions to India. In 2003, the company announced that all new Meijer stores would feature an new format and company image, complete with a new logo intended to make the Meijer stores seem "friendly" and inviting; the company hired New York City's Rockwell Group to redesign the existing stores and establish a design for new stores.
The "new theatrics" for the then-71-year-old company started as a "new product introduction program" until David Rockwell talked Hank and Fred Meijer into further changes. Rockwell told the Meijers the new introduction program would "work only if it was part of a new overall creative foundation based on a fresher, younger approach, encompassing architecture, interior design, graphic design". In 2005, despite cutbacks, Meijer embarked on a expansion plan to increase its number of stores in Illinois and Ohio. In April 2003, Meijer selected DeVito/Verdi, an award-winning advertising agency in New York, to handle its $25-million account. In May 2007, the first LEED-certified Meijer store opened in the second phase of the Fairlane Green development in Allen Park, Michigan. In July 2007, Meijer announced to the Michigan press it would be "restructuring" its Team Leader management positions in all 181 stores, stating layoffs would be "minimal" and necessary "to handle more sophisticated products such as flat-screen TVs and high-priced wines".
Their spokesperson said the changes were "not about a labor reduction", but fitting people into the right roles
Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin
Chippewa Falls is a city located on the Chippewa River in Chippewa County in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. The most recent census from 2010 shows that the population is 13,661. Incorporated as a city in 1869, it is the county seat of Chippewa County; the city's name originated from its location on the Chippewa River, named after the Ojibwa Native Americans. Chippewa is an alternative rendition of Ojibwa. Chippewa Falls is the birthplace of Seymour Cray, known as the "father of supercomputing", the headquarters for the original Cray Research, it is the home of the Jacob Leinenkugel Brewing Company, the Heyde Center for the Arts, a showcase venue for artists and performers, Irvine Park, the annual Northern Wisconsin State Fair. Chippewa Falls is 15 miles from the annual four-day music festivals Country Rock Fest. Chippewa Falls was a lumber town that became a railroad town, though the main railroad line of the 1870s went about 10 miles south of Eau Claire. In 1870, the West Wisconsin Railway built a line from St. Paul, Minnesota, to Milwaukee running right through Eau Claire.
Following this, the Eau Claire and Chippewa Falls Railway established a line extending from Eau Claire to Chippewa Falls. In 1880, the CF&W was joined by the Wisconsin and Minnesota Railway pushing its way west from Abbotsford; this was followed in 1881 by the Chippewa Falls & Northern Railroad which built a line north from Chippewa Falls to Bloomer being extended to Superior. Around 1700, French explorer Pierre-Charles Le Sueur discovered the Chippewa Spring near the river. Politician Thaddeus C. Pound founded the Chippewa Springs Health Club in 1887 and at one point oversaw the company that bottled the water for sale. A Spring House was built over the original spring in 1893 and remains today, across from the modern water bottling plant on Park Ave. Chippewa Falls is located at 44.9341, -91.3932. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.92 square miles, of which 11.37 square miles is land and 0.55 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 13,661 people, 5,896 households, 3,275 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,201.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,304 housing units at an average density of 554.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.1% White, 1.7% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population. There were 5,896 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.7% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.5% were non-families. 37.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the city was 38 years. 22.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.7% male and 49.3% female. At the 2000 census, there were 12,925 people, 5,638 households and 3,247 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,191.2 per square mile. There were 5,905 housing units at an average density of 544.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.62% White, 0.30% African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.67% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.63% of the population. There were 5,638 households of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.4% were non-families. 36.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.89. Age distribution was 24.2% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.5 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males. The median household income was $32,744, the median family income was $43,519. Males had a median income of $32,016 versus $22,655 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,366. About 8.7% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.5% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. As of 2011, the largest employers in the city were: Chippewa Falls is along U. S. Highway 53, Wisconsin Highways 124 and 178, Bus. WIS 29. Other routes include Wisconsin Highway 29; the Chippewa Falls Area School District serves the city of Chippewa Falls. It has two high schools: Chippewa Falls Alternate High School. In addition there are several parochial schools: McDonell Central Catholic High School, Notre Dame Middle School, Holy Ghost, St. Charles, St. Peter Elementary Schools, all of which are part of the McDonell Area Catholic Schools; the original McDonell High School building, sitting at a prominent location above downtown Chippewa Falls, is listed on the State and National Register of Historic Places.
The structure was buil
A "hypermarket" is a big-box store combining a supermarket and a department store. The result is an expansive retail facility carrying a wide range of products under one roof, including full groceries lines and general merchandise. In theory, hypermarkets allow customers to satisfy all their routine shopping needs in one trip; the term hypermarket was coined in 1968 by French trade expert Jacques Pictet. Hypermarkets, like other big-box stores have business models focusing on high-volume, low-margin sales. Covering an area of 5,000 to 15,000 square metres, they have more than 200,000 different brands of merchandise available at any one time; because of their large footprints, many hypermarkets choose suburban or out-of-town locations that are accessible by automobile. In 1963, Carrefour opened the first hypermarket near Paris, France. By the end of the twentieth century, stores were using labels such as "mega-stores" and "warehouse" stores to reflect their growing size. Loblaws established its Real Canadian Superstore chain in 1979.
It sells groceries, while retailing clothing and housewares. The first European hypermarket is mistaken to be the Carrefour store that opened in 1963, at Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, The co-founders were influenced by the teachings of Colombian-born American marketing executive Bernardo Trujillo, who taught executive education as part of the NCR Corporation's marketing campaign. However, the Belgian retailer Grand Bazar preceded Carrefour by two years when it opened three hypermarkets in a short span in 1961 under the name SuperBazar after Belgian law restricting the size of department stores was abolished in January 1961; the first SuperBazar, opened in Bruges on 9 September 1961 designed to become a non-food department store, however only covered a surface area of 3,300 square metres, was converted into a regular supermarket. The larger store that opened a week in Auderghem near Brussels, covering 9,100 m2, is regarded as a more proper hypermarket that brought the concept to fruition, it was Belgian market development engineer Maurice Cauwe, who adopted the concept from his frequent trips to the United States inspired from the Grand Union's "Grand Way" center in Paramus, New Jersey.
The predecessor to Ito Yokado was founded in 1920 selling western goods, went public in 1957, switched to that name in 1965. Seibu Department Stores was founded in 1956, opened up its grocery chain Seiyu Group in 1963. Isao Nakauchi founded the first Daiei in Kobe in 1957, selling clothing, electronics and groceries all in one store. Jusco was created in 1970, became known as Aeon. In Japanese, hypermarkets are known as 総合スーパー. There is a distinction in Japanese between スーパー and デパート with the former being discounters, but the latter selling luxury brand clothing and quite high-end groceries as well. Americans refrain from using the term "hypermarket", instead calling such establishments "big-box stores", "supercenters", or "superstores"; until the 1980s, large stores combining food and non-food items were unusual in the United States, although early predecessors of today's hypermarkets existed. The Pacific Northwest chain Fred Meyer, now a division of the Kroger supermarket company, opened the first suburban one-stop shopping center in 1931 in the Hollywood District of Portland, Oregon.
The store's innovations included a grocery store alongside a drugstore plus off-street parking and an automobile lubrication and oil service. In 1933, men's and women's wear was added, automotive department and other nonfood products followed in succeeding years. In the mid 1930s, Fred Meyer opened a central bakery, a candy kitchen, an ice cream plant, a photo-finishing plant, which supplied the company's stores in Portland and neighbouring cities with house brands such as Vita Bee bread, Hocus Pocus desserts, Fifth Avenue candies. By the 1950s, Fred Meyer began opening stores that were 45,000 sq ft to 70,000 sq ft, the 1960s saw the first modern-sized Fred Meyer hypermarkets; the Midwest chain Meijer, which today operates some 235 stores in six US states and calls the hypermarket format "supercenter", opened its first such "super center" in Grand Rapids, Michigan, in June 1962, under the brand name "Thrifty Acres". In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the three major US discount store chains – Walmart and Target – started developing hypermarkets.
Wal-Mart introduced Hypermart USA in 1987, followed by Wal-Mart Supercenter in 1988. Most Greatland stores have since been converted to SuperTarget stores, while some have been converted into regular Target stores with the exception of 2 entrances. In the early 1990s, US hypermarkets began selling fuel; the idea was first introduced in the 1960s, when a number of supermarket chains and retailers like Sears tried to sell fuel, but it didn't generate sufficient consumer interest at the time. Today there are 4,500 hypermarket stores in the US selling fuel, representing an estimated 14 billion US gallons sold each year; the average Walmart Supercenter covers around 178,000 square feet, with the largest ones covering 260,000 sq ft. A typical C
Walmart Inc. is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, grocery stores. Headquartered in Bentonville, the company was founded by Sam Walton in 1962 and incorporated on October 31, 1969, it owns and operates Sam's Club retail warehouses. As of January 31, 2019, Walmart has 11,348 stores and clubs in 27 countries, operating under 55 different names; the company operates under the name Walmart in the United States and Canada, as Walmart de México y Centroamérica in Mexico and Central America, as Asda in the United Kingdom, as the Seiyu Group in Japan, as Best Price in India. It has wholly owned operations in Argentina, Chile and South Africa. Since August 2018, Walmart only holds a minority stake in Walmart Brasil, with 20% of the company's shares, private equity firm Advent International holding 80% ownership of the company. Walmart is the world's largest company by revenue—over US$500 billion, according to Fortune Global 500 list in 2018—as well as the largest private employer in the world with 2.2 million employees.
It is a publicly traded family-owned business. Sam Walton's heirs own over 50 percent of Walmart through their holding company, Walton Enterprises, through their individual holdings. Walmart was the largest U. S. grocery retailer in 2019, 65 percent of Walmart's US$510.329 billion sales came from U. S. operations. The company was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1972. By 1988, Walmart was the most profitable retailer in the U. S. and by October 1989, it had become the largest in terms of revenue. Geographically limited to the South and lower Midwest, by the early 1990s, the company had stores from coast to coast: Sam's Club opened in New Jersey in November 1989 and the first California outlet opened in Lancaster in July 1990. A Walmart in York, Pennsylvania opened in October 1990: the first main store in the Northeast. Walmart's investments outside North America have seen mixed results: its operations and subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, South America, China are successful, whereas its ventures in Germany and South Korea failed.
In 1945, businessman and former J. C. Penney employee Sam Walton bought a branch of the Ben Franklin stores from the Butler Brothers, his primary focus was selling products at low prices to get higher-volume sales at a lower profit margin, portraying it as a crusade for the consumer. He experienced setbacks because the lease price and branch purchase were unusually high, but he was able to find lower-cost suppliers than those used by other stores and was able to undercut his competitors on pricing. Sales increased 45% in his first year of ownership to US$105,000 in revenue, which increased to $140,000 the next year and $175,000 the year after that. Within the fifth year, the store was generating $250,000 in revenue; when the lease for the location expired, Walton was unable to reach an agreement for renewal, so he opened up a new store at 105 N. Main Street in Bentonville, naming it "Walton's Five and Dime"; that store is now the Walmart Museum. On July 2, 1962, Walton opened the first Walmart Discount City store at 719 W. Walnut Street in Rogers, Arkansas.
The building is now occupied by a hardware store and an antique mall, while the company's "Store #1" has since relocated to a larger discount store and now expanded to a Supercenter several blocks west at 2110 W. Walnut Street. Within its first five years, the company expanded to 24 stores across Arkansas and reached US$12.6 million in sales. In 1968, it opened its first stores outside Arkansas, in Sikeston and Claremore, Oklahoma; the company was incorporated as Wal-Mart, Inc. on October 31, 1969, changed its name to Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. in 1970. The same year, the company opened a home office and first distribution center in Bentonville, Arkansas, it had 38 stores operating with 1,500 sales of $44.2 million. It began trading stock as a publicly held company on October 1, 1970, was soon listed on the New York Stock Exchange; the first stock split occurred in May 1971 at a price of $47 per share. By this time, Walmart was operating in five states: Arkansas, Louisiana and Oklahoma; as the company moved into Texas in 1975, there were 125 stores with 7,500 employees and total sales of $340.3 million.
In the 1980s, Walmart continued to grow and by the company's 25th anniversary in 1987, there were 1,198 stores with sales of $15.9 billion and 200,000 associates. This year marked the completion of the company's satellite network, a $24 million investment linking all operating units with the Bentonville office via two-way voice and data transmission and one-way video communication. At the time, the company was the largest private satellite network, allowing the corporate office to track inventory and sales and to communicate to stores. In 1988, Walton was replaced by David Glass. Walton remained as Chairman of the Board. With the contribution of its superstores, the company surpassed Toys "R" Us in toy sales in 1998. While it was the third-largest retailer in the United States, Walmart was more profitable than rivals Kmart and Sears by the late 1980s. By 1990, it became the largest U. S. retailer by revenue. Prior to the summer of 1990, Walmart had no presence on the West Coast or in the Northeast, but in July and October that year, it opened its first stores in California and Pennsylvania, respectively.
By the mid-1990s, it was far and away the most powerful retailer in the U. S. and expanded into Mexico in 1991 and Canada in 1994
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t